Women Bodies and Politics
Emergence of the body politics is a focus on the study of culture, power, resistance and oppression of female bodies as well as men. The nature of the body is recognized as of post modern bodies which could be understood in the means of Meta reflection over culture, mediating power and expressing as well as oppressing the normal practices in the society. Body is seen as the site of epistemological & limitation which should be overcome if ones understood things as they really are understood by the practices of human experience and perspective. The body is considered as a place from which human actions emerge it is the formation of all activities where he uses all the sense of thinking, speaking, mind and others. The critical pedagogy of the body is based upon mind which terms towards the realities of living it creates toward social transformation and the moral toward democratic principles of equality, social justice, freedom and human dignity.
Body politics describes the practices and policies through which powers of the society regulate a human body. It denotes the institutional powers expressed in government and laws which are exercised on personal body which are created to be inferior as well as superior where their right are denied and controlled by any form of institutional or body. Body politics in further context involves in the fight against objectification of female body and violence against them for the means of enjoying power. It also has many interpretations over the sanction of extreme power of male bodies dominating and violating the rights of the female bodies in subjudication in enjoying their powers and creating women bodies as a political battleground for the fulfillment of the male. Body politics as a key force in mobilizing the factors for the development of human rights in recent decades. It focuses on the violence on gender, sexualities, fundamentalism, reproductive rights, fundamental rights which have emerged in world arena. It further describes that it is based upon the struggles around the politics of the people living in economically and socially vulnerable communities where women bodies are re-centered which are invisible in the process of advocacy and action (especially Dalit women in India, Muslim women of Syria, women of UAE,etc.). Women bodies experience major ways of exploitation where they are commodified and body is considered to be the centre of all the activity in the process of decision-making, power, advocacy, development, etc .The visibility develops in the multiple forms of sexual and gender based violence including domestic violence, rape, femicide and honor killing in public arena in recent decades.It classifies how female bodies are controlled in the form of governance and highlight the troubles which are faced by the female bodies where it lies between power, gender and body .The major purpose of female body is to be controlled in the means of exploitation in various forms to attain the power by the superior. In this manner a female body is considered to be a weaker form that could be easily subjudicated and fulfill the entitlement of the powerful. The bodies of female are considered under three dimensions based on political power, as a social institution and a discourse of developing oneself, less hierarchical and more horizontal or notion of power based upon networks. Body Politics seeks for the improvement of women by focusing on their biological distinctiveness and social contributions of their sexuality, often in the context of women bodies being the object in fulfilling the men's desire, control and violence. Women routinely experience the risk of sexual assault in many ways that are not parallel with men. Sexuality is where women collectively experience oppression from men. When it comes between the power of women and men it is considered to be a class or race where women are oppressed by men individually or by members from the opposing groups which live in our society together. Men not only have the enjoyment of power over women but they desire to have power consider them men's collective sexual subjectivity which is discussed as a collective relation between sexes in the system where we call it as patriarchy. When it comes with women issues women are not concerned with their body and mind, when men exploit her or violate her powers they learn to bear it, women in our culture have been seen as a primary bodies and sexual bodies which can fulfill the entitlement of male. They are only viewed as an object of culturally, politically, legally as neither objects nor subjects of the society. This process of change of women bodies could be brought only through rationalist means of ideology based upon Marxian ideology not viewing women as a commercialized body of power to be enjoyed by the superior instead viewing a body of development in the process of advocacy, power and rights to equality, speech, freedom, expression.etc.
- B.E.George Dimitrov(researcher)
- "From Sexual Politics to Body Politics" by Susanne Kappler 1994.
- "Body Politics in Development : critical debates in Gender Development" by Wendy Harcourt (Zed Books 2009)
- "Governing the Female Body-Gender, Health and networks of power" by Lore Reed & Paula Saukko (Etd) 2010.
- "Encyclopedia -featured articles, Body Politics, Feminism and Racial body politics" (2011)
- "Body Politics I: Reproductive Rights Policy"-2011.