State of the planet2 - Marine environmental polution
"It does not matter where on Earth you live; everyone is utterly dependent on the existence of that lovely, living saltwater soup. There’s plenty of water in the universe without life, but nowhere is there life without water. The living ocean drives planetary chemistry, governs climate and weather, and otherwise provides the cornerstone of the life-support system for all creatures on our planet, from deep-sea starfish to desert sagebrush. That’s why the ocean matters. If the sea is sick, we’ll feel it. If it dies, we die. Our future and the state of the oceans are one."
• Sea Change A Message of the Oceans
Sylvia Earle, 19
In the beginning it was all water ,Human civilization itself start along all coat of the world , be it river , lake, ocean – and all of the world are linked to the ocean –not only linked together but also almost everything we use eventually get in touched with the water- under cycle water in the ecosystem - all activities we do on land eventually get washed buy the rain and pass through the ground and have encounter with the water table that merge to the inland water which then run into the ocean- the ocean get evaporated , for cloud which eventually turn to rain – all In the name of supporting human
Human benefit from marine and coastal ecosystem and activities
• Coastal tourism =161 billion American dollars
• Trade and shipping =155 billion American dollars
• Offshore oil and gas = 132 billion American dollars
• Fisheries = 80 billion American dollars
Therefore it is important to be careful and maintain balance in dealing our activities The popular media attention is concentrated on loss of life and property. There is little prospect for preventing many of the disasters from occurring although much could be done to reduce their severity. Many impacts could be mitigated through better vulnerability and risk assessment, predictive modeling, information dissemination, and policy development.
Major source of pollution are:
– air pollution
– dredge disposal and contaminated sediments .
– endangered and threatened species
– landbased water pollution
– oil pollution – regulatory compliance
– ship/port generated waste – partnerships
Effect from industry and household that run of into the river • Oil pollution • Chemical pollution • Harmful substances in package form • Sewage • Ballast water • Garbage • emission • Dumping of wastes liquid,solid)
Main source of marine pollution:
Marine Pollution I -Point form polution - Oil Pollution • ,Toxic Contaminants ,• Marine Debris • Mining and Dumping •
Marine Pollution II - Nonpoint Pollution, • Sewage ,• Alien Species • Watershed Issues
Main source from ships is in form of:
•Operational – Through socio - economic impacts to marine ecology, habitat, and coastal infrastructures are affected though operational activities that results from: Oil spill, Emission, Ballast Water, Garbage, contamination, Antifouling Dredging activities.
• Accidental risk – marine accident that could result to oil spills which then, end up degrading our environment about 400-300 thousands of oil entered the world ocean, collision with marine mammal, which then cause propeller injuries through : Grounding ,Stranding, Loss of oil, Hazardous cargo, Noxious liquid, collision with marine mammals.
• Design - Risk associated with environmental issue n ship and in ship designing are : In the context of ship design the impacts areas are: Shipping Trends, Channel Design Criteria, Ship Maneuverability, Ship Controllability, and Use of Simulators in Channel Studies. Since world II many nations built port but forget about maintaining them while shipyard continues to build larger ships. Physical dimension and ratio of ships to channel has got impact in today’s ship controllability.
Discharge could be:
• Intentional and unintentional discharge (oil, garbage, antifouling paint, air emission, on indigenous species from ballast water • Environmental damage and pollution due to port activities • Disturbance of marine environmental (collision and noise) • Emission from scraping of ships at the end of their life cycle Direct Discharges • Direct discharges are defined here to include releases from vessels, discharges of municipal and industrial wastewater via pipelines, and dumping of waste materials, such as dredged material, into ocean waters
Indirect discharge • One to two-thirds of pollutants contributing to the degradation of coastal and marine waters are from indirect sources, and include sediments, nutrients, pathogens, and toxic compounds. Pollutants from agricultural and pasture lands include sediments, fertilizers, pesticides, herbicides, and animal wastes which contain bacteria and nutrients
Accidental Releases- • Oil spill and bunkering fuel, Emmsion)Sox,Nox,CFC &VoC,Antifouling toxins,Ballast water discharges,Noise,Watse disposal at sea,Dredging @dispersal of soil Impacts • Habitat Destruction (overview) • Loss of Wetlands • Tourism and Recreation • Deforestation • Fresh Water Alterations • Fishing Issues (overview) • Over fishing • Ecosystem Changes • Bombs, Poison, Scrapes • By catch • Global Change Climate Change • Ozone Depletion • Coastal Development • Population
Other impacts are –
the introduction of pathogens to coastal waters – alteration of water tables – modification of nutrient cycles or soil fertility – increased erosion – interference with navigation – a reduction in sport and commercial fishing yields – negative impacts on recreational boating and beach use .
The introduction of non-indigenous species often results in unexpected ecological, economic, and social impacts to the coastal and marine environment. Predation and competition by non-indigenous species has resulted in the eradication of some native populations and the drastic reduction of others, thereby altering local food webs. This process is often compounded by the exploitation of commercial fish. Overpopulation of some non-indigenous species has resulted in the degradation and loss of wetland vegetation and other submerged aquatic vegetation as a result of overgrazing.
Because industrialized society depends on petroleum products to maintain its accustomed standard of living, large volumes of petroleum are transported each day in the coastal and marine environment. Spills and leaks cause the formation of tar balls, oil slicks, and tar mats, and can impact the micro-layer, the benthos, the coast, and marine life.
Sustainability capacity building, efficiency optimization of development, practice and operations that meets the needs of the present generation without compromising the ability of future generation to meet their need
Good environmental quality is essential for sustaining coastal and marine ecosystems, commercial and recreational fisheries, and economic growth in coastal communities.
It is also an important means of providing natural protection against rising sea levels and storm damage. The health of coastal and marine ecosystems is affected by water quality, and in turn, water quality is dependent upon ecosystem health. If one is impaired, the other is threatened.
Despite their value and the programs designed to protect them, many coastal waters are being degraded at an alarming rate in addition to this, other advantages are: • compliance with all applicable environmental laws and regulations; • No significant adverse environmental impacts; • Wastes treated or destroyed on board to the extent practicable; • No inappropriate dependence on shore facilities for waste off-load and disposal; • Minimal energy consumption; • Minimal logistical costs for waste management; and • Minimal use of hazardousmaterials.
• Low exhaust emission diesel engine achieves a 25% reduction in air emissions
• Expected to result in reduced maintenance, better engine performance, and decreased fuel consumption
• Hull of boat was coated with a Teflon-based coat that contains no toxic chemicals • Holding tank for waste prevents discharges
• Port’s attempt to reduce emissions from marine vessel engines.
• Particular features of existing tug engines were modified to keep combustion temperatures as low as possible; this optimizes engine efficiency and produces fewer emissions.
• With a Teflon coat, hulls are easy to clean, contain no toxics, and no longer need to be painted, reducing pollution from waste products generated during painting.
• Surface sediments contaminated with metals, PAHs, PCB, and other organics
• All clean material deposited in Mass Bay Disposal Site – innovation/uncommon
others – transferable – response to EPA or government initiative – significance and breadth of benefits – effectiveness and results – acknowledgement by others – Beneficial disposal of dredged material – Treating waste as resources and put them under recycling
Strategies for shipboard control
• Shipboard and waste emission outline –treatment and elimination - Pollution Prevention (P2) or Pollution Control-this is backbone of the thrust in achieving clean ship. Pollution Prevention Use fewer environmentally harmful substances and generate less waste on board.
Pollution Control: Increase treatment, processing, or destruction of wastes on board. The basic P2 principles follow:
Eliminating the use of environmentally harmful chemicals, such as ozone-depleting substance (ODSs), toxic antifoulant hull coatings, and other hazardous materials, may be the best approach for some potential of :
• Sulfur reduction in bunker fuel
• Nitrogen reduction to choice of propulsion system
• On board Cataleptics system like charlatanic converter, water injection, emulsion
• Operationally sped reduction and use of shore power connection has
What is expected from youWe’re all responsible for this mess, and it will take all of us to stop it from getting worse. It’s time to completely rethink how we as a society use (or abuse) plastic. Here are some things that you can do right now:
- Every time you see litter, pick it up and dispose of it properly.
- Reduce, Reuse, Recycle – you’ve heard it before, but now you know what happens when you don’t. Be conscious of all that you buy, and be sure to avoid products with excessive packaging, especially in disposable products.
- Demand more and better recycling facilities in your area.
- Take part in local stream, river and beach cleanups - or organize one yourself. Though these don't solve the problem, they are very effective at drawing attention to the greater problem offshore.
- If you live near the ocean, or a river that drains into it, your storm drains are probably washing garbage right out to sea. Be conscious of this and any other potential sources of marine litter in your area. Demand that these are eliminated.
- Be very conscious of your ecological footprint. Encourage change though your decisions and do no accept the current paradigm of use and waste.
Feature environmental technology
- Ozone safe substances- 200-Ton Air-Conditioning Plant Conversion Kit -The CG-47and DDG-51 plants have been successfully converted to the ozone-friendly refrigerant HFC- 236fa conversion kit .
-Solid waste - Solid-Waste Pulpers -The pulper (especially the large pulper) is the machine into which you dump tremendous quantities of paper, cardboard, or food waste.The waste mixes with seawater to form slurry, which is then discharged overboard. Studies show an immediate 100,000-to-1 dilution when discharged into the wake of a ship. Ships equipped with a pulper can dispose off their paper, cardboard, and food waste just about anywhere and at anytime—at sea including MARPOL areas.
Liquid waste - OWS and Bilge water Polishers: Many bilge cleaners the Navy uses today contain long-lasting emulsifying agents, which produce stable oil-in-water emulsions that shipboard OWSs cannot effectively process. The popular media attention is concentrated on loss of life and property.
There is little prospect for preventing many of the disasters from occurring although much could be done to reduce their severity. Many impacts could be mitigated through better vulnerability and risk assessment, predictive modeling, information dissemination, and policy developmeent .
"... [M]an’s fingerprint is found everywhere in the oceans. Chemical contamination and litter can be observed from the poles to the tropics and from beaches to abyssal depths...But conditions in the marine environment vary widely. The open sea is still relatively clean...In contrast to the open ocean, the margins of the sea are affected by man almost everywhere, and encroachment on coastal areas continues worldwide...If unchecked, this trend will lead to global deterioration in the quality and productivity of the marine environment." The State of the Marine Environment, 1989; Group of Experts on the Scientific Aspects of Marine Poll comments will appreciated -