Attitude towards Family Planning among Muslims Women of Various Socio-Economic Classes (A Sociological Study)
Name of the Author- Dr Indu Bansal & shilpi chauhan (Research scholar)
Name of the Department- Home Science (Human Development)
Banasthali University (Banasthali) Rajasthan
Reproductive health has become a current headline grabber in the context of global health development. Reproductive health of couples refers to their ability and choice to reproduce; it covers family planning and safe motherhood also. Many studies and data show the extent of both approval and practice of contraception is greater than Hindus and Sikh than among Muslims, and it is said that there is a close linkage between religious belief and family a composition. The present study is an attempt to understand the fertility behavior of Muslims women with special reference to their attitude towards family planning in the fast changing world. The Muslims have started adopting family planning measures though some argue that it is forbidden in Islam. The present research work entitled "Attitude towards Family Planning among Muslims Women of Various Socio-economic classes" is an effort in the direction of understanding the level of acceptance of family planning among Muslim women and the possible reasons behind their attitudinal change. As many studies hitherto suggest that Muslims follows the protanatalist beliefs of Islam and that is y the fertility rate there is quite high. Some other studies various other dimensions of fertility patterns of Muslims.
This study aim to carry out the factors of not adoption of contraception and attitude towards family planning and knowledge level of acceptances of contraceptives methods among Muslims women. The data were analyzed by percentage, mean, standard deviation.
Key Words: Family Planning, Muslims Women attitude, contraceptives use
Today, we are faced with the biggest problem of our time -large size of our population and its unabated high growth rate. Although the National Family Planning Programme was started about six decades back, today ours is the second most populous country in the world next to China. Current population of India (2010) is around 1.15 billion. Family planning is the voluntary pre-pregnancy planning and action of people to prevent ,delay or avoid pregnancy .
In India very high proportion of girls gets married at very young age and immediately are exposed to the risk of bearing children. Many marriages in the country are solemnized well before the legal age.
Many a times women shy away from using contraception mainly because they lack knowledge and are afraid of sterilization; copper T or pills does not suit them; or injection is not available etc; thereby have to carry the burden of unwanted pregnancies or go for abortion which is mainly unsafe, having knowledge of wide range of contraceptive methods helps women to overcome such difficulties. Further, it enable couples to decide when to and whether to have child.
Reproductive health has a become a current health grabber in the context of global health development Reproductive health of a couple refers to their ability and choice to reproduce, to control their fertility and to sustain and enjoy the sexual relationship . thus the concept of reproductive health has been defined as "A state in which people have the ability to reproduce and regulate their fertility; women are able to go through pregnancy and child birth safely; the outcome of pregnancy is successful in terms of maternal and infant survival and well being; and couple are able to have sexual relation free from fear of pregnancy and contraceptive diseases; (Mahmood, Fathalla, WHO 1998) Family planning is not an exceptional case. All the societies and the major religion of the world were basically protanalist since their inception while population control and scientific family planning are very recent phenomenon. At the same time it is also not worthy that human being have interfered with their fertility since time immemorial and don't go through the full fecundity. It is also found that some religious groups have faster growth rates while other is dwindling in number.
This may have happened because of various interpretations of religious beliefs and values. While Christianity, Hindus, Buddhism, etc; have pronatelist value, still celibacy i.e. held very high in esteem. In Islam, on the other hand there is no such value and everybody in expected to get married and childhood and marriage is encouraged even among widows and divorced. Because of this value they marry early also.
The Hindu population decidable growth rate has decline from 22.7 in 1981-91 to 19.3 in 1991-2001, the Muslim population also show decreases in decadal growth rate from 32.9 in 1981-91 to 29.5 in 1991-2001. This data simply indicates that things are fast changing in Muslim society also. It also nullifies all the hither to given explanation regarding fertility in Muslims.
The present study deals with this particular issue. The researcher has made a attempt to understand the different socio-economic status towards family planning in the city of Aligarh. The study focus on how knowledge and practice about family planning can play on important role in developing a positive attitude in Muslim women and how both of these women in developing a positive attitude in Muslim women and how both of these women.
The study also emphasizes on changing and improved status of Muslim women in decision making, education and health related practice.
Objectives of the study
A large number of studies have shown that the Muslim community in India has high fertility than other major community. The study examine this dimension of fertility behavior and birth control among Muslim; therefore the specific objectives of this study are as follow-
- To examine the operative Islamic views on birth control.
- To explore the actual trades of fertility behavior among Muslim women
For the present purpose the city of Aligarh which is situated in western Uttar Pradesh has been selected as the area of the study. Total population of the district according 1788880 male and 1507102 female population.150 Muslim married women were selected so the researcher chose 50 Muslim married women. Data were collected with the help of an "interview schedule" a schedule was developed and utilized for the data collection. In the process of classification and tabulation some of the statistical methods are used, percentage distribution methods were used in the tabular from to analyze the data regarding different aspects of Muslims women's fertility behavior.
Result and discussion
The data in table reveals 6% of the respondents accept contraceptives till menopause. 84.66% of huge majority accept female sterilization for acceptable lifelong method of total birth control and only 9.34% respondents accept male sterilization. It is seen that in all the category of classes' female sterilization is the most popular method of total birth control.
Table 1.1 Acceptance Method of Total Birth Control
Contraceptive till menopause
Reason for not adopting male and female sterilization
The data in table reveals that 46.67% of the women's husband did not to be sterilized, 28% of them are in favor as it can harm their sexuality. 16% of them said that husband have no time to rest so it cannot be easy for them and only 9.33% were in respondents were not adopting because their husband did not want it and few replied that it can harm their sexuality .
Husband did not want
Can harm his sexuality
No times to rest
The data instable shows that 12.66% husbands themselves discuss with their wives, 26.67% of the husband half heatedly discuses with their wives, 18.67% of the husband ignore such discussion and 18% of the husbands were not applicable as they never discuss with their wives on total birth control. In lower and middle class husband discuss readily with their wives and in higher class husband discuss half heatedly.
From the above discussion it is clear that Muslims women's are religious but religion does not affect their personal decision related to family planning. They are easily keeping distance in religion and family planning attitude. It is seen that lower class Muslims women's are also using contraceptives to have ideal number of children, and they want only 2-3 children as their economic status is low. It is clear in the study that all the respondents want at least one or more male child as they are the helps in business and they can take care of them in old age.
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