I want to express my deepest appreciation to my Lord and savior Jesus Christ, Precious Holy Spirit and Papa God.
To my Pastors; Pastor Chris and Anita Oyakhilome
Rev Tom and Pastor Joy Amenkhienan
All CEC Pastor the world over
Executives of Stars Agros International
All friends and family members that have contributed to this project
When a child is born, I am one of those who believe that, in him is planted the seed of greatness. He may or may not recognize this as he grows, but its there all the same. The monarch of the universe, in a bid to assist that child become all that he has planned for him to be, would send "aids". These aids could come in forms of people, books, journals, technology etc. This book is one of such aids.
Having thoroughly observed the lives of our young people, it is very important that they come to know how to achieve "academic" success. This has been the problem of many (including many nations) -THE HOW! We used the term academic in order to communicate a certain thought. We believe that the world we live in is an ever changing one and there is so much to learn from it, in order to effect the desired change.
This book has been written by five (5) selected young contributors who have achieved academic success in their various fields and would want to impact to you "the how" of it. "How to Achieve Academic Success" is not just another article on success, but THE BOOK to show you how it's being done!
So lets take ride…….and before I forget, get a pen and a paper readily close to you as you would be receiving inspirations from God as you read and its very important you pen them down(FIRST SURE WAY TO BECOME A SUCCESS). We trust that you would become an all round intellectual and academic success after reading this!
I LOVE YOU!
Samuel O. Zion GMnim
Table of Content
Table of content
- Definition of success (Samuel O. Zion)
- The most important- The Spiritual Angle (Confidence N. Chinekwe)
- The "WHY" of academic success (Wekpe O. Vremudia)
- Temperament (Mnena Inyeragh)
- Choices; the why and how to study (Eze Prince)
- Now that you have heard……….GO FOR IT! (Samuel O. Zion)
Definition of success
By Samuel O. Zion
What is Success?
Success! Success!! Success!!! I can hear that ringing in your head. You maybe saying "I want to become a success like my dad", "I want to become successful in everything I do". But do you really know what it means? Or are you one of those who think that, that man down the street who got a large house, nice and wonderful kids, fleet of cars is a success? Well am going to be sub-dividing this definition into two parts; what it is NOT and what it is!
- What Success Is Not
Foe the purpose of easy reference, I would be itemizing the various thought birthed into this chapter;
- Success is NOT money: - we have erroneously placed too much emphasis on one gaining financial muscles as a clear indication that such a person is successful. That's wrong! Riches are only an outward expression, the outgoings of success. When you go to the board in your school or you check your results online and you see an 'A' or 'B', that's the output of the effort you had put during the examination. That is what money is! It is the result of what you are; it's the expression of your personality effort.
- Success is NOT fame: - Jesus said in the bible (Gods manual for life) "what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world and loose his soul?" (Matthew 16 vs. 26) that is a profound question. Never mistake success for fame because IT IS NOT! Just like money, it's the result! I want to show you "the-how" of the result! So get at becoming and not at having! Get to work!
- Success is NOT political authority:- it makes no difference how high place a person may be politically, or in a position of power, success is never defined that way. You don't need to look far to notice the lives of so-called world leaders; how wrenched they have become after their terms in office.
- Success in NOT in your wishful thinking or ideas:- though its great and important that you have wonderful ideas, how you would want to make this world a better place; but it's not all that is required for success. ACTION is it! You have got to translate those thoughts and ideas of yours in to action. You have to put them to work, then you are on your way to being a success.
- What success IS
- Success is impacting the world with the investment of your personality:- every one that is born into this world has the seed of greatness in him. There are no naturally born failures…..YOU GOT TO BELIEVE THIS! The problem with a lot of folks is how to bring out that deposit into light. D.L Osborn (a great minister of the gospel) said "work on being and not on having" in other words put all your efforts in becoming the very best you can be and influence your world with it. There are two Greek words translates "world"; one is "COSMOS" meaning the universe, the realm of the physical sphere of planetary beings. All the things we see in the geographic and special frame of things. The other is "ENTHOS" which means your immediate sphere of contact, the people you deal with on a regular basis, the association you are in either the market women association or a student body etc. the "world" am referring to in this context is "ENTHOS". From what you have invested yourself with, influence your "ethnos" with it. Make them aspire to your inspiration. This can only be possible when you have made the right deposit in yourself. Spend time to study the right materials, attend the right school and get the necessary information. That's why the bible is so important because in it contains all the required information for a successful life. Be informed! Be educated! And go all out and make your world better from the deposit inside you.
- Success IS looking out for a human need and meeting that need:- what can you see? This is a remarkable question. I remember during my university day; the entire student body went on a protest to demand for electricity, because the school couldn't provide it. But I thought to myself "someone invented the light bulb. What can I invent to stop this protest? The school wants someone who will make things happen and not destroy them". You see, successful people always look out for a human need and DRIVE their resources in meeting that need. Don't join those who complain about what the Government did or did not do, what can you do? Study the lives of bible characters and see how they were able to step out of the masses and causes changes for God. That's how you should think. Look at your environment, find out the problem they are challenged with and solve it. That's what success it!
- Success IS being what God has called you to be:- you are unique and different! Always remember that. God has a purpose for your life and the only way you can really be successful is in fulfilling that purpose for your life. There is a purpose to your life, you do not just exist. The only way to find out that purpose is through your fellowship with the Holy Spirit. This is no religion. It's real! Its life! It's your life we are talking about here. Don't live an empty life. There is no greater tragedy for a man than for him to live all his days on the earth without knowing why he was here. Don't be that way. God loves you enough to make you a success. When you discover who he has made you to be and you fulfill it…that's what success really is.
Now to the very purpose of this discuss; what then is academic success?
From the online dictionary, academic is defined "as learned or scholarly common sense, or practicality acquired by formal education, especially at a college or university"
In other words, it refers to all forms of knowledge gained through a formal and standardized setting of education either through a university, college, technical school etc.
According to UNICEF 2012statistics of Nigeria, 78% of males between the ages of 15-24 years of age were educated(or being educated) in our institution of learning, while 65% of females of the same age bracket were in school (study from year 2005-2010), meaning the rate of academic pursuit is on the increase as compared to previous years. Have you asked yourself how many of these young people are actually achieve the purpose of their academic sojourn? The reason is not far fetch. The IGNORANCE of what academic success is is the problem. Therefore, we would provide the definition of what academic success really is.
Having studied several definition of academic success as proposed by several authors, I made a good one here;
"Academic success is THE ABILITY to see the challenges posed during your academic pursuit, make deliberate and strategic steps on how to surmount such challenges and WIN"
The key words I want you to notice in the above definition are "THE ABLITY" and "WIN" putting it in proper context; THE ABILITY TO WIN! It makes no difference what course of study you are engaged in, who your lecturers are or your study conditions. You look beyond that and still win! But such winning have to be motivated by deliberate attempts. You have got to set in motion way through which you will overcome these challenges. That's why the Holy Spirit is required. He would make available to you ideas, steps ways and strategy through which you can overcome them.
What you should bear in mind as I close this chapter is;
TAKE ACTION! BE STRATEGIC IN YOUR APPROACH, LOOK BEYOND WHAT YOU ARE SEEING NOW TO WHAT CAN BE AND RELY ON GOD'S SPIRIT FOR YOUR SUCCESS
Now listen to what the other authors have to say………
The most important-the spiritual aspect
By Confidence N. Chinekwe
What is success? As defined by my dear Man of God, Pastor Chris Oyakhilome PhD, success is impacting the world with the investment of your personality. "Your world" as stated in the definition refers to things and those within your sphere of contact. The Big question is; what is God's say on success? The beautiful thing about this times, this dispensation, is that God has given us all things to enjoy freely (1 Corinthians 2:12). God's recipe for success is his word. You've got to voraciously study the word of God for yourself. We'll take this step by step
PRINCIPLES/ STEPS TO HAVING ACADEMIC SUCCESS
- YOU'VE GOT TO BE BORN AGAIN
God's kind of success is unexplainable by the ordinary mind. Your natural mind will fail you, if you try to fathom a man who is a success in God. To enjoy God's kind of success that is unexplainable to the wisdom of man, you've got to be in Christ. You must have accepted Jesus as Lord of your life. If he becomes Lord of your life, everything that pertains unto life and godliness including your success has already been made available to you. Before we move further, I'll like to invite you to make Jesus the Lord of your life if you are yet to do so. And if you are already born again, congratulations! You made the right choice.
AN INVITATION TO BE BORN AGAIN
The bible says in Romans 10:10 "For with the heart man believeth unto righteousness; and with the mouth confession is made unto salvation". So even while you are still reading this book, I invite you to make Jesus the Lord of your life by praying thus:
"O Lord God, I come to you in the Name of Jesus Christ. Your word says "……..And it shall come to pass, that whosoever shall call on the name of the Lord shall be saved" (Acts 2:21). I ask Jesus to come into my heart to be the Lord of my life. I receive eternal life into my spirit and according to Roman 10:9, "That if thou shall confess with thy mouth the Lord Jesus, and shall believe in thine heart that God hath raised him from the dead, thou shall be saved". I declare that I am saved; I am born-again; I am a child of God! I now have Christ dwelling in me and greater is he that is in me than he that is in the world. I now walk in the consciousness of my new life in Christ Jesus. Hallelujah!"
Congratulations! If you just said that prayer, you are now a child of God.
Now you can enjoy God's kind of success to the full. Wow! Another principle to having academic success is by meditating on God's word.
- MEDITATING ON GOD'S WORD
The book of Joshua 1:8 says "This book of the law shall not depart out of thy mouth; but thou shall meditate therein day and night, that thou mayest observe to do according to all that is written therein: for then thou shall make thy way prosperous, and then thou shall have good success"
I want you to notice the words 'MOUTH AND MEDITATE'. You've got to use your mouth to chart the course of your life. Your mouth is not only meant to eat rice and drink juice; it's meant for talking and talking the word of God. Remember the beginning of creation as recorded in the bible, God created the world by his words (Genesis 1). You've got to study the word of God and meditate on it. 1 Timothy 4:15 says "Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all". For your success to be evident for the world to see you've got to meditate on the word of God. As you study and meditate the word of God you are metamorphosed into the same image from glory to glory (2 Corinthians 3:18).
In Joshua chapter 1:8, notice what the scripture says "then thou shall make thy way prosperous and then thou shall have good success". "Thou" means 'you'. You are the one make yourself prosperous and have good success, HOW? By meditating on the word. You have to study the word of God for yourself and meditate on it. Declare at all times what the word of God says concerning you. By so doing, you, you are putting the word of God to work and it will definitely make a change in your life; it will make you what it talks about. There are 3 stages in meditation
- Mutter - to mutter is to say something under your breath.
- Roar - after you've muttered the word long enough, the word sinks into your spirit and then you begin to shout it out loud. You begin to roar the word.
The bible says in 1 Timothy 4:15 "Meditate upon these things; give thyself wholly to them; that thy profiting may appear to all". If you would meditate on your success and on the word of God long enough, your profiting - your success and prosperity - would appear unto all men.
The man Isaac was one of the in the bible who walked in tremendous success and prosperity. But when you study his life, you would discover he was a spiritually minded man who spent a great deal of time meditating. The bible says, Isaac went out to the field in the evening to meditate (Genesis 24:63). That was the secret behind his success and prosperity. Meditation will give you give success! It will make you wise in your dealings - your academics and every area of your life.
- BE SUCCESS CONSCIOUS
God's dream for you is that you constantly make progress ad excel from glory to glory. Proverbs 4:18 says "But the path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more and more unto the perfect day". This is God's dream for you. He expects you to be increasingly fruitful and productive in your academics and in every of your endeavors. What Jesus meant when he says "I am the true vine, and my Father is the husbandman. Every branch in me that beareth not fruit he taketh away: and every branch that beareth fruit, he purgeth it, that it may bring forth more fruit. Now ye are clean through the word which I have spoken unto you. Abide in me, and I in you. As the branch cannot bear fruit of itself, except it abide in the vine; no more can ye, except ye abide in me. I am the vine, ye are the branches: He that abideth in me, and I in him, the same bringeth forth much fruit: for without me ye can do nothing. If a man abides not in me, he is cast forth as a branch, and is withered; and men gather them, and cast them into the fire, and they are burned. If ye abide in me, and my words abide in you, ye shall ask what ye will, and it shall be done unto you". (John 15:1-7). Even if you are already a success and productive, the Lord prunes you to be even more productive.
Become success conscious! Many believe that success can only be measured at the end of one's life, but that's not true. Success can be measured at different stages of your life. If you're conscious of success at the level where you are today, that consciousness will take you to a higher level of success tomorrow. Some people are only conscious of failure and that's why they keep stumbling in life. Your life will be an unending stream of success, victory and prosperity when you develop an attitude of success.
Success mentality will keep you from mundanity and help you cultivate a culture of excellence and perfection. Be excited everyday at the opportunity to win and be a success for God. Being a new creation in Christ, success is one of the intrinsic features of your recreated human spirit; be conscious of this reality today and always. Being success conscious is a vital principle to observe where success is concerned. You've got to be conscious of your success. You should be able to visualize the level of success you desire. There must be a specific desire of the level of success you want to attain. You just can't be vague in your consciousness. You must be specific.
For example, as a student and you desire to have A's in all your courses, you've got to know the exact grade you have presently or in the previous examination. So if you got C's, it means you've got to find out what more you need to do to attain the A's. You should be able to visualize the level of success you desire. Its only when your desire is specific that you'll be effectively conscious of your success
HOW DO YOU BECOME EFFECTIVELY CONSCIOUS OF YOUR SUCCESS
You do so through the eyes of faith! Because you can't possess what you can't see. 2 Corinthians 4:18 says "While we look not at the things which are seen, but at the things which are not seen: for the things which are seen are temporal; but the things which are not seen are eternal".
Abraham had to see the vision of God's promise to him to become a father of many nations, even when he didn't have a son to call his own. "And he (God) brought him (Abraham) forth abroad and said, look now toward heaven and tell the stars, if thou be able to number them and he said unto him, so shall thy seed be. And he believed in the Lord; and he (God) counted it to him for righteousness" (genesis 15:5-6).
Abraham staggered not at the promises of God through unbelief because he had seen the vision of God's promise to him.
Understand this: to be conscious of success through the eyes of faith isn't the same as being optimistic. It actually means 'to see the way God sees'.
When you are fully conscious of success even if you don't see it with your physical eyes at that particular time, it's absolutely impossible for the devil or anyone to talk you out of it, because you've already possessed it by your faith, using the power of your thought.
When you are conscious of your success, all hard situations become bread for you. If for example, you have an exam to write, you've read and prepared for that exam, and then you get into the exam hall, you were asked to answer all questions and you were only able to answer 4 out of 5 questions. You need not to worry. You just remind yourself of who you are because of the consciousness of success. You say "in the Name of Jesus Christ, I know the answer to this question". Remember that the bib le says that the Holy Spirit will bring all things to your remembrance. You declare "father in the Name of Jesus Christ, thank you because the Holy Spirit is bringing this answer to my remembrance". There is no demon hatched out of hell that can make you not to have the answers. Glory to God! That's why I love the name of Jesus. You just declare what you want concerning any situation in the Name of Jesus. Hallelujah!
Or for example, you get into class and there's a topic everyone's complaining that it's difficult. You begin to declare in the Name of Jesus. Your consciousness of success will cause you to always make declarations. At such times you declare "in the name of Jesus that this difficult topic is bread for me". Before long, you'll begin to experience changes in that course or topic as the case may be. You'll begin to understand the course or topic easily.
- TALK YOUR WAY TO THE TOP
Maintaining the right confession is another important prerequisite where success is concerned. 'Confession' in the New Testament portion of scriptures, is derived from the Greek word 'homologie' which literally means 'to speak the same thing in agreement with another. Thus, you agree with and say what the word of God says concerning your success.
The bible says that a man believes with his heart unto righteousness and confesses with his mouth unto salvation (Romans 10:10). That means, until you confess that you are saved, you can't enjoy the benefits of salvation. You are made right with God when you believe, but it's your confession that brings you into the benefits of salvation which includes your success.
Never forget to employ the instrument of confession - consistently speaking in agreement with God's word concerning your success. Words are powerful; they are the vehicles of your thoughts.
They can affect your body, circumstances and your entire life. What's more, your utterances as a child of God aren't mere words; they are inspired truths based on God's eternal word.
Like my dear Man of God Pastor Chris would say "keep saying it, don't stop talking it".
Pastor Chris Oyakhilome did tell the story of how he and his ministry got to where it is now. He spoke words of faith to everything that concerned him and his ministry and look where he is today. And guess what? Pastor Chris says he's still talking! Wow. He's still talking his way forward. No limitations, he's still talking!
Keep saying to yourself 'I am a success, I do not fail '. As much as you can, say these words to yourself and your life will be an unending stream of success.
THE "WHY" OF ACADEMIC SUCCESS
By Wekpe Vremudia
The why of academic success; the importance of achieving academic success.
Academic success is different things to different people. For some, academic success is simply passing through school with any acceptable grade. While to some, it is coming out tops in an academic setting. Distinguishing one's self in an academic environment.
In discussing the why or the need for academic success, it becomes imperative to look at the two sides of the coin. The coin in this case being the importance of achieving academic success and how to achieve academic success.
Achieving academic success does not preclude excellence in other areas; this is one thing that must be richly and truly appreciated. The writer is advocating thus, because he had discovered that certain persons who have seemed to achieve academic success have done so to the detriment of other life endeavors.
The why of academic success; the need of academic success?
The pertinent question here now becomes "is academic success important?" is there a need for achieving academic success? What would be the expected answer to this rather rhetoric question? From experience and extended research, the answers show that a majority of people believe that achieving excellence in academics is important. However, a minority are of the opinion that academic success is not paramount. Rather they posit that merely going through the academic cycle is the ultimate.
Leaning towards the school that believes in the need for academic success, the why of academic success would be discussed subsequently. There are intrinsic benefits attached to achieving success in academics; the least amongst these may not be the felt need that is fulfilled by being successful is one intangible sense of personal achievement and self worth.
Academic success can also serve as an indication of the direction an individual is bound to take in the future. It may also double as an indicator of the demarcation between the top, middle and lower rungs in an academic setting or environment.
Apart from the many attendant benefits attached to achieving academic success; achieving academic success gives the individuals a certain degree of advantage. However, other benefits attached to academic success include certain recognitions and rewards which makes the achievers to stand heads over their contemporaries.
A rather important salient objective academic success seems to achieve without effort is bringing a degree of recognition to persons. Examples abound of people who have suddenly burst into the limelight as a result of achieving or attaining academic distinction. The case of the recently recognized Nigerian scholar in the Canada is an example that readily comes to mind. The young man was relatively unknown, but his academic achievement has thrust upon him sudden recognition.
On a more somber note; a particular feature that seems to be attached to achieving academic success lies on the added responsibility that achieving academic success thrusts upon the shoulders of the specific individual. The responsibility of perpetually ensuring integrity in his or her actions becomes very paramount. He or she would not do anything to tarnish a hard earned reputation.
Next it becomes really glaring that those who distinguish themselves in academics are very much sort after by both the public and private sectors. They become very well valued assets to both the government and private businesses. These interested parties tend to attach so much importance to academic excellence. Whatever their reasons may be, these sectors are always on the lookout for those who excel in the academics.
This latter part of this chapter would try to throw some light on how to achieve academic success.
First, it is important to acknowledge that God is the ultimate. There is nothing that is, that was not made by him. He is all knowing with unending wisdom and power.
In addition, there must be the will to succeed. The individual must be prepared set academic goals and be able to put into motion the machinery that would lead to the actualization of these set goals. Thus, the goals that the specific individual should/would set must be SMARTER. SMARTER here is an acronym to guide the individual to ensure that the goals are;
T time conscious
In setting a goal or objective that is SMARTER, the individual should in addition to the following.
Have a mentor
Improved study habits
Avoid distractions and
Always accept responsibility.
By Mnena Inyeragh
What Is Temperament?
First, let us discuss the inner man, which is composed of:
1) TEMPERAMENT God-created and genetically coded in you by God at the time of your conception.
2) CHARACTER Learned behavior, affected by man and your environment
3) PERSONALITY Self-selected by you and is a "mask
Now, let us focus on Temperament. Simply defined it is the genetic inborn part of you that determines how you react to people, places and things. It is how you interact with your environment and the world around you. Temperament pinpoints your perceptions of yourself and the people who love you. It is also the determining factor in how well you handle the stress and pressure of today.
Although 'temperament' is not mentioned in either the Old or the New Testament Scriptures, in Psalm 139 David (knowing nothing about DNA) knew that before you were born, God designed you . . . "For you created my inmost being . . . ." While your body was being differentiated within your mother's womb, each 'inward part' was designed exactly as God intended including both your strengths and weaknesses. Temperament is based upon a creationist view and not an evolutionary view of human origin and development. Genesis 1:27 says, "So God created man in His own image, in the image and likeness of God He created him; male and female He created them". Temperament is similar to gender in the sense that there are certain environmental influences that can alter the gender, but never really change it. Temperament is not genetic in the sense that it is not passed through the genes and chromosomes of men and women. Your temperament contains your inborn qualities coded by a loving and wise Creator and these qualities make up your unique identity.
Once you know what your temperament is in three areas:
(1) SOCIAL ORIENTATION AND INTELLECT (MIND)
(2) CONTROL (WILL)
(3) AFFECTION (EMOTIONS)
. . . You will understand your basic needs how to go about meeting these needs and the effects of not meeting these needs. Temperament therapy gives you the ability to find balance between your body, soul and spirit and to find the perfect place God designed for you. Your temperament determines how you relate to people, places and things. In order to take care of your basic needs you will need to know what your unique needs are. Example: If your temperament has a driving need for love and the need is basically unmet, the drive behind the need will mount up in an attempt to find fulfillment in some way that is unacceptable behavior. You have the responsibility to make sure your temperament needs are being met in acceptable ways in order to keep a proper balance in your behavior.
When you (apart from your Creator) seek to meet your needs, you are driven to the things of the world for satisfaction. When you draw from self-will instead of God's will, you will miss God's ordained purpose for your life. Temperament therapy can also help you choose a vocation or occupation that would be best suited for you and allows you a greater opportunity for personal success in your life
It is important that you accept the divine plan of your individual creation, by accepting yourself physically and emotionally and surrendering to God's perfect will for your life.
Having said all that, let us look at how temperament affects one's academic ability.
How Does Temperament affect ones success academically?
How often have you heard a child described as "easy" or "difficult" or "shy until you get to know him/ her"? These casual labels all refer to characteristics of temperament, those traits that influence how you react in various situations.
"When a child's natural behavior doesn't fit with what is expected, social, family, or academic problems may arise. "Researchers have described nine temperament traits which individually, or in combination, affect how well you fit in at school, with peers, and even at home. Temperament influences how teachers, peers, and family relate to her, as well as how she relates to them. Your child's temperament directly affects how she approaches her school work and chores at home.
Children's personalities are the result of both heredity-especially in the form of inherited temperaments-and such environmental factors as parents' behaviors and cultural expectations. As you will see, heredity and environment often interact in their influences. Behaviors for each temperament trait described below fall along a continuum. Responses toward either the high or low end - while still completely normal - may be cause for concern. Although cognitive ability is the key predictor of grades and overall academic performance, personality also plays a role.
The question that researchers explored is how personality affects academic performance. Their basic hypothesis was that the effects of personality on academic performance are mediated by homework behavior. For example, someone who is not very conscientious in terms of personality (lacking a sense of self-discipline, orderliness and need for achievement) would be less likely to do his or her homework, and this would negatively affect grades. In fact, previous research indicates that the personality trait of conscientiousness is the strongest personality predictor of academic performance (as important as cognitive ability in terms of prediction), and it's also a strong predictor of success in the work place.
The Nine Temperament Traits
- Activity Level: Amount of physical energy evident in typical daily activities and behavior.
Low Energy <-------------------------------------> High Energy
At school, the more active child struggles to fit into an environment where suddenly she is expected to sit still for long periods of time. Her fidgeting and restlessness may disrupt the class and make it difficult for her to stay on task, but extra energy can be a benefit if channeled in a positive direction. In contrast, kids with low activity levels adapt well to a structured school day but may be viewed as unmotivated.
- Sensitivity: sensory threshold, or how easily your child is bothered by changes in the environment.
Low sensitivity <-------------------------------------> High Sensitivity
Kids who are highly sensitive are very aware of their environment and can be disrupted in countless ways: clothes may itch, noise may distract, and the chair may be too hard. While these children often have a heightened awareness to others' thoughts and feelings, such a low sensory threshold may distract from studies and affect academic performance. Less sensitive kids are more tolerant of environmental sensations but may be slow to respond to warning signals, such as school bells and smoke detectors.
- Regularity: Rhythm or predictable recurrence of daily activities or routines (such as waking, hunger, becoming tired), a child's personal habits or patterns in after-school routines.
Low Predictability <----------------------------------> High Predictability
Children with high regularity enjoy a structured classroom but may have problems with changes in routine, such as a field trip. Kids with low regularity, on the other hand, may have difficulty following the school routine and cause disruptions in class, yet are less bothered when things don't go according to the usual plan.
- Approach/Withdrawal: Initial reaction to new situations.
Withdraws <-------------------------------------> Approaches
Bolder children approach new experiences with curiosity and openness but may jump in too quickly or react impulsively. Kids who are more hesitant prefer to hang back and watch for a while before engaging with a new person or activity, which may cause them to miss out on new experiences. A more cautious nature, though, does lower the risk of engaging in dangerous behaviors.
- Adaptability: Adjustment to new situations; length of time needed to accept changes in plan or routine. (This trait is different from Approach/Withdrawal in that it describes adjustment after the initial reaction to change.)
Slow to Adapt <-------------------------------------> Adapts Easily
Adaptable children usually have an easier time; they tend to go with the flow. In school, this allows for ready adjustment to change but can also make the easy-going child more willing to adopt undesirable values or behaviors of peers. More rigid children, those slower to adapt, may be less susceptible to negative influences. However, they may find new situations stressful and difficult - a potential problem in school, where change is frequent and the number of transitions increase through the grades.
- Mood: General tendency toward a happy or unhappy demeanor.
Negative <-------------------------------------> Positive
While all children display a variety of emotions and reactions, from cheerful to glum, affectionate to grumpy, each child is predisposed toward a generally positive or negative mood. A more negative child may have difficulty being accepted by family, teachers, and peers, and it can be tough for caregivers to distinguish real problems from the child's typical mood. A child who always seems to be in a good mood fits in more easily but may not be dealing honestly with all the experiences in her life.
- Intensity: Amount of energy put into responses.
Less Responsive <-----------------------------> More Responsive
A very intense child laughs and cries loudly, loves things or hates them, and puts a great deal of emotion into her reactions, so it's easy to know where things stand. But a child who is overly responsive may drain a parent's or teacher's resources due to the child's intense feeling level. Kids who react mildly still feel all these emotions but do not exhibit such highs and lows in their responses. Low intensity is easier to deal with, but parents and teachers must be alert to more subtle signs of problems.
- Persistence: Ability to stick with a task in spite of distractions, interruptions, or frustration.
Low Persistence <--------------------------------> High Persistence
High persistence is strongly correlated with academic success. The child with excessive persistence, however, may be a perfectionist - unable to judge when a task is finished adequately or reluctant to turn in an assignment because she feels it's not good enough. The child with low persistence may have difficulty in school because of a tendency to become irritated or annoyed when interrupted or when a task becomes difficult. Her inclination to give up easily or to ask for help, rather than try things independently, can lead to incomplete assignments or difficulty staying focused.
- Distractibility: Tendency to be sidetracked by outside noise or interruptions.
High Distractibility <-------------------------------> Low Distractibility
Distractibility is not the opposite of persistence - a child can be easily distracted and yet show high persistence by returning quickly to the task at hand. A distractible child notices everything going on around her and may even be diverted by her own thoughts and daydreams. The opposite behavior in a child means she can concentrate despite any interruption. However, she may also tune out signals when it's time to move on to something different.
How Temperament Affects a Child
Extremes on each continuum of traits are not likely to guarantee success or failure in all situations; somewhere in the middle gives your child flexibility to adjust to a variety of conditions and expectations at school, at home, and in the community.
Consider that some combinations of traits can be more troublesome or more beneficial in school than others. High persistence can help the distractible student stay on task, whereas high distractibility combined with high activity and low persistence are strongly correlated to academic problems and bear a striking resemblance to the characteristics of Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (AD/HD).
Understanding the behavior traits of your child with LD or AD/HD helps you predict how she is likely to react in various situations. Are those traits liable to enhance her performance or cause additional problems for her? For example, auditory processing difficulties may be aggravated by low sensitivity; memory problems may be intensified by high distractibility. High persistence and low distractibility, on the other hand, tend to benefit most kids - with or without LD or AD/HD.
CHOICES: THE WHY AND HOW TO STUDY
By Prince Eze
It is widely believe and said when a purpose is not known abuse becomes inevitable. In this chapter, we shall pre-occupy ourselves with why we need to study, put differently the benefits of studies, we shall also consider the reasons for not studying, the dangers of not studying enough and finally how to study, that is, the method or techniques of studies. It must be stated here from the beginning that our concern in this chapter is not reading but studying as there is a huge difference between reading and studying, it is however sad to see that some scholars, particularly scholars in the field of clinical psychology use the two concepts interchangeably. Reading is not studying but it is part of studying, infact reading is more or less the one-fifth of what is required to make a good study.
Permit me to quote this biblical injunction which says,
Study to show thyself approved
Unto God, a workman that
Needeth not to be ashamed,
Rightly dividing the word
Of truth (2 Timothy 2:15)
The importance of studies cannot in any way be over-emphasized. Firstly, Studies help us to achieve excellence in any area of our endeavor- politics, business, academics, military etc. I have never seen a man who studies and fail in his chosen career in the worst case scenario such an individual might be graded wrongly by lecturers and teachers. Hope you still remember that test and examinations is not the true test of knowledge. The constructivist makes the argument that truths are socially constructed to reflect the version of reality of the speakers; sometimes what constitutes an academic truth is only reflecting the version of reality of the speaker. The point being made is that a man who studies might be wrongly graded by his teachers that does not in any way suggest that he will fail in life do you know that it is on record that Albert Einstein failed common entrance examinations and also drop out of school but he is the type that studies, this same man became a noble laureate, he was begged to accept a professorial seat without any years of post teaching experience. How about Benjamin Franklin who had only two years of formal education but he studied on his own and learnt how to read and write. He rose up to be one of the foremost philosophers in America. He founded a university and a specialist hospital. He became a celebrated diplomat and till date there is a day of remembrance for Benjamin Franklin.
Also, through studies we become lenders of ideas. It is believed and it is true that ideas rules the world, anything that we are seeing today in the world of form that is, world of materials first existed in the form of an idea, now it is those who have studied enough that distribute these ideas which rules the world, this is because studies exposes us to a whole lot of ideas. According to William Ellery.
It is chiefly through books that we enjoy intercourse with
Superior minds. In the best books, great men talk to us,
Give us their most precious thoughts and pour their
Soul into ours. Thanks be to God for books. They are the
Voice of the distance and the dead, and makes us heirs
of spiritual life of past ages. Books are true levelers. They
Give to all who will faithfully use them, the society, the
Spiritual presence of the past and greatest of our race.
Furthermore, studies help us to overcome ignorance. In my first book, The Secret Passion of Success I did point out that ignorance is the worst enemy of man, not even the devil is qualified as such. Ignorance is a state of being unaware (not knowing). Now through studies we become aware of a whole lot of things which we think is not possible thereby developing a possibility mentality, it is this mentality that makes us to take the lead for other to follow.
Amadi (2009) in his book '' I Need to Study Because …'' has equally identified the reason why we need to study and I totally agreed with the points he raised. According to him, we need to study because of the following reasons;
- To have a secured future
- To maintain boldness and confidence
- To possess possibility mentality, that is, do what others think is impossible
- To be an employer of labor or job creator
- To be a mental to others
- To be a model to many young minds
- To be a contributor of ideas
If the above benefits are associated with studies one should ask the question, what are the reasons for not studying. Amadi (2009) has again provided some of the reasons for not studying, this include;
- I am a house help or house keeper
- I went to a village school
- I am not living with my parents and where I am presently, I am not comfortable because of the unfair treatment I often received.
- My teachers do not know how to teach,
- My course mates are or were very lazy and unserious,
- My classmates are or were very brilliant so I could not cope and I therefore stopped studying because I cannot compete with them,
- In my school, we do not have enough class rooms and good learning environment,
- I always help my parents in their restaurant business I go home very late,
- My daddy and mummy promised to give me all the support I desire. So no need of bordering myself in any way,
- My parents are deceased or I am an orphan,
- I do not like the course I am studying presently , infant , I went in for the course because of admission problem,
- I was forced to go in for this course by my parents against my wish,
- I was persuaded by my friends to go for this very course I am studying presently,
- I just want to answer a graduate quick and get job easily,
- I have eye problem etc.
It must be noted that these constraints are endless and indeed deserve petty but these excuse are not enough for you not to study or resign to fate. A wise man rightly noted that the difference between an ordinary leader and extra-ordinary leader is that little extra. All you need is to put more effort an extra effort. History has the record of so many people who despite the odd studied and rose to fame one of such person is Chares Proteus Steinmetz, born in April 9, 1865 and died October 26, 1923. A mathematician and electrical engineer, he fostered the development of alternating current that made possible the expansion of the electrical power industry in the United States, formulating mathematical theories for engineer. He made ground- breaking discoveries in the understanding of hysteresis that enable engineers to better design electric motors for use in industry. He was awarded the Cedergren Medal in 1914, and many other awards. He was able to study and accomplish this despite, the fact that he suffered from dwarfism, hunchback and hip dysphasia. Friends, if this man and so many others in the past can study despite the odd and today their names have gone down well in history, you too can study despite the situation you find yourself and as you do you too will make it.
Now, we have successfully answered our first question which is, why we need to study, we have also answered our second and third question; we are left with our final question which is how to study. Under how to study we shall be discussing general study techniques which involved effective reading, listening, note taking, group discussion and revision that will result in the student being able to comprehend the course being offered in our various discipline and also culminate into an excellent result at the end of the day.
According to Daniel (2007) effective listening is ''the act of paying attention and hearing with complete concentration and commitment to what is being said or taught for the purpose of understanding the ideas, facts, and information that the speaker is passing across'' it is important to listen effectively in class much of what we learn are presented verbally to us in class.
Here are some things you are expected to do to be a good listener;
- Seat where you can hear the lecturer,
- Listen with purpose,
- Try to get the message rather than worry over how it is presented,
- be attentive
- Listen to all your lecturer has to say before criticizing
- Take notes as you listen
- Avoid unnecessary distractions from friends, classmates, or from yourself through absentmindedness.
Information presented in class often contains the central concepts of the course and the material most likely to be included in examination. Yet, students do not realize the importance of note-taking. Armstrong (2006) has identified ten tips on how to be efficient and successful note-takers
1. Don't write down every word,
2. Decide what is important
3. be an active listener / reader
4. Use symbols and abbreviations
5. Revise your note as soon as possible
6. be consistent
7. Improve on your hand writing
8. Forget spelling and grammar (as long as there meanings are clear)
9. Avoid plagiarism and use paraphrasing instead.
10. Use colors
Effective group discussion
Group discussion involves students of like-mind coming together for the purpose of sharing ideas, information and knowledge on a particular subject or topic.
Benefits of group discussion include,
- It increase your confidence in speaking
- It improves your listening skills
- It gives you the chance to hear other student's idea,
- It helps you to understand a subject more deeply,
- It increases your ability to think critically
- It makes the ideas to have a permanent seat in your subconscious since you are involved.
Effective reading is concerned with the writer's message. It also involves reading with a clear purpose in mind. It therefore starts with choosing a strategy to sooth the kind of text you have to read, this is because the strategy for reading textbook is different from that of reading journal articles, magazine etc.
Don't forget that you are also expected to look out for things like, topic, subtopics, headings, itemized words etc for better understanding.
Revision is only revision if it involves something you have already learned. According to Buzan (1989) 98 percent of what we encounter or learn is forgotten after just three weeks. Thus, if you don't act on your course work, it will be forgotten. Add some space for revision to your time table and do not make the mistake of thinking about revision until the last minute. Think of revision a couple of month or week before the examination. I wish you the best in your career.
Meet me at the top.
NOW YOU HAVE HEARD……GO FOR IT!
By Samuel O. Zion
Wow! Words are so insufficient to express how excited I am to read what the other authors have contributed. Am stirred! It's not enough to have such wonderful thoughts laid all out for you; you have to make a deliberate effort to put it to work. I have listed some ways to make it easy for you to this;
- Be strategic:- make a list of the challenges that seems to pose before you. Then through the help of the Holy Spirit, start writing out ways to overcome them and STICK TO IT! Pastor Chris Oyakhilome calls is "Stickability". Be committed to your vision, goal and plan during your academic pursuit
- Have a constant fellowship with the Holy Spirit: - I cannot over emphasis this. He is the one who made Jesus the Christ. He was the one who raised him from the dead (Romans 8 vs. 11), imagine that kind of ability in you! You are more than a man. He is a person and he knows you more than you know yourself. He wants to help you become so successful that the world will wonder. He is more concerned about your success than you could ever be…..think about it. Speak to him in your closet, he is always with you.
- Be Motivated by your Passion for Success: - I have met several people who are gear by the fear of failure. They don't want to fail that's why they read, what a terrible way to live! Always be motivated by your dream of success. Study, read and research because of the Joy to be successful. You would see how brighten you will be. It's a principle we have put to work in our lives.
- Be a Talker!:- am not referring with making vocal emissions that are injurious are empty. Am talking about "YOU" talking about your success. Learn to spend them alone in your closet and speak words about what you want in your future. Say
" I am a success. I am a champion in this word. Nothing can stop me, greater is he that's in me than he that's in the world. I am making progress. I am moving forward. I see my future, it is bright, am walking in victory and nothing can change that, in the Name of the Lord Jesus". Then you say "I walk in the wisdom of God. The wisdom of God is at work in me. I function in divine excellent. Am set on the course that I have to follow, prosperity, and health victory is mine in the Name of Jesus".
When you talk like this, you will feel the anointing well up in you. You saturate the environment with power from within you….KEEP TALKING….DON'T STOP TALKING! That's where your future lays….in your mouth.
SEE YOU AT THE TOP!