You can divide United Kingdom of Great Britain in to four parts, England, Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland. There are four islands as well. Three of them are situated close to France and one is in between Ireland and England. Which are Alderney, Guernsey, Jersey and Isle of Man. These all becomes United Kingdom of Great Britain.
The spoken languages of England are known as Aryans languages. Which, we call European and indo European languages. In these Indo-European languages, Celtic language has great importance. Celtic language was divided into two other languages they were geodetic and Brythonic Geodetic was divided into three other languages, Irish Gaelic, Manx and Scottish Gaelic. Brythonic was divided into two languages. Old Cornish and modern welsh. Other than these, modern English got the influence of North Germanic and West Germanic as well. As matter of fact English language is the essence of four Germanic dialects. Which were four tribes they came to Britain in 5th century and settled here and they were Saxons, jutes, Danes and Angles.
The capitol of United Kingdom of Great Britain is situated in England and it is called London. According to the last census, the population of London is 18 million. Something like fifty five years before the birth of Jesus the roman king Julius Ceaser attacked London and Romans named him londonium. In 43 A.D. the first bridge was built on river Thames. In 61 a.d. the Queen Bondica defeated Romans with the help of icenians tribes. In 200 a.d. the wall was built around London and it had six gates, which were Aldgate, new gate, bishop's gate, cripple gate, lud gate and alder's gate. Nobody knows when Saxons got the reign of London. London got importance when pop Gregory I the great sent Saint Augustine from Rome in 597 a.d.
Ethelbert the king of Kent sent mellitus as bishop of Saint Paul cathedral in 604 A. D.
During this period people started entering in London by sea route and by road. This city had peace for one hundred years and they got rid of Anglo-Saxon clashes and fights. Alfred the great died in 899 A.D. they had problems with Danes. When Normans conquer London it got great significance politically, economically and according to defence point of view. William the conqueror announced amnesty for everyone. During the reign of William I the foundation stone of tower of London was laid down. Richard I, when he came back from crusades he did a lot of development in London. When Henry I died in 1135, the Londoner crowned Stephen in the Westminster abbey.
1136 there was fire in London and lots of houses were burnt. The reason was that used to use a lot of wood in construction. Some part of Saint Paul cathedral was burnt as well. In the end of 12th century A.D. London became the shelter place of Danish, German, Gascony, Flemish, northern Italian and Jews, only Jews were tyrannized by Londoners. Many restrictions were implemented on them. Finally they were being kicked out from in 1210 and they were not allowed to re-enter in London anymore.
The first mayor of London was Henry Fitzailwin. He was being nominated in 1192. As London was becoming a stable city, the whole city got the attack of plague. In the 14th century plague spread like a fire in whole Europe. One third European population died of this fatal and mortal disease. After this epidemic London re started increasing his population and his economic condition in 1345. The famous or you can rather say first English poet Geoffrey Chaucer was born few years before this epidemic. In 1381 the farmers of London did strike against government. Caxton made first printing press. After all these calamities the London's population started increasing again. The population of London became triple during 1530 to 1600. During this period lots of social welfare organizations were established in London. The population of London increased extraordinarily in 1605. Hundred and seventy five thousand people were inside the wall area and hundred and fifty thousand people were outside the wall area and the slums of London. The total population of London was two hundred and twenty five thousand at that time.
Elizabeth I ruled from 1558 to 1603. At that time London reached at the height of pomp and show, glory and splendour. Nobody knows that god didn't like some of their act. He used to give them some catastrophe and calamity after a short span of glory. From 1664 to 1665 this was the worst time of London. The plague attacked London another time. Seventy five thousand people died due to this calamity and epidemic. As people of London were suffering of plague, on 2nd September there was fire in royal bakery. It got the whole London and that's why it's called great fire of London. Due to this fire most of London was burnt and most of the places were converted into ashes. The reason was again, using lots of wood in house and building construction. There used to be twenty to thirty houses attached each other in every street. So the fire spread like a forest.
The value and praise has Giorgio Vasari in Arezzo and Italy the same respect and prestige has got Sir Christopher wren in England. Sir Christopher wren was man many of many talents. He was mathematician, astronomer, and physicist, engineer and architect as well. The Londoner says that London city is the gift of Sir Christopher wren. He reconstructed pudding lane where in the royal baker's house the fire was started, saint Paul church, Greenwich hospital, Kensington palace, royal hospital and Hampton court palace.
When England had war with France at that time forty merchants of London decided to open a bank. So like this in 1664 the first bank was made in London. The photo of that guard of that bank is on fifty pound's note. The times, first news paper of London started printed in 1785. On George IV got the reign of England, he started developing London on new grounds and plans. God was again very happy with London. In 1829 London metropolitan police department was started. The street lamps were used to be lighted by oil, now they were used to be lighted with gas. The omnibus service was started. The royal kingdom started spending money which they looted and were looting from their colonies. Their colonies were Canada, certain American states, West Indies, east India, New Zealand and Australia. There were many small island s which were under their control.
The first underground metropolitan was started in London but some people say that first metropolitan was started in pairs. Anyhow in London it was started in 1863 with metropolitan line. London school board was started in 1870. In 1890 Prince of Wales inaugurated the train which were run by electricity.
In 1914 First World War started and which was ended in 1918. In First World War 2632 Londoners lost their lives.
In 1936 the Second World War started and it ended in 1945. Thirty thousand Londoner died during air raids and nearly fifty thousand were injured. Lots of buildings were damages especially Westminster abbey and the house of parliament.
In 1940 Winston Churchill became the prime minister of England. The first Olympic Games were held in London in 1948. After George VI's death Elizabeth II became the queen of England in 1952. The London Bridge was built in 1970. From 1970 to until now the marvellous thing which has been constructed is English Channel. It was opened in 1994 for the public.
During all these calamities, London became cosmopolitan city. People from all around the world started living in London. Everyone selected separate area. For example in Aldgate east is famous for Bengali population, Ealing and south hall are famous for Sikhs inhabitants, barking, Ilford, Romford area's Pakistanis population is increasing. Anyway Asian population is increasing in London very fast. Two areas are very famous for this Green Street and south hall and in Brixton and Notting hill gate you will find lot of West Indian population. In centre of London you will find French, Greece and Jews a lot. From last many years Australians, new Zealanders and South African started coming to London as well. The London is very popular city all around the world, even people from European Union countries prefer to come to London to find jobs.
In 1540 all Indian seaport were occupied by Portuguese. Dutch and French followed their track and came to India. The last people who came to India for business purpose were English. They came as merchants especially for spices. It's famous in indo-pak subcontinent that they came to ask for match stick and became the owner of the house.
English had, divide and rule system. They applied the same law in India. The mughal kings gave them lots of relaxations for trade among other merchants. The mughal kings didn't know this that one day they will be bound to beg in front of these goras. These goras not even took relaxations for trade but they asked mughal kings to increase taxes and recoveries for other traders like French and Dutch. So that's how English had monopoly in trade and business in India. The foundation stone of east India Company was laid in 1614 in Aldgate east area of London. From there they started their trade with India and their main office was in Bombay. West Indies Company was already working successfully. In the beginning they started the business of spices and there were some other goods as well. With the passage of time their position was getting strong in India. They invented and fabricated so many excuses to get relaxations for trades and behind the curtain they were increasing their brigade in India. Indian has seen Muslim rule for nearly thousand years. Hindus helped goras to get rid of Muslims and so they conspirated against Muslims.
Mughal king Aurangzeb Alamgir died in 1707 and his inheritors lost Bangladesh. The nabob of Bangladesh was siraj-ud-doula. He was defeated by Lord Clive in the battle of Plessey in 1785. History tells us that siraj ud doula's nephew betrayed him but in fact behind this conspiracy there were Indian merchants and omi chand was leading them. Lord Clive not even defeated siraj ud doula but he defeated Dupleix who was nominated governor for Bangladesh from French government. This was first and greatest victory of goras in Indian land. British Empire was spreading in India and Hindus were helping them but they didn't know that they will get rid of Muslim's slavery and they will become slaves of goras. They won't be independent. Even India wasn't native land of Hindus. They were Aryans. The real natives of India were Dravidians, Who were Tamil, telego, Malayalam, Kanada and Bengali. They were and are real Indian people.
Until 1845 goras conquer India from Bangladesh to Sind. Punjab was under Sikhs rule. Sikhs were defeated by goras in 1848. Kohinoor diamond which was stolen from irani takh-e-taos (the peacock throne) became the part of Maharaja Ranjit Singh's crown. When Sikhs were defeated than this world's most expensive diamond became the part of Westminster's royal coronet. In the war of independence, which is called by English historians the war of mutiny or war of sapoys in 1857 they conquered whole India. The founder of British raj in India was Lord Clive. He couldn't even imagine of it that the battle of palasay's victory will played important role in conquering whole India. Today if you go to Berkley squire. You will see a blue plate outside his house, engraved his name "lord Clive".
Soho has same importance in London what Pigalle has in Paris, Ripaban, Saintpoli has in Hamburg and red light area has in Amsterdam.
Soho was plentiful of huts in 16th century. In the 16th religiously harassed people came to London from France and settled in Soho area. Greeks came in this area in 1677 and the last immigrants in this area were Italians. The most important roads of Soho are old Compton road, which passes through Moor Street, Warder Street, Greek street, frith street, Deans Street, and Compton road. Further down old Compton road becomes charring cross road.
All around Soho there are busy bazaars and streets like regent street, Oxford Street, Shaftesbury Avenue and charring cross road. Charring cross road is famous for book shops. There some famous book shops which are Waterston, Blackwell and Dillon's. The biggest book store of Europe is on this road as well and it's called Foyle's. Other than that there are many old book stores on this road. You can't find bouquiniste like Paris. If you are walking along the seine river, you will find many bouquiniste along the road.
There are two famous stores on Oxford Street, Selfridges and john Lewis partnership. Then there is Debenhams, CandA, mad house superstore. The very English superstore the marks and Spencer's branch exists on this road as well. Right at the corner of oxford and regent streets there is store called top man. In regents street most of the stores are of designer clothes.
Shaftesbury Avenue in London is famous for theatres and discotheques. There is palace theatre on this road that is showing les miserable from last many years. If you keep on walking on charring cross road, adjacent to this road there is another road called west road. On this road there is theatre they are showing Agatha Christie's play the mouse trap from last forty five years. In Deans Street the greatest economist Karl Marx stayed. He completed some of his book Das Kapital in this house which is in Deans Street and some of it in British museum library's reading room. Old Compton road was famous for French philosophers. Paul Verlaine and Arthur Rimbaud, these both French poets used to stay on this road. Warder Street is famous for film industry. Lot of film makers offices are here. Soho is famous because of red light area but Brewer Street is the right place for red light area. Why it's called red light area. When you enter in this street, if you look upward, you will find many sign board written model. If this red light is blinking it means the woman is available. If it's not blinking, it means no vacancy. If this street there are two and three story flats. When you enter inside, at certain doors its written don't ring the bell it's not the model's flat. It's same like Lahore's red light area which is called Hera mandi (diamond's market). If you go there, you will find lots of houses have the sign board "khabardar yeh sharifon ghar hay" (be careful this is house of respectable family). When you enter in Brewer Street, you will find many signboards of model especially at night. Streets like these you will find in every major city of Europe but in Italy they don't exist. It doesn't mean in Italy there aren't prostitutes. In Italy they wait for their customers on the road.
At the back of Shaftesbury Avenue there is Gerard Street, which is famous for china town. You will find many Chinese restaurants in this area. Chinese food shops, handicraft shops. When you will enter in this street, you will feel that you are in little china.
The famous theatre of Soho are globe, Garrick, ambassadors, Apollo, Shaftesbury, queens, prince Edward, phoenix, palace, lyric, wyndham and saint martin. The renowned discotheques of Soho are limelight, wag, Ronnie Scots, madam jojo, gossips, borderline, la2 (gay club) and Astoria. The restaurants and bars of Soho have their own style. Maison bertaux, bar Italia, Algerian coffee, French house, bar Solona, Govinda, Pollo shop, left hand shop. There are many bookshops of transvestites, queens and gays. You can find their books and dresses, outfits over here.
Sir Syed Ahmad khan was the first Hindustani who came to England for just for visit. His son got the scholarship to study England in 1869, at that time he came with his son. He spent nearly one year in London. During his stay he studied English newspapers and magazines thoroughly. Two magazines impressed him, which were tattler of Sir Richard steel and spectator of Joseph Addison. He was that much bemused of these magazines that he started a magazine like this in India when he came back and it was called tehzeeb-ul-ikhlaque (etiquettes of manner). For this magazine highly learned people like allama shibli nawmani, maulana altaf Hussein hali, maulana Mohammad Ali johar, maulana shaukat Ali and Muhammad Hussein azad translated essays and articles. For example, Muhammad Hussein azad translated an essay which was called the man who wants to get rid of his burdens. His title was "insan kisi hal main khush nahin rehta (we aren't happy in any condition).
The other renowned personality who came to England from India was syed Amir Ali. After finishing school he got admission in English's sponsor college in Calcutta. He completed his graduation from there in 1867. He was the first Muslim of indo-pak subcontinent who did graduation. In 1868 he got the degree of law and history. Then he got the scholarship and came to England for further studies. After completing education he joined London inner temple. He became the president of all India Muslim league of London branch in 1908. In 1910 he laid the foundation stone of first mosque in London. He was the first Indian who became law lord and sat in Privy Council.
Syed Amir Ali's book the spirit of Islam has been translated into many languages. Other than that he has written a short history of Saracens. He has written a book on law which is called mohammadan law. He died on 30 august 1928 and he is buried in Essex.
The efforts of these people and inclination towards English education, the Muslims of India started thinking about studying and learning English language. Maulana Muhammad Ali johar, allama iqbal, chaudary rehmat Ali, liaquat Ali khan and Muhammad Ali Jinnah type of people became famous among Muslims of India. All of them went to study in England and played important role in independence of Muslims of India. There effort became fruitful and on 14th august 1947 an independent Islamic country Pakistan came into being. Pakistani Muslim continued studying in England after the partition. Here are some example, ghulam Muhammad, sikandar mirza, ayub khan, yehyah khan, zulfiquar ali Bhutto, Muhammad khan junejo, ghulam Mustafa jatoe, Benazir Bhutto and faroque laghari, they have completed their education in England.
In the past those people used to go to England for higher studies, one were those who were rich and other were those who had scholarship for higher studies but today anyone can go if he can afford.
English people gave us independence in 1947 but our general and politician who took their training in England or studied there they followed the same rules which were applied by goras during slavery. They are not even five percent of our total population and these five percent people have the reins of ninety-nine people of Pakistani's fate. In a way we got rid of goras slavery and we had these dark colour goras slavery. Our religious leaders who are against English culture and white people and they criticize their liberalism either its woman liberalism or its religious liberalism. Their kids go to America or England for higher studies. Their kids don't even know what illegal immigrant is. Is it some kind of bird? Once someone asked the senate's chairman wasim sajjad son's that what your future is. He indicated that man, can you see the building of parliament house. This is my future. If someone sees him as senate's chairman or president of Pakistan, one should be traumatized or shocked.
The friendship between Adam and allahyar khan was becoming strong. They shared their secrets each other. Adam told him straight away that he is illegal immigrant but allahyar khan has different story.
Allahyar khan's parent wanted that he should marry in Pakistan with some Pakistani girl. So like this allahyar khan will be connected with Pakistani culture and civilisation. He will remember his norms and traditions. Allahyar was beautiful, handsome and educated person. He was able to read and write Urdu as well other than English. He was little bit philanderer. He never mentioned anyone about his affair and things like these. Out of the blue he met with Spanish girl. Cupid's arrow hit his heart and injured him. As everyone knows that Cupid is blind so he didn't know that both of them have different religion, country, creed and clan.
They were madly in love among each other, they forgot about everything around them. Adam tried you to convince allahyar khan with concrete fact but he was madly in love with that Spanish girl. Both of them were free. There were not under any obligation. There was restriction on them to travel from place to another, from one country to another. According to British law his parents were not allowed to stop him and Maria Andria de buonca's parents were not allowed to stop her according to Spanish law. Maria came to London with great desires to marry allahyar in the court and allahyar did the same thing many times he has been to Segovia just to sort out the situation but whenever they tried some hurdle came in their way. Whenever allahyar khan has been to Spanish city Segovia, Maria's mother went all the way long to Madrid to find halal (slaughter according to Islam law) meat for allahyar khan, This only because he was her daughters lover. As a matter of fact Segovia was hundred kilometre far from Madrid. In front of her daughter's love, this distance was very small. She knew that they can't live without each other.
Maria wasn't like other European girls, who make boyfriends and change them frequently, when they feel that they are getting old they find someone and marry. Right from the very beginning she was looking for someone very trustworthy and dependable person. Maria and allahyar tried to live together but there wasn't any solution so Maria took the step and she decided to stay from allahyar. Allahyar tried his level best to keep his relationship but allahyar's culture and religion was the greatest obstacle. Allahyar was modern Romeo, so he used to see all those benches and phone boxes where they used to sit and phone, where they swore to live together forever. So allahyar tried last time and went to Segovia to sort out his love affair but she refused to see him. He went to visit her on all tapas bars where they used to sit and Maria used to come to these tapas bars with her friends. So allahyar couldn't see Maria even though she was in Segovia and he came back to London with broken heart. I wish if cupid would have eyes, he would have been able to see. That allahyar khan is Muslim and unfortunately he is British citizen and he wasn't born Muslim and in England with his own will and Maria is Spanish and Christian and she wasn't born in Segovia in Christian family with her own will.
Anyway allahyar came to London and he tried to forget her. He wasn't happy in London so he thought he should go to her parents and stay with them and he did what he thought. He went to Bradford but whenever he has been to London he came to see Adam as well. On the other hand Adam's love story was based on imaginations. It didn't exist physically. Nadia behram kharal belonged to rich family and there was age difference as well and they were very far from each other. There was a lot of age difference. During his four years stay in Europe he phoned her only on her birthdays. He had to disconnect whenever her dad came because Nadia wasn't allowed to speak with someone in her father's presence.
Where Adam was working at that chicken shop there was another Pakistani. In the beginning he kept distance and he tried to avoid Adam as much as he could but slowly they started knowing each other and finally they became close friend. Abulkalam Bajwa belonged to backward area of Lahore and after completing matriculation he decided to leave Pakistan because his family's financial condition wasn't very good. The speciality of bajwa was that that he was the first person who wasn't landlord and rich. He told him that he came to Europe for the betterment of his family and for his life too. Bajwa and Adam had nearly same story. Bajwa left Pakistan because of his poverty and Adam left Pakistan because he was unable to find and decide his destination.
It was very difficult for Adam to come to Fulham Broadway from Hounslow west. He used to mention his problem to bajwa so he gave him option that he can come and stay with them. He said, "Why don't you come and stay with us. You pay them rent and you pay rent to us, what's the difference. Wimbledon isn't very far from Fulham Broadway". So took his belongings and moved at Bajwa's house. All of them accepted him warmheartedly. The environment of this house was entirely different from Sufi sattar's house. Most of the guys were living in London on student visa. They were studying different things. One of them was studying accountancy; one of them was doing F.R.C.S. (fellow of royal college of surgeon). Some of them were studying law. Everyone was busy in his life. This was the first time that Adam was seeing this kind of atmosphere and milieu in Europe. Most of them used to do cabing at night till late and in the evening used to attend their classes like this they were not burden for their family and they were living on their own. Some of them were supporting their family as well. None of them were from village. Two of them from Peshawar, two of them were from Karachi and bajwa was from Lahore and Adam was the only person who was from Rawalpindi. Adam started thinking about when he was in college. He started thinking when he used to sit on Anwar café and driver's hotel. It seemed like yesterday. Adam used to have good time with these guys. They used to talk about poetry, literature and about different parts of Pakistan. They used to go to watch films together. Now his life was full of hilarity and glee. He was floating in dreams.
Iran, turkey, Yunnan, Italy, France and now he was in England's capitol London. He met everywhere with different kind of people. In fact they weren't different; it was him who was entirely revolutionized.
The speciality of London was that that over here there was no system of checking documents. It was used to be like that in other European countries, when he has seen some police man he had to hide himself. He used to be baffled to see them. In London it was different. He never felt like that, police passed many times close to him but he didn't care.
Adam knew that much law that the British police won't touch him until he break the law or he will do some crime. In other European countries it isn't like that. Their police have permission and right to check your documents either they suspect or not but in England it wasn't allowed. He knew so many people in London who were living here as illegal immigrants from last ten years but they never faced any awkward situation.
Abulkalam bajwa, Amir sharanpuri, rizwan sheikh, nadeem kazmi, Wahid shirazi, and Adam khan chughtai were living in Wimbledon like they were living in some alley way of Pakistan.
Adam used to tell his travel adventures and they used to feel very strange because accept bajwa all of them on student visa. When he told them that he was in final year of philosophy and he decided to come to Europe by illegal means. Although, it would have been very easy for him to find student visa of England or Canada and he could have been living here with legal document and in respectable manners. The strangest over here was that that nobody asked him, "picho kithay day o" (where you from).
Amir Sharanpuri was cleaning his car with lot of care. He was cleaning everything. Seat covers, mats, handles, doors and whatever he has seen dirty. Nobody knew where he was going. The story was like that he gave an advertisement in Jung London's newspaper to find compatible match for him. Lots of people phoned him. Somebody refused him because of cast and clan, somebody refused him because of student visa and somebody criticizes his height and complexion. Today he was visiting some family; they were interested to see him. So he was going there bardikhawa or bardikhlawa (it's a custom that the parents of girl wants to see groom before marriage, it's only in arrange marriages). They didn't ask him any question so he was happy that his situation will be sorted out. On the other hand his other companions were not willing to stay in London on permanent basis. It was only him, Amir Sharanpuri. Rizwan sheikh wanted to go back to Karachi, nadeem kazmi and Wahid shirazi had the same desires.
Nadeem shirazi was in funny mode, "I have heard that Amir is going to see some girl".
Bajwa said, "Yar tuhanon ki" (what is your problem).
Rizwan, "bajwa bhae, we don't understand your Punjabi even if we do understand, we are unable to speak".
Wahid threw some oil on the fire, "just imagine how he will be look like this Shorty as groom"?
Amir started cursing and abusing everyone. Adam intervened in matter and said, "Amir are you taking someone with you or you are going on your own".
Amir responded him, "oh my god, I didn't realise. Why don't you come with me? Two are better than one. I will have some courage as well".
Adam was reluctant to go there. He said, "What should I do over there. If I will say something wrong, I will ruin everything".
Amir said in way that he was forcing him. "It doesn't matter. I don't want to take none of these. They will mess up everything not you".
Now it was nearly impossible to say no so he said, "Okay I will go with you but when"?
Amir said contentedly and gleefully, "this evening, it's your day off as well".
Bajwa teased him, "no no, today there is Chelsea's football match. He has to go for work. There will be a lot of mess".
Amir started running behind bajwa and he had sponge in his hand. He was running and cursing him as well.
Kazmi said in loud voice, "you know the girl's parent will ask you to sit in tub all naked, just to check you either there is some leakage or not. If they will see some bubbles. You know what I mean".
Amir tried to clarify his situation, "I haven't anything like this that the bubbles will come out. These things happens in your area not in our side"
Kazmi responded. He said, "My dear it's not the question of area. It's a condition, when time comes, anyone does this".
Rizwan wanted to flare him up, "it's the matter of taste. Anyway people haven't got that bad taste".
Wahid re-entered in conversation and said, "Oh! You people don't about this matter, there are many people who don't give a shit that what sort of is"?
Bajwa said, "There must have been but not that much".
Adam pulled his leg in a very delicate style, "what's wrong with you people, this is his personal matter. Anyway it's an art, even fine art. We are living in such a country where these things aren't matter of shame. It's a democratic country. Everyone has his own life".
After hearing this Amir was feeling better. He addressed Adam and said, "Adam bhae, what are you talking about. You are convincing these people. They won't be able to understand".
Adam wanted to change the topic so he said, "anyway Amir Bhae, where and when we have to go"?
Amir's moral was little bit higher. He said, "today at seven 'o' clock in the evening. They have invited us for tea. We have to go to Walthamstow".
Adam nodded in yes and said, "Okay, but what about outfit, any dress codes".
Amir said, "The way you want. Anyway you have been to whole Europe. You know better than me. What should one's wears at these types of occasions".
Adam said, "I know but today you should be looking good and better than me. They will see you and it's the matter of your future".
Amir praised him and said, "These are the things I like in your personality. You are the first person I have ever met from Rawalpindi who is intelligent otherwise most of them are phaphay (brother but means duffer)". Adam said, "And phaphay niray siyapay hotay hein" (and these phaphay are mostly piss taker).
Amir asked him astonishingly, "what are niray siyapay"?
Adam responded him laughingly, "you won't be able to understand"