Kitchen Hygiene

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This article is useful to all chefs for good correct kitchen practices and hygiene will help us to produce healthy food to our customers.

Submitted: August 19, 2016

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Submitted: August 19, 2016

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HYGIENE


KITCHEN HYGIENE


Good correct kitchen practices and hygiene will help us to produce healthy
food to our customers. The meaning of healthy food is that food is not
contaminated with food poison bacteria.


CLEANLINESS 

The chef’s main responsibilities in the area of maintenance to ensure that the
kitchen is clean and working in order and to prevent food poisoning, so good
reasons exist for keeping the kitchen clean. Danger and cost effective. Dirt
in cookers and cooker hoods, for example, reduce heat efficiency and raises
fuel cost. Food in hotels and restaurants is a source of pleasure as well a
biological necessity. Dirt, decay and bad smells are danger in kitchens
because it can cause illness to a very large number of people. If the head
chef is too busy too oversee the kitchen is clean and all equipment is in order
a Sous-Chef and the head kitchen porter should see and ensure that
necessary jobs are done quickly as possible. 


Cleaning Routines 

Cleaning routines should be planned and scheduled. This will include
cleaning the kitchen facilities [floors, cupboards, working tops, and cooking
equipment]. Cleaning should be carried out in a regular order and at regular
times. Routine washing down and other cleaning should not be done during
food preparation times. So schedules must be flexible enough that
unexpected spills and other incidents can be handled without delay. For
good results train menbers of the staff the benefits of cleaning.


1 Attractive work environment
2 less chance of food poisoning
3 Customer satisfaction
4 less chance of prosecution
5 Increase profits
6 Job secure and earn more money on overtime and bonuses 


DOCUMENTATION 

Records help the head chef what needs to be done and the best time to do it.
All records must be kept in a file so when needed allows the supervisor and
managers to check ongoing progress and the principles have been correctly
applied. Therefore documentation has significance; regular recording helps
to check the system is successfully working.

CHEMICAL CLEANING 

BACTERICIDE === destroys bacteria
DETURGENT === removes grease and dirt assists action of disinfection
DISINFECTANT ==reduces micro organisms
SANITZER ======chemical that both cleans and disinfects
STERILIZER ==== destroys all living organisms 


PROCEDURES METHODS OF CLEANING 

SIX STAGES OF CLEANING 

1 PRE- CLEANING
2 MAIN CLEAN
3 RINSE
4 DISINFECTION
5 FINAL RINSE
6 DRYING 


DOUBLE SINK WASHING 

SCRAPE CLEAN.

MAIN WASH- HOT WATER 55°c detergent, and brush.
DISINFECTANT RINSE-HOT WATER 82°c chemical disinfectant.
AIR DRY.
MECHANICAL DISHWASHING PROCEDURE
REMOVE EXCESS FOOD.
PACK ITEMS IN OPERATE THE WASH CYCLE AT 49 TO 60°c
353
OPERATE THE RINSE CYCLE AT 82 TO 88°c.
REMOVE THE RACKS AND ALLOW TO AIR DRY.
HAZARDOUS PRODUCTS
CHEMICALS SHOULD NEVER BE TRANSFERRED INTO
UNMARKED CONTAINERS.
LIDS SHOULD BE FIRMLY SCREWED ON AND SEALED.
THERE SHOULD BE NO CONTACT WITH CONCENTRATED
PRODUCTS.
PROTECIVE APPROPIATE CLOTHING SHOULD BE WORM.
CLOTHING SHOULD NOT BE CONTAMINATED BY CHEMICALS.


PERSONAL HYGIENE 

The largest contaminator of food is the food handler via their hands. 15 per
cent of food handlers will have, STAPHYLOCCOUS AUREUS on their
hands, in addition to any pathogenic bacteria that they have picked up from
handling new food.


PERSONAL APPEARANCE 

They should bath or shower before starting work.
Protective clothing is worm at all times.
Outdoor clothing is neatly stored away.
No jewelry is worm in a food area.
Fingernails are kept short with no nail varnish.
They do not cough or sneeze on the food.
All wounds are covered.
No Smoking in any food areas.
Report any illness before starting work.
They wash their hands before entering the food area and before touching any
food.


Staff selection

Ask if ever suffered from food poisoning in the last 2 months.
Have been on any foreign travel.
Assess the person for good personal hygiene.
Ask if ever had a basic course in hygiene.


EXCLUSION OF FOOD HANDLERS 


Food handlers with food poisoning symptom i.e. should be excluded from
any job, which would expose food to risk of contamination.
Persons found to have the food poisoning organisms must not be allowed to
engage food in food handling, until 48 hours free of any symptom signs.
When you visit a doctor with any complaints, tell him you are a food
handler.

STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS ENTERS FOOD BY
SNEEZING AND COUGHING.
NOSE PICKING.
HANDLING FOOD WHEN YOU HAVE A SEPTIC CUT.
SMOKING.
SCRATCHING YOUR HEAD.

REMEMBER 

Careless food handling is one of the causes of bacterial contamination.
Bacteria being transferred from hands, mouth and nose or from cuts,
scratches or boils.
N.B. Bacteria can collect under fingernails. Use a clean nylon nailbrush to
clean them. Nail varnish may flake off and contaminate food.


COST AFFECTIVE HYGIENE

The benefits of good food hygiene 

CUSTOMER SATISFACTION
COMPLIANCE WITH THE LAW
INCREASED SHELF LIFE OF FOOD
GOOD WORKING CONDITIONS
GOOD STAFF MORALE
LOW STAFF TURNOVER
LESS CHANCE OF FOOD POISONING 


HIGH RISK FOODS are foods, which all have a high protein content, and
are intended for consumption without further cooking.

Cooked meat and poultry
Meat products e.g. gravy and stock
Dairy products
Egg dishes
Fish and shellfish
Cooked rice 


CONTRIBUTING FACTORS FOR FOOD POISONING 

Preparation of food too far in advance.
Inadequate cooling.
Inadequate reheating.
Undercooking.
Contaminated canned food.
Inadequate thawing.
Cross-contamination.
Raw food consumed.
Improper warm holding
Infected food handlers
Use of left-overs.
Extra large of food quantities prepared.


MICROBIOLOGY 

Bacteria are single celled organisms found every where, they measure only
1/ 1000mm so can be seen under a nicroscope.


APPEARANCE OF BACTERIA UNDER A MICROSCOPE 

*COCCI SPHERICAL SHAPE
*BACILLI ROD SHAPE
*VIBRIOS COMMA SHAPE
TEMPERATURE


*Pathogenic bacteria are generally known to grow between 5-63°c

*KNOWN AS DANGER ZONE 

*The best temperature for growth is 37°c 

*Listeria found in soft cheese can grow down to 1°c 


BACTERIAL FOOD POISONING, MAIN SOURCES AND
SYMPTOMS 

SALMONELLA
80-90% OF ALL FOOD POISONING
FROM EGGS, POULTRY AND HUMANS AND ALSO FOUND ON
DOMESTIC PETS.
SYMPTOMS; DIARRHOEA, VOMTING, STOMACH PAIN, HIGH
FEVER.


CLOSTRIDIUM PERFRINGENS
AVERAGE OF I000 CASES A YEAR
FROM SOIL, INSECTS, ANIMAL INTESTINES, AND RAW MEAT
REQUIRES PROPER COOKING OF STEW, GRAVIES AND LARGE
JOINTS OF MEAT
TRANSMITTED BY HANDS, EQUIPMENT AND CLOTHS.
SYMPTOMS; DIARRHOEA, VOMTING IS NOT COMMON, STOMACH
PAIN.


STAPHLOCOCCUS AUREUS
FROM HANDS, NOSE, THROAT, EARS, SKIN AND HAIR
LAST FOR 7 HOURS BUT GIVES SEVERE VOMTING
CAUSED BY POOR HANDLIG OF HIGH PROTEIN FOODS
GOOD PERSONAL HYGIENE AND TEMPERATURE CONTROL.


BACILLUS CEREUS
RARE, COMES FROM RICE, STARCHES, CEREALS, DUST AND
SPICES CAUSED BY POOR STORAGE AND CLEANLINESS OF GOODS
NEEDS CORRECT STORAGE, COOKING AND REHEATING.
SYMPTOMS; MAINLY VOMTING, DIARRHOEA.


VIBRIO PARAHAEMOLYTICUS
FROM SEAFOOD AND SHELLFISH
LASTS 1-7 DAYS
CAUSED BY UNDER COOKING OF SHELLFISH
AVOID CROSS-CONTAMINATION.


ESCHERICHIA COLI
FROM HUMAN SEWAGE WATER AND RAW MEAT
LASTS 1-5 DAYS CAUSED BY CROSS-CONTAMINATION AND SEWAGE WATERS AS
A DRINKING SUPPLY
HIGH STANDARDS OF PERSONAL HYGIENE ARE NEEDED.

 

CLOSTRIDUM BOTULINUM 

FROM ANINMAL AND FISH INTESTINES, SOIL AND SEDIMENT
CAUSED BY POORLY CANNED GOODS
NOT TO USE BLOWN OR DAMAGED CANS
SOURCE AND PREVENTIONS 


HANDS; Regular washing with bacterial soup.
BODY; Good personal hygiene.


CHOPPING BOARD; Separate boards, colour coded and easy to clean.

STORAGE; Separate raw foods from cooked food.

AIRBORNE; Covering food.

UTENSILS; Separate and kept clean.

PREPARATION SURFACE; Suitable material and use of sanitizer.

REFUSE AREA; Cleaned regularly and washing of hands after use.


CHEF`S CLOTH; Only use for handling hot dishes.

OPERATING TEMPERATURES 

The two main types of preservation are used.
REFRIGERATION, USUALLY 1-4 DEGREES CELSUIS.
FREEZING, USUALLY -18 DEGREES CELSUIS.
MONITORING TEMPERATURES 2 OR 3 TIMES DAILY RECORDED
AND KEPT. 


STORAGE OF FROZEN FOODS 

Manufactured foods will be frozen below –23°c
Food must be frozen fast.
Distribution vehicles should be refrigerated below –18°c
Loading and unloading should be as short as possible.


STORAGE TIME,

VEGETABLES AND MOST OF MEATS UP TO 12 MONTHS.

PORK, SAUSAGES, FISH, BUTTER AND SOFT CHEESE UP TO SIX
MONTHS.

PRESERVATION BY THE USE OF HIGH TEMERATURES 

PASTEURIZATION; Is the treatment of the food for sufficient time to kill
off the pathogenic bacteria but not the spores or toxins. Generally 72°c for
15 seconds [MILK] heat kills pathogens and bacteria.

STERILIZATION; The food is heated for sufficient time to kill off all viable
organisms, generally 121°c for 3 minutes [ FOOD ]. HEAT kills all spoilage
bacteria, pathogens and their spores.
ULTRA HIGH TREATMENT; Used for the production of long life milk,
generally 132°c for 1-2 seconds. UHT MILK will keep for several months
without being refrigerated.


PEST CONTROL
Pests are any organism, which is detriment to humans, their activities or
their environment.
REASONS FOR PEST CONTROL
Prevention of contamination and food wastes.
Damage to the building.
Prevention of disease.
METHODS OF CONTROL
Good prevention of entry into the building.
Removal of harborage materials near or around the building.
Good housekeeping to ensure no food is left out.
Do not leave kitchen waste uncovered in the out side bins.
Maintain a high standard of general cleaning.
Regular checks all food storage areas.
The removal of any water supply.

RODENTS
Rats or mice can enter to the building from a small hole not bigger than a
diameter of a pencil. Once enter in the building is difficult to get rid of them
because of their high rate of breeding. Rats and mice carry bacteria on their
fur and feet, in their droppings and urine. Brown rats normally found in
sewer drains, rubbish, soil, and food stores. Black rats found in ships and
warehouse ports. Mouse in buildings. High standard of hygiene and food
protection makes live less easy for rats and mice.


INSECTS
The housefly can lay 600 eggs during her life span; the life depends upon the
temperature but normally two weeks in warm weather. So there are reasons
for control not to enter in our premises. CROSS CONTAMINATION. Flyscreens
on windows and doors help us to keep flies out. Never use
insecticide sprays in a food area. Place ultra-violet tube lighting equipment
and then kills insects that make contact. The dead fly or insect falls into a
tray and careful cleaning the tray is necessary when the kitchen stops from
production.

OPERATING TEMPERATURES
TARGETS
Action Level 

CHILLERS
These should operate between 0-4°c Above 8°c
Meat chillers between -1 to +1°c Above 5°c 

FREEZERS
Freezers should operate below -18 degrees Celsius Above –15°c
Ice-cream conservators should operate at
-12°c [for maximum one week storage only] Above-15°c 

CHILLED DISPLAY UNITS
These should operate below 5°c above 5°c
Where food is displayed over 5°c above 5°c
After for 4 hours it must be discarded 

HOT FOOD DISPLAYS
Hot food temperature to be held above 65°c. Below 63°c
Hot holding units to operate at 70°c Below 63°c

COOKING AND REHEATING
All hot food must be cooked at 72°c for 2 minutes.
All reheated food must reach 75°c minimum,[in Scotland 82 degrees
Celsius].

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Hygiene is a set of practices performed for the preservation of health

One of the trends we’re seeing in food and agriculture is more and more consumers wanting to know things about their food and where and how it’s grown and what’s in it. 

Food safety has universal appeal.  We are all consumers; we all want safe food. 

Head Chef  Nazzareno Casha Says If the divine creator has taken pains to give us delicious and exquisite things to eat, the least we can do is prepare them well.

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© Copyright 2017 Nazzareno casha. All rights reserved.

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