Nart Characters

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Status: In Progress  |  Genre: Historical Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic

Submitted: September 30, 2016

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Submitted: September 30, 2016

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Part 2: Nart Characters

 

The Narts are a group of heroes that are larger than life. Each Nart character encloses distinctive attributes, and each personality represents a segment from the Nart sagas overall spirit and stanza. They are remarkable historical icons that enclose impressive attributes and powerful physiques. They divide between humans, gods, demigods, giants, and pygmies, in addition to animals, mermaids, and birds, amongst several other creatures that embody the impetus of the Nart sagas. Over 20 Narts characters effectively partake in the sagas, who are mostly flamboyant knights and warriors; however, there are blacksmiths, musicians, innovators, sorcerers, clairvoyants, astronomers, hunters, and cultivators, all to which practice their occupation with passion and diligence, depicting both good and evil. Names of the Nart characters usually personify a physical attribute, an occurrence, a circumstance during birth or childhood, or adherence to parents.  For example, Sos-riqwe was born from a rock, thus his name is literally “the son of rock,” Lhe-psch: the prince of vigor, Zchindu-Zchach’e: owl-beard, Badin-oqwe: son of Badin, Asche-mez: weapon carrier, Se-ten-ey: the sword giver, Pse-tine: the soul giver, Adiyiwx: white-arm, and so forth.

Due to olden interactions with ancient Greece, some Nart names developed a Greek tenor such as Nart Alej, Nart Lhebitsa, and Nart Yustin or Yostok (referring to Emperor Justinian I, whom the Circassians highly admired and venerated upon adopting the Christian faith) (Nogmow [S], 1861, p.11).

Some Narts started their lives as humans and later developed into gods, others enclose both divine and human qualities. Some are able to convert into animals, and transform into various shapes and elements such as dust.

Although the Narts are mortals in a sense that they experienced death, nevertheless, simultaneously there are immortality and resurrection features in their disposition. They further share attributes with Greco-Roman and Germanic mythological characters, and correspond to a number of biblical characters.

Ultimately, the Narts are heroic, energetic, erudite, and extravagantly audacious; each personality represents a universe of notions, aspirations, and distinct qualities that explore the early creation of the Circassian temperament and culture.

The following characters are selected according to their frequent appearance and significance in the overall Nart saga anthology.  The remaining characters include:

Nart Bedinoqwe, Nart Sos, Nart Yergwen, Nart Yimish, Nart Shibilshiy, Nart Sosem, Nart Arqshu, Nart Albech, Nart X’imisch, Nart Negwre, Nart Ozermej, Nart Zchindu-Zchach’e, Nart Zchilex’sten, Nart Gwegwezch, Nart Peniqwe, Nart Pscheai, Nart Yerischiqwe, Nart Mejaje, Nart Ashe.

Other female characters include:

Daxenaghwe (Beautiful Eyed), Schhefits’e (Black-haired), Axumid (the one like no other), Werser, Adif, Bidixw, and Birimbix’w

 

Sosriqwe:  (Eastern Circassian dialect), also known as;  Saosiriqo, Sousiriqo, Sosriqo (West Circassian dialect)

Sosriqwe is the primary character in Nart sagas, enclosing qualities that portray him as a paranormal being closer that being of a god. He is also known as Sausiriqo, Sausiriqwe, Sauseriqo, Sosriqo, or Sausiriq his name varying from one Circassian tribe accent to the other. The appearance of Sosriqwe seems to have appeared in the developed stages of the sagas, representing an epoch of modernization (Ozbek, 1988, p. 132) and a form of religious credence. Sosriqwe is the youngest of all Narts and is distinct in terms of his physical appearance from that of the Narts. His body was metallurgic, and some sagas report that Sosriqwe was darker in color and smaller in stature. These attributes possibly link Sosriqwe’s birth with a new era the Narts entered upon, denoting their integration with other nations and peoples.

He also grew very rapidly, signifying the consciousness of time, and his birth was revolutionary; born from a rock, he emerged hot as fire and turned into iron after being dipped in water, which may denote the shift from the Stone Age era to the Iron Age era. Simultaneously, he is also reported to have been born naturally from Seteney’s womb, after she joined with the Narts shepherd Sos. Nonetheless, Sosriqwe’s curious origin and birth ingredients suggest that he could be the product of an ore or a meteor, referring to a comparison between Sosriqwe and the significance of iron to earth. He is the "light" and the "golden shield" of the Narts, just like the sun brings color to landscape, Sosriqwe introduced the Narts to different dimensions such as iron, wine, and fire, and characterized by being the bravest and strongest.

The heroic attributes that Sosriqwe enclose, were at large due to his unequaled boldness, not owed to his clannish lineage, which was an important feature of a Narts overall allure and honor.

Sosriqwe's unusual birth has caused much controversy and speculation. His atypical birth placed Sosriqwe as the black sheep of the Narts; his patriarchal ambiguity portrayed him as illegitimate rejected by the Nart community.

Simultaneously, Sosriqwe was depicted as a trickster character, prevailing over other Narts by employing magic, blasphemy, and ploy. Nonetheless, he was the Narts’ redeemer who served them through many great deeds, and at many times rescued them from calamities.

Portrayed as a demigod, Sosriqwe controlled the weather, obeyed by the sun, moon, thunder, and rivers. He was also able to transform himself into various shapes. Sosriqwe contained a distinct attribute that eventually caused his death in one of the sagas, i.e. his vulnerable knees.

Until the recent past, the Circassians highly venerated Sosriqwe; he was a character most cherished, his stories were most favored, and attributes most admired. Once his name was pronounced in gatherings, people used to stand in reverence for his memory and heroism.

 

*Sosriqwe shares common attributes with Germanic Siegfried, Greek Achilles, and his birth with the birth of Christ and Egyptian Horus. 

 

Psetine/Seteney-guasche (East Circassian dialect). Also known as -Setenaiy-guasch (West Circassian dialect)

Literally meaning 'the soul giver' or 'life giving', Psetine infrequently appeared in the original Nart sagas. She may be the sister or an older version of the main Nart sagas’ fertility goddess, Lady Seteney, literally, the sword giver.

Seteney is reported to have been born from a flower, and is she is fundamentally the mother of all Narts. She appeared as the Narts leader, and raised the mightiest Nart heroes, encompassing eternal beauty and youth, and possessing magical powers aiding the Narts with her wisdom and unparalleled wit. Moreover, it was Seteney who taught Lhepsch, the God of Forge, techniques of making metallurgic tools, hence her name, the sword giver, complies with her knowledge in iron making and creation (Qumuq, 1984, p. 23).

 In one of the sagas it reported that, when the Narts refused to further obey Seteney and wished to elect a male leader instead, severe drought and calamity struck the Narts' land. This certainly certifies the matriarch dominance Seteney enjoyed, and given up upon the shift into patriarchal dominance. Essentially, she was indispensable to the Narts, as she was the symbol of stability, power, and strength embodying a pioneering version of a bygone goddess. She repeatedly appeared as the mother of Sosriqwe, sharing a close relationship with her son and helping him attain a higher rank amongst the Nart giants.

Simultaneously, she is also depicted as a sorceress associating with witchcraft and magic. She used to impede and destruct the Narts audacious journeys and conquests in favor of her son Sosriqwe to remain the leading figure amongst them.

The descriptions that specified Seteney’s disposition in the Nart sagas vastly signify to the high rank of a goddess, and even a supreme one. This may lead to the belief that Seteney’s character existed and established long before the appearance of multi-gods within the Nart sagas momentum and stanza.

The following ballad exhibits an analogue between Seteney and the sun. Such a premise may have been derived from the prehistoric global notion of the mother sun, the goddess of all, and her son Sosriqwe, sharing the similar sun venerating temperamental facets, as the “baby sun” of the supreme goddess.

Seteney's Ballads

"O whom her gown is the shade of skies

O –Seteney- whom my soul is within her heart

And my weaponry her pride."

 

"World notions are her making,

 All the beauty in the universe is her reflection.

She was the companion of our – Narts' - victories

And in our long pathways she was the comrade of our sagacious battles.

When the enemy assailed with strikes

she fought alongside with us

And when we walked through arid lands she was our guide to abundance.

She was our Sun in day and the moon in night

All those flowers you see are a token from her

They grow only for Seteney

Blossoming twice.

The lady –Seteney - appeared twice a day in her full elegance.” (Twice a day: sunrise and sun set)

*Seteney corresponds to Babylonian Ishtar, Aphrodite, Greek Thetis, and Egyptian Isis.

 

Lhepsch:

Lhepsch is simultaneously the god of vigor and metallurgy, and the blacksmith, inventor and maker of the Nart civilization. Nart Debech was the Lhepsch’s mentor who originally taught him the art of becoming a blacksmith. After reaching an old age, Debech gave up his blacksmith workshop for Lhepsch, and ever since, he became the inventor of agricultural tools often enthused from nature, such as the sickle inspired from the moon’s crescent and the rooster’s tail.

Lhepsch’s workshop is where many women gave birth; the ones who were delivering their first child were reported to have been assisted by Lhepsch, who also blessed the newborn child upon birth.

Lhepsch was tall and sturdily built; his chest was reported to be the breadth of seven hand fists. He journeyed once a year to bring knowledge back to the Narts and was the first to figure out that the world has no edge. He once convened with Lady Tree (another Nart saga figure) who gave birth to the ‘Baby Sun’, i.e. the Milky Way. Lhepsch also created weapons that missed no aim, and was considered a counselor for the Narts’ imminent matters.

Lhepsch as portrayed in the sagas was both, a human and a god. He participated as a deity in the god’s festivities, and concurrently lived among the Narts as a blacksmith. Lhepsch was also Sosriqwe’s advocate in the Nart council; he highly favored him and acted as his mentor. He also was Seteney’s counselor, whom she entrusted the most.

Lhepsch is the master designer of metallurgic tools amongst the Circassians. The sagas report that he was able to discern the technique of transforming liquid into iron (with the help of Lady Seteney); which may confirm the authentic notion that the Maikop culture, the oldest civilization in Europe, was conceived in the North Caucasus rather than an inferior one (Ozbek, 1988, pp. 118-122).

It is also worthy to mention that the Circassians regarded Lhepsch as the counterpart of King David (Nogmow [S], 1861, p.11).

*Lhepsch corresponds to Greek Hephaestus, and Roman God Vulcan

 

Golden Tree: Dische Zhig

The Narts’ tree of knowledge is a tree that delivers magical apples that fundamentally sustained Seteney and the Narts with eternal youth and wisdom. The conception of this tree is it also signifies tree veneration notion that was once widely practiced among the ancient Circassians; sacred rituals, sacrifices, and dances were performed around certain trees, corresponding to the animistic belief that souls live within all elements in nature (Jaimoukha [A], 2001, p. 137-138).

The Narts tree is parallel to the Norse mythology conception of conquering immortal life by eating the golden apples cultivated by Goddess Idunn. The same concept applies to the Narts tree.

 

Peterez (West Circassian dialect), also known as Batraz (East Circassian dialect), and Beterez, or Baterez.

Peterez is the hero of the notorious saga "How Peterez freed bearded Nesern-Zhach'e, who was chained to the high mountain,” The Circassian counterpart of the Greek version where Prometheus was chained to the mountain, and the hero who was able to slay the dragon. He is also famous for slaying his father’s killer - Prince Mariqwe; Peterez is reported to have cut Mariqwe’s head, and returned it to his mother as proof of vengeance. His mother drank Mariqwe’s blood as a symbol of revenge.

By approving the west Circassian dialect, Peterez’s name literally translates to the Vanguard of Truth.

Pe: vanguard, beginning

Terez: aptness, truth, good. Terez is a loan word originating from Noghai-Tatar language. Due to historical interactions, Circassians have borrowed the term Terez into their argot. The varied accents among Circassian tribes employ different pronunciations; the Kabardian designation, as noted above, replaces the ‘B’ morpheme with ‘P’ (Hedeghel’e [A], 1968, p.63).

Peterez was regarded with high esteem among the Narts; he was courageous and enjoyed considerable influence among the giants. Although he was highly admired by many Nart women, he married an Iysip; the dwarf nation who rode rabbits (Ozbek [B], 1988, p.140).

*Peterez corresponds to Greek Hercules.

 

Adiyixw (Literally ‘White-Forearm’)

Adiyixw is a notorious character who holds a remarkable position in the Nart sagas. She is most famous for her elbow, which can glow and spread light in complete darkness, and transform night into day, and winter into summer. Her miraculous elbow is the focal point of numerous sagas that aided the Narts in their journeys and quests in the barren darkness of nights. A hill in the republic of Karachay-Cherkessia bears her name in the memory of her legendary traits and heartbreaking death, which is alleged to have taken place on that hill. Adiyixw’s lament narrates the day when her beloved fulfilled his promise of marriage, and kidnapped Adiyixw (elopement) from her village on his horseback. Along the journey, while both seated on the fast-running horse, riding through the wilderness of the forest, a creature abruptly leapt afore the speeding horse startling him to stand on his feet while plunging Adiyixw off his back to the ground to face her tragic end. The lament is heartrending recounting her beloved’s deep agony and grief over her death. The following is a segment from the ‘Adiyixw’s Lament’

 

We entwined since our childhood (in love)

O my Adiyixw

I loved you since we were little,

O my Adiyixw

The day to fulfill my promise has arrived (to marry)

O my Adiyixw,

I saddled my horse and journeyed to you

O my Adiyixw,

We traveled long and waited longer

O my Adiyixw,

 The full moon hung in the sky,

O my Adiyixw,

While the horse hastily dashed, a creature suddenly appeared

O my Adiyixw,

The startled steed plunged you to the ground (to your death),

O my Adiyixw,

Where do I take you now?

O my Adiyixw,

If I rest your body on earth,

The creatures will eat your corpse,

If I rest your body on the trees

The birds will eat your eyes,

If I rest your body on the clouds,

They will take you far,

How can I take thy corpse to your poor mother and father?

How can I take thy corpse to my village, whilst my head crowned with shame?

Where do I take you my Adiyixw?

Legend held, that Adiyixw’s beloved held her between his arms until her body perished.

 

T'ot'eresch:

T'ot'eresch also known as Toteresh, was a valiant Nart, distinguished by a physical attribute: his left ear was larger than the right. He often fought brutes, dwarfs, and one-eyed beasts. He is the son of Nart Albech, and his mother is Seteney’s rival Birimbix’w. One famous saga “Sosriqwe and T’ot’eresch” narrates a ferocious battle between Sosriqwe and T’ot’eresch on mount Hereme ‘Waschhe, in which his head was cut off and sent to back to his mother Birimbix’w.

T'ot'eresch most probably represents the end of the Nartian race and the appearance of humans. Based on a Nart saga account, T'ot'eresch approached a group of Narts who perceived him in revelation. Being small in appearance, the Narts collectively agreed that T'ot'eresch must be the sort of being that will come after the Narts’ race has gone. 

In other accounts it is narrated that the Chints (Sinds) eventually killed T'ot'eresch.

 

Schebetiniqwe: Also known as Schebatiniqo, Shebatiniqo (West Circassian dialect) Pschi-Badiniqo; Lit.  Prince-Son of Badiniqo

There are many assumptions regarding the parental lineage of Schebetiniqwe and some similarities between his character and Sosriqwe’s. The agreed upon in most of the sagas is that Schebetiniqwe is the son of Lady Seteney and Nart Ozermej. When Seteney was pregnant with Schebetiniqwe, one of the Nart giants spread hearsay that Seteney will conceive a child that will destruct their kind. Hence, the Narts agreed to slay the newborn. Fearing for his life, Lady Seteney placed new-born Schebetiniqwe into a basket and set it off in River Tan (River Don, Russia). The basket whirled from the river to the sea where it eventually washed to shore. An elderly couple found the infant and raised him in secrecy until he became a grown Nart, after which he returned to his homeland to perform valiant deeds for his kin. He always helped the ones in need and dispersed cattle to them, leaving none for himself. He fought beasts and the Chints - enemies of the Narts. Like Sosriqwe, he was able to transform his appearance into that of animals and breed from them (Ozbek [B], 1988, p. 135-136).

*The story of his birth is very much like the one of Prophet Moses. Name literally translates to Son of Shabat; could be an analogue with the Hebrew ‘Saturday’ day-of the-week (Shabat) parallel to Circassian day-of the week ‘Schebet’: Saturday

 

Aschemez:

Aschemez is a grand Nart who vowed to slay the brute who took his father’s life.  The sagas report that when Aschemez was still a child, he prevailed over other children in the performance of games, thus he began boasting his victory. The annoyed children divulged that he should avenge his father’s killer instead of blustering. Unaware by the story of his father’s death, Aschemez rushed to his mother demanding to know the truth, and took the matter to an extreme where he dipped his mother’s hand into a bowl of hot porridge to reveal the certainty of the matter. Once she admitted the fact that the brute killed his father, he vowed to slay him. After murdering the brute, the Narts for his triumph celebrated Aschemez; however, he gave up knighthood to become a musician. It is reported that one day Aschemez was roaming the forest when a mighty storm struck. After the blizzard cleared, he noticed the barren tree branches clapping together making sounds, whilst wind blew through holes in other branches producing melodies. Inspired, he cut the tree branches, and fashioned the wooden clapping instrument known as Px’ets’ich, and a Zurna-like instrument called Bzcahmiy. Aschemezs’ infamous Bzchamiy was partially white, and partially black. Once he blew through the white part, the world turned serene, the old became youthful, and the wild animals turned peaceful, while birds settled listening to the melodies. His magical tunes and musical talent became indispensible to the frequent Nart celebrations, bringing glee into every festivity.

 

 Tx’wezchei: 

Tx’wezchei also known as Tx’ozchei, is Sosriqwe's faithful winged horse and longtime companion. He enjoys magical powers, endowed with speech, able to fly into the sky, and leap over mountains. Tx’wezchei conferred Sosriqwe with guidance and understood his emotions and thoughts; he also was able to foresee the future. Tx’wezchei was a vital element in the success of Sosriqwe's journeys and quests. Essentially, Tx’wezchei represents the sort of relationship the Narts shared with animals; they evidently regarded them as equals and indispensible to the quests. The ability to comprehend one another renders the basic intrinsic nature both humans and animals correspond to.

It is reported that Lady Seteney had kept Tx’wezchei inside a cave until Sosriqwe was old enough and ready to journey, and once Tx’wezchei saw Sosriqwe, he refused to be ridden by him thinking he is not manly enough. For seven days and nights, Tx’wezchei fiercely attempted to throw Sosriqwe from his back; however, diligent Sosriqwe resisted and remained immobile until eventually Tx’wezchei confessed:

By my god Amisch, I shall never, disobey you after today. 

The following segment is a dialogue between Sosriqwe and Tx’wezchei from saga How Sosriqwe Fetched the Fire revealing his impact to the success of Sosriqwe’s quests,

Sosriqwe:

My Tx’wezchei the fastest steed of all

This is the ogre’s abode,

This is the ogre’s fire,

His head is between his feet,

His body encircles the fire,

The ogre is asleep,

How do we filch the fire?

Thus, Tx’wezchei replies:

Swarthy Sosriqwe

The knight feared by death,

Ride on my back,

And we shall go to the ogre’s abode,

Tx’wezchei was ultimately Sosriqwe’s most cherished companion revealing his significance in his audacious quests and journeys.

*Tx’wezchei shares some similar characteristics with Greek Pegasus.

 

Alej:

Alej is often portrayed as one of Narts' mightiest, largest, and ligneous. His name is presumed to be derived from Greek (see intro.) Alej lived up to 300 years and his size was superior to that of the other Narts. It is alleged that Alejs' home was thirty feet in height and its columns required seven bulls to have them erected. His strength and hefty size had once wrecked his house when Alej danced inside it.  He is also reported to have been the leader of the ‘Council of Death’ (see saga 26 part 3). Alej was killed by Sosriqwe.

Alej's power is his ability to view from an altitude; his height enabled him to see what the other Nart would observe in a journey of seven days.

Alej is also the name of the Nart council abode, “The House of Alej” where meetings and festivities took place.

 

 

Melechipx’w :

Melechipx’w is also referred to as ‘Golden Purse’ and is a character surmounted by love, light, and goodness. Her duties were to spread harmony and emphasize on the value of the bond between the heart and the soul to the human. She is witty, energetic and an emblem of female wisdom and love. Melechipx’w’s character was possibly created in an advanced era of the Nart saga chronology; her name translates to the Angel’s Daughter. Since angels are mainly associated and derived from monotheistic religions, Melechipx’w could be a representative of this influence amongst the Circassians. Her angelic attributes further verifies this.

 

Iysp or Iyspi:

Iysp’s are dwarf beings that highly interlaced within the Narts lives and lived around the Volga River, (Yindil River in Circassian). The ancient dolmens located in western Circassia carry their name, and are known as Yisp Wine (House of Yisp) among the Circassians, this is possibly owed to the analogy between their miniature size with the small access opening and size of the prehistoric buildings.

It is reported that the Iysp nation lived at peace with the Narts, and other times engaged in wars against each other. However, the general feature of their relationship is coherent and further fortified through intermarriage between the two races, as in the case of Nart X’imisch and Nart Peterez who married Iysp women.

 

 

The Chints:

According to Circassian scholar Hedeghel’e, A., the Chints are a nation mentioned in the Nart sagas believed to be the ancient Sinds or Meots who lived on the shores of the Black Sea around 400 B.C. They are enemies to Narts who lived north of the Nart lands, and often caused upheaval resulting in wars and kidnappings. Continuous wars waged between the two races, and many grand Narts have lost their lives while battling the Chints.

 

The Iynizch’s:

Foes to the Narts and an embodiment of evil, who frequently battled with the Narts and attempt to cause destruction. They are reported to have stolen, the Narts mallet seeds, the Narts fire, and caused upheaval in the Nart lands.

 

Amazon Female Warriors –  Amezane

A tribe of Sarmatian female warriors mentioned by Herodotus in Greek Mythology. Circassian relics and epics imply a profound relationship between the Circassians and the Amazon female warriors. A continuous war waged between the two until one day the Amazons’ queen convened with Circassian Prince Toulmey, ascending from his tent to declare a truce between the two parties, hence an alliance was forged. According to Herodotus, the Amazon warriors settled behind River Don (River Tana in Circassian), an area vividly mentioned within the boundaries of the Narts lands. The epic of Lady Nart Sana, the one who waged a war with a troop of female warriors, and erroneously killed her beloved, further verifies a strong connection. Lady Laschin may also well be a representation of the Amazon warriors among the Narts. One of the sagas narrates her mocking approach in refusing to marry numerous renowned Narts, until finally she approves to marry Nart Aschemez, assuming he will offer a proposal. Hearing this, Aschemez rebuffs the idea of proposal, and accuses Laschin of being ineffectual in doing women’s duties such as needlework.

Moreover, the Nart sagas and Circassian folktales hoards numerous tales that confer lady warriors and heroes who dressed in men’s war attire and fought in fierce battles, such as the legendary Circassian fable of Tirghetaw, the Meotian princess who raised a mighty army, and defeated the Sinds King, Ekatay (Qermoqwe [H], 2001, p. 96).

Another interesting parallel between the Amazon warriors and one Circassian custom is the concealment of the breast area. Circassian girls upon maidenhood wore tight corsets to eliminate the breast area growth upon the belief it was shameful. It is quite possible that this tradition is inspired by the historical link between both civilizations.

A-Mez-An: literally translates to the Forest Mother in Circassian language.

 

Laschin:

A Circassian heroine mentioned in the Nart epics. Laschin was notorious for her legendary bravery and triumph over the Mongol gladiator Qaisin.

 

The Nart deities 

The Narts lives interlaced with an assortment of multi-gods. There are over 50 deities, of which each had a specific function rendered to service of the Narts overall life structure.  They held an annual ‘godly-wine’ festivity and Olympics on mount Zhulat, an ancient designation that stands for ‘Jurtila Ant’ signifying the presumed Circassian ancestry with the ancient Ants (Nogmow [S], 1861, p.10).

The ‘godly-wine’ festivity is a fascinating concept where the most outstanding human is invited to attend, and presented with a cup of wine, which originally was a drink exclusively designed for the gods. In a sense, it is a day when the gods humble themselves by allowing humans to associate with them. Goddesses enjoyed an equal power; however, they were fewer in number. 

The following selected deities are frequent appearing in the Nart sagas, thus represented accordingly.

T-he: God

T-heschxwe is the supreme god among the Circassian deities, and controls the design of the universe and outcomes. Upon pronouncing prayers and toasts, T-heschxwe ranks second after T-he; God.

The following toast is an exemplar articulated before the start of an event or labor:

Our god (T-he), our Supreme God (T-heschxwe), may it be finished swiftly, may it be completed in goodness, let it start with the right hand and end with the left hand.

 

Psathe is the god of souls and life, and the master of ceremony during the ‘godly-wine’ festivity.

 

Theghelej is the god of harvest and plants, and he is responsible for the Narts land profusion, he also invented wine by cultivating the grape kernel.  Theghelej who resided in the plains, enlightened the Narts how to use and harvest various seeds, and owned a phenomenal sickle made by Nart Debech, which surpassed all agricultural tools. The following is an opening segment from a prayer articulated upon the harvest season in favor for this deity to boost abundant crops:

Our god, wondrous Theghelej, Grace our work and proliferate our crops.

 

Waschx’we is the god of cosmos and skies who was able to shift day into night. Pronouncing his name was considered a significant vow and definite pledge of truth. It is alleged that Waschxwe is a deity inherited from the Circassians ancestors the Hattites (Qermoqwe [H], 2001, p. 66). 

 It is reported that when the Narts decided to demolish Sosriqwe, Waschx’we supported the Narts and used his powers to impede Sosriqwe’s force in his battle against the Narts. However, he highly feared Sosriqwe’s vehemence.

 

Sozeresh is the god of fertility and family who controlled the pace of the winds and the waters. The Circassians celebrated Sozeresh with a series of rituals in the first three days of spring on the 22 of March, which symbolizes the Circassian New Year (Taov et al. 2004, p. 13-16).

Sozeresh’s festivity ritual included placing a tree known as Px’elhantx’we in the courtyard of the domicile. On the night of the festivity, the whole household approaches the tree, and the newest daughter-in-law pronounces the following: “Sozeresh, open the door and let us in.” Then, the new bride conveys the tree inside the house accompanied with chants and prayers. The tree is erected in the centre of house where family members gather around it and pronounce the following prayer, “Our god,

Our supreme one,

Grant us an abundant year,

Multiply our harvest,

Shield us from fire” (Qermoqwe [H], 2001, p. 77).

Some of Sozeresh’s commemoration rituals correspond with Egyptian Osiris, and he is similar to Roman Lares.

Amisch is the god of sheep who gathered and multiplied livestock for the Narts. Animals, such as Tx’wezchei, pledged by Amisch’s name, signifying adherence. He resided in the forests, and is linked to Prophet Moses amongst Circassian (Nogmow [S], 1861, p. 11).

 

Other prominent gods included, Psithe; god of water, Zchithe: god of winds, Schible: god of thunder and storms, Ax’in; god of cattle, Yisp Gwasche; protectress of pygmies, Thegwasche; goddess of women, Xade Gwasche goddess of gardens, Tetertup; God of war and bloodshed, Hederixe; protector of the dead (For the complete list see, Jaimoukha [A], 2001, p. 319).

 

Anadola: Anedola is a curious deity mentioned in traditional table toasts, and occupies the third position after the pronunciation of God followed by the Supreme god.  The subsequent is a segment from the toast:

 

Diy The Our god

Diy TheschxweOur supreme god

Anadola  Anadola

Dische QwelajeGolden beam

 

The characteristics and duties that define and classify Anadola’s status and significance amongst the Circassian pantheons are now unknown.  The name of this deity is imbedded within the lines of toasts, with no further explanation.  The momentum of the toast is essentially requesting from the god’s prosperity and longevity, thus Anadola be regarded as a fundamental deity in the overall Circassian daily lives. To express a woman’s beauty, the Circassians say “Anadola pschafer ziy nek’w”, rendering the relationship between this deity with beauty and women (Sherjes [A] & Haqun [M], 2000, p. 13).

 If we are to interpret the name, the first part, which is “Ana,” literally translates to “mother” in Circassian language, delivering an assumption that the deity is a female.  The second part, which is “Dole” is ambiguous and encloses no clear definition in Circassian language, however, the name itself significantly resembles Anatolia, Arabic:  Al-Anadol, Turkish: Anadolu, this significant semblance may propose a theoretical connection this deity encloses with the region that holds the equal designation. Given that, there are strong historical and lingual linkage postulations between the Circassians and the Hattians, it is possible that this deity is a remnant of the bygone relation, which the Circassians preserved within the lines of their oral folk. Anadola’s name could have transpired following NW Caucasian interaction with ancient Anatolians, or even an idol that represented a creed that later developed into an identity of the geographical area known as Anatolia.

 

Iynki- Lord of the Earth:

According to a study conducted by Circassian researcher Munther Putch, suggests that Sumerian morphosyntatics relate to the Circassian language structure, complexity, and clearly corresponds in translation (Putch [M], 1995, p. 35). The Sumerian pantheon Iynki, is one of numerous lexis that demonstrate a clear relationship between the two lingos. (See app. 1 for more translation and information)


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