# A Simplified Guide to Small Marine Craft Navigation.

Reads: 8007  | Likes: 93  | Shelves: 39  | Comments: 0

More Details
Status: In Progress  |  Genre: Non-Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic

## Chapter 14 (v.1) - Calculating Navigational Time, Speed, and Distance.

Submitted: March 15, 2017

A A A | A A A

Submitted: March 15, 2017

A A A

A A A

Calculating  Navigational Time, Speed, and Distance.

Among many problems frequently encountered at sea for the seaman and the navigator are those involving time, speed, and distance. One such problem would be if after having travelled a certain distance in a certain time, what was the speed of the craft?

Another would be if given a certain speed, how long would it take to travel a certain distance.  Alternatively, after having spent a certain amount of time travelling at a given speed, what distance was covered?

The answers to the above questions can be supplied rapidly and accurately using the following formulae.-

To determine distance when speed and time are known then the formula is.-

Distance =

Speed x Time in minutes.

(over)

60

…………………………………………………

To determine time, when distance and speed are known, then the formula is.-

Time in minutes =

Distance x 60

(over)

Speed

…………………………………………………

To determine speed, when distance and time are known, then the formula is.-

Speed =

Distance x 60

(over)

Time in minutes.

…………………………………………………

In formulae 1, 2, and 3 above it is assumed that the time involved is short enough to be reckoned conveniently in minutes. When such is not the case, the factor 60 is dropped, and the time is obtained in hours and decimal fractions of hours, to convert the decimals to minutes multiply them by 60.

When seconds are involved they should be converted to decimal fractions of a minute; that is to say they should be divided by 60. In most cases, it will be acceptable to work to the nearest tenth of a minute. Thus, 23 seconds, which is 0.383 of minute, would be written as 0.4 minute.

Also in formulae 1, 2, and 3, distance is in all cases stated in nautical miles and decimal fractions of miles. For the most accurate results distances used in 2, and 3, should be measured along the ground track, and the speed used in l, and 2, should be the speed made good along the ground track, not the boat's speed through the water.

Example using formula 1.

What distance was covered by a craft that travelled at 6 knots in 43 minutes?

Distance =

6 x 43

(over)

60

= 4.3 miles covered

…………………………………………………

Example using formula 2.

How many minutes and seconds did it take for the craft to travel 6.9 miles at 7.6 knots?

Time =

6.9 x 60

(over)

7.6

= 54.474 minutes.

.474 x 60  = 28 seconds

Time taken to cover 6.9 miles at 7.6 knots = 54 minutes- 28 seconds.

…………………………………………………

Example using formula 3.  What was the speed of a craft which covered 4.3 miles in 48.3 minutes?

Speed =

4.3 x 60

(over)

48.3

= 5.35 knots

…………………………………………………

Occasionally it may be useful to determine speed over a measured mile. In this instance the time taken to pass between the marks is measured in seconds, and the formula used is ground speed over measured mile.

…………………………………………………

In Example, What was the speed through the water of a craft, which took 11 minutes 13 seconds to cover a measured mile against an adverse tidal stream running at l knot?

Ground speed =

3600

(over)

11 x 60 + 13  = 5. 35 knots over ground. + 1.00 knot adverse stream.

Speed through water = 6.35 knots

…………………………………………………

As a final example, if the next leg of' a voyage is 45.2 miles and you are making good 4.7 knots, how long will it take to cover this leg? In which case you would use formula number 2 to determine time but omit the factor 60 since the time will obviously run into hours:

Time in hours =

45.2

(over)

4.7 =  9.617 hours . 617 x 60 = 37 minutes.

Time to cover 45.2 miles = 9 hours 37 minutes.

Chapters

## Boosted Content from Other Authors

• Short Story / Romance

• Short Story / Science Fiction

• Short Story / Science Fiction

• Short Story / Science Fiction

## Boosted Content from Premium Members

• Book / Fantasy

• Book / Fantasy

• Poem / Fantasy

## Other Content by Sergeant Walker

Book / War and Military

Book / War and Military

Article / Non-Fiction