Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights: Taking a Stand for Human Rights Around the World

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This is an essay about the role of Eleanor Roosevelt in the drafting and creation of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, and the role her work has played in the fight for the establishment and protection of human rights all around the world.

Submitted: April 22, 2017

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Submitted: April 22, 2017

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Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights:

Taking a Stand for Human Rights Around the World

Eleanor Roosevelt - First Lady during Franklin D. Roosevelt’s presidency, Roosevelt spent her life actively fighting to protect human rights. “It isn't enough to talk about peace. One must believe in it. And it isn't enough to believe in it. One must work at it” (qtd. in Beasley, xxvii). Eleanor Roosevelt fought for that peace and to bring attention to unfair conditions, focusing especially on women, children, minorities, and the unemployed through organizations such as the NAACP and the National Youth Administration (ABC-Clio). After her husband’s death, she continued to be involved in humanitarian causes, stating that “human rights … may be one of the foundation stones in giving us an atmosphere in which we can all grow together towards a more peaceful world” (Making Human Rights Come Alive, Roosevelt). It is these views that led her to undertake what she considers to be the greatest feat of her career - the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR), a document that took a stand for the rights of individuals all over the world (refer to appendix C) and which she stated “may well become the international Magna Carta of all men everywhere” (qtd. in Google Arts and Culture).

Through the UDHR, Eleanor Roosevelt put into words rights that many considered inherent, but that had been violated during World War II. The revelations of the genocide and crimes against humanity committed during this time period hit people with the horrible reality of the war and with the truth of how ineffective nations had been at dealing with the issue. These failures included restrictive and discriminatory immigration systems, the lack of rescue plans and the prosecution of those who assisted Jews, preventing the persecuted peoples from escaping. In addition, many nations refused to believe that these events were occurring, despite being informed of the ongoing crimes against humanity (James). Eventually, many people fought to punish the Nazis, and as an early opponent of Nazi policies, Roosevelt urged people to act to ensure that such crimes would not occur in the future. Roosevelt would soon be front and center in this fight with the creation of the United Nations (commonly referred to as the UN) and her appointment as the head of the UN Commision on Human Rights.

As stated previously, this time period witnessed the formation of the UN based on the proposal by Eleanor Roosevelt’s husband President Franklin Delano Roosevelt. Envisioning a wartime coalition that would work to promote equality and security, he invited 25 allied nations to sign a declaration pledging “to defend life, liberty, independence, and religious freedom, and to preserve human rights and justice” (The United Nations (with Captions)). This organization was the first time that human rights were addressed and defined at an international level, leading to the internationalization of human rights. After his death, Eleanor Roosevelt continued to support her late husband’s belief and dream in the UN. According to the “Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia,” Roosevelt stated that her support for the UN was helping carry out the work of her late husband, who envisioned this organization as one that would help protect collective peace and security (Beasley, 535). In 1945, she was appointed by President Truman as a US delegate to the UN (refer to Appendix D). Despite her initial uncertainty in her abilities to be an effective representative, Roosevelt wrote in her December 22, 1945 “My Day” column that she hoped to bring “real goodwill for all peoples throughout the world” to this organization (Roosevelt). She understood that, although conflicts were bound to arise, this attitude would allow her and other representatives to work towards the development of peace that had been destroyed during the War.

Soon after the commencement of the UN, Roosevelt’s hard work earned her an appointment to the UN Commission on Human Rights. As explained by Jean-Bernard Marie, this commission, formally created on February 16, 1946 by the Economic and Social Council, is the first and only body existing within an international organization that focuses solely on the promotion of human rights. Originally composed of representatives from 18 member nations, to this day it works to promote " ‘universal respect for, and observance of, human rights and fundamental freedoms for all without distinction’ ” (Marie). When the Commission met for the first time on April 29, 1946, Eleanor Roosevelt was unanimously chosen as the head of this Commission, promising to be “not only an impartial Chairman, but perhaps at times a harsh driver” (qtd. in Sears). Despite having no parliamentary or diplomatic knowledge, her experience as a political reformer and activist and her deep passion for human rights made her the perfect candidate to lead. As the head of this Commission, Roosevelt was faced with a daunting task - defining what a human right is, and how these rights could be protected around the world. As a whole, the UN had not defined what a human right was, and if the organization was to protect these internationalized rights, they had to define what they were (Beasley, 256). As described in the “Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia,” Roosevelt viewed these circumstances as the perfect opportunity to create a document to protect the rights of people all around the world, a document that would become known as the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (Beasley, 258). With the events of World War II fresh in everyone’s minds, this task was even more pressing. In many people’s eyes, including Roosevelt’s, defining what was a human right was the first step to taking a stand against such atrocities in the future.

Differences in views and opinions quickly arose during this process as a result of the differing viewpoints held within the organization. One set of conflicts that Roosevelt was directly involved in were those between the two sides embittered in the Cold War - representatives from the capitalist West and those from the communist East. The Cold War pitted not only the United States and the Soviet Union against each other, but also two ideological systems - capitalism and communism, respectively (Fogarty). Although this conflict occurred largely outside of the UN, these tensions transferred through into the drafting of the UDHR. During her early years at the UN, Roosevelt viewed the relationship between the US and the Soviet Union as one of confrontation and hostility. As a result, she often clashed with the Soviet representative, who was constantly putting other democratic delegates on the defensive as well. These conflicts led to the ultimate question - whether communism or capitalism offered the best conditions for people. In a letter to Walter White, Roosevelt states that they “could not let the Soviet get away with attacking the United States and not recognize their own shortcomings” (qtd. in Schlup, 95). Unlike the Soviet delegate, who viewed communism as a perfect model, she saw the shortcomings of democracy, and as a result was able to work to better conditions for people around the world.

In addition to ideological differences, communist and capitalist representatives also had disagreements over the rights that should be included in the UDHR. Often these were influenced by their ideological differences, such as Western emphasis on the rights of individuals versus Communist emphasis on the common interest. As Roosevelt succinctly put it, “Many of us believe that an organized society in the form of a government, exists for the good of the individual; others believe that an organized society in the form of a government, exists for the benefit of a group.” Another debate took place over whether the UDHR should state that the rights are guaranteed by the state. The Soviets viewed this as a detail that would help guarantee these rights to individuals. However, representatives such as Roosevelt did not agree with this change, instead saying that the UDHR is “an educational declaration and the only way we can guarantee that these rights will be observed is by doing a good job educationally” (Making Human Rights Come Alive, Roosevelt).

Despite these tensions, Roosevelt did not allow the drafting of the UDHR to be hindered by them. While Roosevelt opposed communism, her approach to combatting it involved explaining to Americans that this conflict was a result of both the Soviet Union’s policies and an inappropriate response of the Americans to them. Also, in her January 21st, 1946 “My Day” column, Roosevelt touched on the sober nature of the Soviet representatives, that “... perhaps life has been so full of responsibility and hardship during the past few years that it is hard for them to shed their serious side and take time off for amusement.” She understood that the circumstances of the previous War and of the world around them necessitated this attitude at times, further describing the Russian people as an embodiment of a “peculiar combination that can look upon human life rather cheaply at times and yet strive for an ideal of future well-being” (qtd. in Schlup, 59). As representatives of their nation, Soviet representatives had to behave in a way that would benefit their country, not their personal beliefs. As a result, despite disagreements, Roosevelt focused on what she believed was more pressing - the drafting of the UDHR, and with it the creation of a foundation for peace around the world.

In addition to the rights stipulated in the Declaration, Eleanor Roosevelt focused on the wording of the UDHR. One example of this was the initial Anglo-Saxon nature of the document. In the process of the writing, it was decided that the use of “all men” in the document was not appropriate, as countless women all over the world were still fighting for their rights and freedoms. Unlike the US Declaration of Independence, which is written in this Anglo-Saxon style, in the UDHR, the use of “all human beings” and “everyone” and “no one” as opposed to “all men” was decided upon in order to create a more inclusive document that could be applied to all individuals, not just men. Roosevelt knew that the document could not be like the US Declaration of Independence if all states were to adopt it, and for this reason she worked to make sure that it was phrased appropriately. In addition to wording choices such as this, Roosevelt and the committee that she headed had to chose words that would be effective across all languages and would appeal and relate to people of all different social and cultural backgrounds. Eleanor Roosevelt also insisted on the use of more simple and succinct language (refer to appendix E). When looking at the editing of the UDHR in “Draft Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with ER's Handwritten Revisions,” we can see evidence of this process, such as simplification of the Preamble and replacement of some phrases in order to make the message of the document more universally applicable. Roosevelt knew that the UDHR could be a long and detailed document, one that explained every right and all the responsibilities that came with them. Despite this, however, she believed that this would not have as a great an impact as a document that concisely presented these rights to the people (Making Human Rights Come Alive, Roosevelt).

In her “Making Human Rights Come Alive” speech, Roosevelt recounts an instance that seemed contradictory to her goals. When Roosevelt had asked the Chilean representative to explain the UDHR to a Uruguayan representative in hopes that it would save time and prevent him from arguing further about the Declaration, she was surprised when the Chilean representative stated that she “ ‘must let him become accustomed to it because it is an Anglo-Saxon document.’ ” (Making Human Rights Come Alive, Roosevelt). At first confused, since the UDHR had not been drafted solely by Anglo-Saxon nations, it soon became apparent that, despite this, even those who were unaccustomed to Anglo-Saxon ideas had accepted them as suitable for the protection of human rights. Especially considering the shock of how seemingly inherent rights had been violated around the world, this agreement between nations helped further establish human rights around the world.

Even when the Commission had created this document and was ready to present their work of over two and a half year, Roosevelt stated that there was so much disagreement and discussion over the document that she was not sure whether or not it would be adopted (Making Human Rights Come Alive, Roosevelt). In her December 10, 1948 “My Day” column, Roosevelt described how the Soviet delegate had made a formal proposal to postpone consideration of the UDHR for another year. She was relieved when the Soviets did not receive support from others, that “no one wanted to put off the day when this declaration would be a part of the world's consciousness” (My Day, Roosevelt). On December 10, 1948, the UDHR was unanimously signed by 48 nations. Despite their constant postponing, the Soviets did not sign the UDHR, along with 8 abstentions from the communist bloc. The final product (refer to appendix F) consisted of 30 articles, encompassing a large range of social, economic, civil, and political issues. As described by George J. Andreopoulos, Articles 3 through 21 outline civil and political rights, and Articles 22 through 27 outline economic, social, and cultural rights. Overall, the Soviets and many Latin American countries placed an emphasis on social and economic rights, something Roosevelt called “discoveries of this century” (My Day, Roosevelt). In their eyes, this would provide security to their people, that “men must have a certain degree of security before spiritual ideas can have any real hold on them” (My Day, Roosevelt). The article “The Promise of Human Rights” also gives explanation on the articles of the UDHR. Some are of a broader scope, such as Article 23, which states that everyone has the right to work, and that the state has to ensure that citizens have access to meaningful jobs. Articles such as these stipulate rights, but are not very concrete in their wording. Others, however, set forth specific rights, such as the preservation of health and access to higher education regardless of any circumstances (The Promise of Human Rights, Roosevelt). Since the adoption of the UDHR, the UN has worked to turn this non-binding document into legally binding conventions such as the  UN conventions on civil and political rights, social and economic rights, and torture. Nations such as the US also utilize the UDHR. For example, the US State Department has to submit an annual report on all countries receiving US aid discussing how these nations fulfill the requirements of the UDHR (Gale). Today, with its growth and extensive use around the world, the UDHR has become a symbol of human rights around the world, protecting them despite its non-binding status.

During a speech for Human Rights Day, Roosevelt stated that “the object is to make people everywhere conscience of the importance of human rights and freedoms” (Roosevelt). As can be seen from pictures (refer to appendices A and B) and sources such as cartoons (refer to appendix G), Roosevelt was an individual who worked to promote these rights by playing an active role in the UN and in the Commission. Through the UDHR, Roosevelt took her fight for the promotion of peace to the global stage. This path has not been an easy one - even today countries are slow to implement the principles of the Declaration (Sears, 11). Despite these struggles, the UDHR and the work Roosevelt put into it has been a vital step towards the creation of a common understanding and of a foundation on which peace and protection of human rights can be established.




Appendix A

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This photo shows Eleanor Roosevelt addressing the UN General Assembly. This source helps show that Eleanor Roosevelt played an active role in the UN and in the writing of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Addresses the UN General Assembly at the United Nations. 1947. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Franklin. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

Appendix B

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This photo shows Eleanor Roosevelt giving a speech at a United Nations meeting. This source helps me show that Eleanor Roosevelt took an active role in the United Nations and in voicing her beliefs.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt at United Nations Meeting at Central Hall, Westminster in London, England. 1946. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Franklin. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

Appendix C

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This photo shows Eleanor Roosevelt holding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This sources helps me show Eleanor Roosevelt’s connection with this document.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Holding Poster of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1949. National Archives. Google Arts and Culture. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .


Appendix D

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Uvqb9VjvOm3RWveewmB2C3oPWNErBBjeOQkTSu5t

This letter was sent to Eleanor Roosevelt by President Harry Truman informing her that he had selected her as a representative of the US at the United Nations. This source helps me prove how Eleanor’s involvement with the UN first began, as this beginning is what ultimately led to her helping draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Letter from Harry S. Truman to Eleanor Roosevelt, December 21, 1945. N.d. Eleanor and Harry: The Correspondence of Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Truman Library. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .


Appendix E

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This source shows a draft of the preamble of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and different changes that were made to it. This helps me showcase the process of writing this document and how the document looked in different stages of the drafting process.

 

Draft Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1947. US National Archives. Google Arts and Culture. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

Appendix F

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This source is a copy of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This helps me show the results of Eleanor Roosevelt’s efforts and what values the countries of the time shared and viewed as important and worth protecting.

 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. N.d. United Nations. United Nations. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

Appendix G

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This source is a cartoon depicting Eleanor Roosevelt and the way people perceived her relationship to the UN and the Human Rights Commission. From this cartoon, we can gather that Roosevelt was perceived as an individual who nurtured and helped human rights grow and develop and who was an important, supporting figure in the UN.

 

A Tree Grows in Manhattan. Digital image. Wordpress. Carl Anthony Online, 13 Oct. 2013. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

Bibliography

Primary Sources

A Tree Grows in Manhattan. Digital image. Wordpress. Carl Anthony Online, 13 Oct. 2013. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a cartoon of Eleanor Roosevelt in the context of United Nations and the UN Commission of Human Rights. This source allowed me to show how the public perceived Roosevelt and her actions within this organization.

 

Draft Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1947. US National Archives. Google Arts and Culture. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides evidence on the process of writing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights and how the document looked in different stages of the drafting process. While I found this source on Google Arts and Culture, it originally came from the National Archives, which is a reliable source. I was able to connect this with Eleanor Roosevelt’s values, and how that could have influenced the editing of the document. From this document, I was also able to further develop the portion of my essay that describes how Roosevelt worked on the wording of the UDHR.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Addresses the UN General Assembly at the United Nations. 1947. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Franklin. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source shows Eleanor Roosevelt addressing the UN General Assembly. Since I took this photo from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, an organization dedicated largely to information about Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt, I can ensure that that this source is a reliable one. This photo helps me show that Eleanor Roosevelt took an active role in the United Nations and in voicing her beliefs.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Addressing the United Nations General Assembly. YouTube. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, 11 Aug. 2009. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This video provides a speech that Eleanor Roosevelt addressed to the UN General Assembly. This source was uploaded to YouTube by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, an organization devoted to Franklin and Eleanor Roosevelt. This video allowed me to gain a better understand of Eleanor Roosevelt’s positions and how she took a stand in the United Nations. I was also able to gain quotes that I integrated into my essay from this video.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt at United Nations Meeting at Central Hall, Westminster in London, England. 1946. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Franklin. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a photo of Eleanor Roosevelt giving a speech at a United Nations meeting. Once again, since this source was taken from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, helping guaranteeing its reliability. This photo provides proof of Eleanor Roosevelt’s involvement in the UN, allowing me to better understand what kind of a role she played in this organization.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Holding Poster of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. 1949. National Archives. Google Arts and Culture. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a photo of Eleanor Roosevelt holding the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Although this source was found on Google Arts and Culture, the original source comes from the National Archives. As a result, I was able to conclude that this source was a reliable one. This source helps showcase Eleanor Roosevelt’s connection with this document. It gives further evidence of her involvement and provides a visual representation of it.

 

Eleanor Roosevelt Human Rights Speech. YouTube. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, 11 June 2009. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This video provides a speech Eleanor Roosevelt gave on Human Rights Day. Although I found it on YouTube, this video was uploaded by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, which is a reliable source. This video provided me with more general information on how she viewed the issue of human right around the world. Since this speech was given after the UDHR was adopted by the UN, it also helps me see the effects of this document on nations after the drafting of it was over. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

"Eleanor Roosevelt: Making Human Rights Come Alive Speech (1949)." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2016, americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/254992. Accessed 4 Nov. 2016.

 

This source gives a speech Eleanor Roosevelt made about the drafting process of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This source was taken from a reliable database, therefore allowing me to be sure that this source was truly a speech given by Eleanor Roosevelt. This source provided me with a lot of specific examples of conflicts during the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, as well as a more complete picture of how the process went. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

Letter from Harry S. Truman to Eleanor Roosevelt, December 21, 1945. N.d. Eleanor and Harry: The Correspondence of Eleanor Roosevelt and Harry S. Truman. Truman Library. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source shows the letter that President Harry Truman wrote to Eleanor Roosevelt informing her that he had selected her as a US representative to the UN. The Truman Library from which I got this source is considered a reliable source, therefore allowing me to utilize it for my paper. This letter helps prove how Eleanor’s involvement with the UN first began. This beginning is what ultimately led to her helping draft the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

Roosevelt, Eleanor. "My Day, December 22, 1945." My Day n.d.: n. pag. Web. 24 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source is one of Eleanor Roosevelt’s “My Day” columns, in which she talks about her appointment as a US Delegate to the United Nations. Roosevelt’s “My Day” columns are a well-known newspaper column that she wrote. This fact helps me guarantee that the source is a reliable one. From this source, I was able to better understand how Eleanor Roosevelt felt about her appointment to the United Nations and what responsibilities she felt this put on her. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

Roosevelt, Eleanor. "My Day, January 21, 1946." My Day n.d.: n. pag. Web. 24 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source is the“My Day” column that Eleanor Roosevelt wrote on January 21st, 1946. Roosevelt’s “My Day” columns are a well-known newspaper column that she wrote. This fact helps me guarantee that the source is a reliable one. From this specific column, I gathered information on how Roosevelt perceived the Soviet delegate. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

Roosevelt, Eleanor. "My Day, December 10, 1948." My Day n.d.: n. pag. Web. 24 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source is the Eleanor Roosevelt “My Day” column which she wrote after the UN voted on and accepted the UDHR. Roosevelt’s “My Day” columns are a well-known newspaper column that she wrote. This fact helps me guarantee that the source is a reliable one. From this source, I was able to better understand how this final step occurred and what Roosevelt thought about how it occurred. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

Roosevelt, Ms. Franklin D. "The Promise of Human Rights." Apr. 1948: n. pag. Foreign Affairs. Council on Foreign Relations. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source was written by Eleanor Roosevelt for the magazine “Foreign Affairs,” and in this article she describes the process of the drafting of the UDHR along with the design and content of the UDHR as well. From this article, I was able to gain a further understanding of the setup of the Commission in charge of writing the UDHR, along with the roles the different nations played in the drafting. In addition, I was able to learn more about the structure of the UDHR and of the types of rights it strives to give to the people. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

The Universal Declaration of Human Rights. N.d. United Nations. United Nations. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a copy of the document that Eleanor Roosevelt helped draft - the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. Since I took this source from the United Nations website, I helped ensure that this source is a reliable one. This source helps me show the values that were eventually chosen to be included in the document, demonstrating what the writers of the Declaration viewed as values that needed to be fought for.

 

Secondary Sources

Beasley, Maurine H., Holly C. Shulman, and Henry R. Beasley. Eleanor Roosevelt Encyclopedia. N.p.: Greenwood, n.d. Ebrary [ebrary]. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides background information of Eleanor Roosevelt and all aspects of her life. Taken from a reliable database and written by people who consulted with the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, this book gave me a deep understanding of the kind of person Eleanor Roosevelt was. This source allowed me to not only gain a better understanding of what kind of a person she was, but also gain information on her specific role in the UN and in the drafting of the UDHR. From this book, I also gained primary sources in the form of quotes by Eleanor Roosevelt which I was able to integrate into my essay.

 

Draft Preamble to the Universal Declaration of Human Rights with ER's Handwritten Revisions. N.p.: Franklin D Roosevelt Library and Museum, n.d. PDF.

< http://www.fdrlibrary.marist.edu/_resources/images/sign/er_16.pdf>.

 

This source provides examples of the type of editing that occurred during the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. I can guarantee the reliability of this source, since it is taken from the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum. This document helped me support whether or not Eleanor Roosevelt was able to create a document that embodied the vision she had for it. I was also able to see the changes that were made to the UDHR as the drafting process progressed.

 

"Eleanor Roosevelt and the United Nations." Google Arts and Culture. N.p., n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides information on the drafting of the UDHR and of Roosevelt’s role in the process. I used this source mainly to verify information that I found in other sources of mine. I also found a lot of primary sources in the form of photos through this source as well as quotes that I could integrate into my essay.

 

"Eleanor Roosevelt." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2016, americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/319979. Accessed 4 Nov. 2016.

 

This video gives a brief summary of Eleanor Roosevelt and her main life achievements. Taken from ABC-CLIO, which is a reliable database, I can confirm that this source is a reliable one. Containing primary sources in the forms of speeches Roosevelt gave, this source helped me better understand and explain what Eleanor Roosevelt stood and fought for.

 

"Eleanor Roosevelt." Eleanor Roosevelt. The Gilder Lehrman Institute of American History, n.d. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a short biography on Eleanor Roosevelt. This source is a reliable one, especially when considering the source in which I found it. This biography helped me better introduce Eleanor Roosevelt and give a brief description as to who she was and what her main accomplishments in life were.

 

FDR and WWII, Part 9, The United Nations. YouTube. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, 4 June 2014. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides information on the formation of the UN and of its goals as an organization. Uploaded to YouTube by the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum, this source provides reliable information on the formation of the UN and the role Franklin D. Roosevelt played in it. This source helped me gain a better understanding of the goals and structure of this organization. This, in turn, helped me gain a more complete picture of the context and events that led to the drafting of the UDHR.

 

Fogarty, Richard. "Cold War." American History, ABC-CLIO, 2016, americanhistory.abc-clio.com/Search/Display/263197. Accessed 21 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source discusses the Cold War, describing the main players and the issues between states during this time period. This source was taken from a reliable database, therefore helping verify its validity. This source helped me provide context to the events I describe and how these conflicts affected the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

"Human Rights." Global Issues in Context Online Collection. Gale, Cengage Learning, 2016. Global Issues in Context. Web. 21 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides a brief description of human right and what they are allowing. This allowed me to write my interpretation on Eleanor Roosevelt’s work. Taken from a reliable source, I know that the information I obtained from this source is reliable. From this source, I was able to gain more information on the effect of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on human rights around the world today.

 

James, Stephen Andrew. Universal Human Rights: Origins and Development. N.p.: LFB Scholarly LLC, 2007. Ebrary [ebrary]. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides in-depth information on human rights and their development throughout history. Since it was found on a reliable database, I can guarantee that the information I obtained from this source is valid. This source gave me background information on the context of this time period, as well the actual process of writing the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. From this book, I was able to further develop the world context during which the UDHR was written.

 

Marie, Jean-Bernard. "United Nations Commission on Human Rights." Encyclopedia of Genocide and Crimes Against Humanity. Ed. Dinah L. Shelton. Vol. 3. Detroit: Macmillan Reference USA, 2005. 1072-1079. Global Issues in Context. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides information on the origin, creation, and functions of the UN Commission on Human Rights. The database from which I took this information is considered a reliable source, deepening my confidence in the information I was taking from it. This source helps provide context that helped me better understand what kind of environment Eleanor Roosevelt worked in and how that could have affected the drafting of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights.

 

The United Nations (with Captions). YouTube. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum, 30 Jan. 2015. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This video provides background information on the formation of the UN and of the basic structure of this organization. This source was uploaded to YouTube by a reliable organization - the Franklin D. Roosevelt Library and Museum. This source also provided me with primary sources that helped me understand what the UN stood for and what values this organization would work to protect.

 

Schlup, Leonard C., and Whisenhunt, Donald W., eds. It Seems to Me : Selected Letters of Eleanor Roosevelt. Lexington, US: The University Press of Kentucky, 2001. ProQuest ebrary. Web. 21 November 2016.

 

This source consists of letters Eleanor Roosevelt wrote on a wide range of topics and issues, including the United Nations and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This source consisted primarily of primary sources in the form of letters written by Eleanor Roosevelt. Since I found this source on ebrary, a reliable database, I can guarantee that this source contains accurate information. I was also able to integrate quotes into my essay from this source.

 

Sears, John F. "Eleanor Roosevelt and the Universal Declaration of Human Rights." (n.d.): n. pag. FDR Library. Franklin D. Roosevelt Presidential Library and Museum. Web. 4 Nov. 2016. .

 

This source provides information on the process of drafting the Universal Declaration of Human Rights. This source also provided me with primary sources in the form of quotes by people directly involved in the drafting of this document. I can guarantee that the information I found is reliable because it was taken from a credible source.

 

"Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR)." Britannica School, Encyclopædia Britannica, 1 Sep. 2009. school.eb.com/levels/high/article/74356. Accessed 4 Nov. 2016.


This source provides information on the drafting process of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, its contents, and how it was accepted and perceived by nations and people around the world. This source also gave me primary information in the form of a speech Eleanor Roosevelt gave about the topic. I can guarantee that the information I found is reliable because it was taken from a credible source.


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