Literature as a Tool for Exposing Social Ills in Terhemba Shija's The Siege, The Saga

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This a Research Paper capturing the Critical issues x-rayed in Terhemba Shija's The Siege, The Saga

Submitted: May 26, 2017

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Submitted: May 26, 2017

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Literature as a Tool for Exposing Social Ills in Terhemba Shija’s The Siege, The Saga.

By

Zayol Meshach Terfa 07034806899 meshachterfa55@gmail.com

Best Graduating Novelist and Best Graduating Critic, Writers’ Leaque, Benue State University, Makurdi. Terfa has a Masters Degree in English Language. He is the  Editor, The Quarry Magazine, Gwarimpa, Abuja, and Lecturer, Fidei Polytechnic, Gboko, Abuja Campus,  and the author of Teaching and Understanding Made Easy, The Super Hero, The Local Champion..., Segmental and Suprasegmental Phonemes, A Course Text in General English, The Legacy of Our Forefathers, The Intellectual Saviour, Suspension of Disbelief.

Abstract

Literature is life and life is literature. It is the body and soul of the artist, who, through literary outputs, serves as a surgeon in the clinic cum theatre of life and societal ills. The task of interrogating society has always been the artist’s preoccupation. This is because art is a simulacrum of society and is thus necessarily connected to it. So, no art is unaffected by society just as no society has been uninfluenced by its art. Consequently, the art of writing has always served as a persuasive simulacrum in the propagation of new ideas for societal reconstruction so as to swing the pendulum in man’s favour. This study analyses the highpoints of literature as a tool for exposing social ills as exemplified in Terhemba Shija’s The Siege, The Saga. The examination of this novel is done through the lenses of Critical Realism Theory which shows profound sympathy for the common people. It portrays the greed and hypocrisy of the upper class in contrast with the honesty and good-heartedness of the obscure “simple people” of the lower class. As a result humour is often used to stress the fine qualities of its positive characters. This is precisely what Shija succeeds in doing in The Siege, The Saga.  The prevalence of Shija’s dexterity and zeal to deal with societal vices such as bribery and corruption, moral decadence, anomalies, and the Zaki Biam Saga in this novel encourages him to drop the doctrine of art for art’s sake in this novel. This is because, in his view point, art is not only for its sake since the practical problems of life are always the first concern. Besides, his inspiration comes from society itself.

Introduction

Literature, and by extension, art, is the highest form of expression of everything concrete and nebulous in human life. Through its representation of deprived humanity, it is often diametrically opposed to whatever opposes the artist in his dialogue with the world. There is nothing that recreates life and the world as what they truly are than literature; and it does this through the undiluted lenses of genres: poetry, drama, and prose. The last comes in form of fiction, which must not be mistaken as false or untrue but as the most fascinating tool in the hands of the writer, from which novels, novellas, and short stories spin.

Chinua Achebe, in his book entitled There Was a Country: My Personal History of Biafra contended that:

I believe that art and community [literature and society] in Africa are clearly linked. African art as we understand it has not been distilled or purified and refined to the point where it has lost all traces of real life, lost the vitality of the street.... In Africa, the tendency is to keep art involved with the people. It is clearly emphasized ... that art must never be allowed to escape into the rarefied atmosphere but must remain active in the lives of the members of the society. (56)

Achebe’s statement above explains why literature is life and life is literature besides being a tool for exposing societal ills. In Achebe’s words again, “... there is a need to bring life back into art [literature] by bringing art into life, so that the two can hold a conversation” (56). And who else is better qualified in bringing art to life than the writer! He further strengthens this position when he says that “[m]y own assessment is that the role of the writer is not a rigid position and depends to some extent on the state of health of his or her society. In other words, if a society is ill the writer has a responsibility to point it out” (57). This is where literature presents itself as a tool for pointing that out. In a novel such as Shija’s The Siege, The Saga, the reader can see this apt vitality put to work on the written page through the narrative of an eye-witnessed skilful observer. The author x-rays the life of Gboko people, Benue people in general.

Just like novelists use the basic elements of prose fiction such as plot, imagery, theme, setting, characters, point of view, conflict, and suspense, Shija also employs the services of the above devices to recreate the society and expose its ills. He peoples The Siege, The Saga with characters of Tiv extraction and a few other tribes, who are made of words rather than of flesh and blood but their situations affecting the reader like the situations of the real people would. This study analyses the highpoints of literature as a tool for exposing social ills as exemplified in Shija’s The Siege, The Saga. The examination of this novel is done through the lenses of Critical Realism – a theory which shows profound sympathy for the common people.

Conceptual Clarifications

Literature

Literature mirrors the society and is one of the arts which recreate the consciousness and the conscience of a period. It tells us what has happened to man, what could have happened to him, what man has imagined might happen to him. It presents to us the environment; the joys and the sorrows; the tribulations; the cruelties; the shames; the dreams of men and women. Life is brimful of mysteries and one of the greatest mysteries of life is man himself. Literature probes into that mystery. It is broadly viewed as written or printed information on a given subject. This implies that literature could be applied to any symbolic record of things ranging from images to letters of the alphabet. In a more restricted or limited sense, literature refers to creative writing or all pieces of writing that possess artistic qualities. According to Okot PBitek, literature “...stands for all the creative works for man expressed in words” (43). This definition undeniably points to creativity which is the art of creating with imagination; it is the invention of something new or the reinvention of something old using language artistically. Whichever angle one looks at literature, one thing is certain: literature is an imaginative expression of human experience. This is consented to by Tanure Ojaide when he opines that:

...literature contains imaginative works channelled through a particular genre to express or convey meaning pleasurably, thus entertaining, to educate through the widening of consciousness, to awaken awareness in man and bid to make life more understanding. (2)

Perhaps, the implication of Ojaide’s submission above is that literature, generally, is those kinds of writings which are valued as works of art, especially in areas of poetry, drama, and prose. The last, however, is our concern here.

Tool

The free Encyclopaedia defines a tool as “[a]ny physical item that can be used to achieve a goal, especially if the item is not consumed in the process” (625). Exposing social ills can be broadly defined in a manner that is applicable to all historical periods as an act of giving a detailed account of somebody or something, revealing a truth that has been hidden about them. “It is”, Bridget Ejuma asserts, “a portrait or catalogue of the evils ranging from the darkness of a man’s heart, political maladministration, socio-economic disorders, capitalist imperialism, oppression, and exploitation occasioned by a person or group of persons against a group or the society” (4). It is an ongoing malady or process that has been going on since the dawn of history. This is evident in Robert Green’s postulation that:

[a] thousand years ago; we humans elevated ourselves above the animal world and never looked back. Figuratively speaking, the key to this evolutionary advance was our powers of vision: language, and the ability to reason that it gave us, let us see more of the world around us. Somewhere along the line, however, we stopped evolving as rational creatures. Despite our progress there is always a part of us that remains animal, and that animal part can respond only to what is most immediate in our environment – this is, perhaps, what drives man to effortlessly and endlessly demonstrate cruelty captured as societal ills. (74)  

 

Critical Realism

Realism is a concept that deals with the attitudinal factors in day-to-day life. One of its features is the environment which serves an integral element for the development of the theory. Anbua Bem Christian (6), Adaji Joy (4), and Okworie Jumai (5) agree that the theory realism tends to describe life without any form of idealism or romantic subjectivity. Therefore, it opposed those theories such as classicism, and romanticism as it accuses them of not being concerned with the real world but focusing on fallacies of art. Realism is precisely what it sounds like. It is attention to detail, an effort to replicate the true nature of reality in a way that novelists had never attempted. According to writers like William Harmon, and Hugh Holman, “Where romanticists plumb the actual or the superficial to find the scientific law  that controls its actions, realists centre their attention to a more remarkable degree on the immediate, the here and now, the specific action and the verifiable consequence” (425). According to Ferdinand Iorbee Asoo:

[c]ritical realism is one of the many forms of realism which includes socialist realism, surrealism, Marxist realism among others. The historical development of critical realism, can be traced to the 1850s, but it did not gain prominence until the 19th century”. The basics of critical realism at its inception were to show profound sympathy for the common people. (17)

The implication of Asso’s position above is that critical realism portrays the greed and hypocrisy of the upper class in contrast with the honesty and good-heartedness of the obscure simple people of the lower class. As a result humour was often used to stress the fine qualities of their positive characters. Margaret Archer shares a similar opinion on the concept of critical realism when she opined that: “...is the theory which attempts to capture the reality of the society without subjectivity” (17). In relation to Archer’s assertion Luckas sees critical realism as to “point to a new kind of socially conscious post colonial subjectivity, one based on professional expertise rather than revolutionary vision” (75). This is to say that for a critical realist, their works do not point to revolution but rather evolution or reformism. This is what makes critical realism different from socialist realism.

A Critical realist often starts with a powerful exposure of the ugliness of the bourgeois world in their work, but such usually has happy endings or an impotent compromise at the end which can be said to be the strength and weakness of critical realism.

Synopsis of The Siege, The Saga

Set in Benue State with the thick of the plot hovering between Gboko and Zaki Biam, Shija’s The Siege, The Saga follows the lives of Targema as he rises from the shackles of poverty to prominence and wealth and Chief Shaagee who, due to his father’s Tsav witchcraft/connection with the leader is rich as he even studies in England. Taagema is struck with tragedy right from the beginning of the novel as his immediate elder brother Agashua – a finial year Geology student – bleeds “to death in the arms of his father, Tsavnum, the fierce lion that descends from Swem Karagbe” (The Siege...:14). When Targema is “called home from boarding school to attend” his elder brother’s burial, “it sounded hollow or somewhat like a bad joke” (The Siege...:15). His father is “arrested by the police and charged with manslaughter” (15). As he reflects on this and the fact of his father Tsavnum Gbaka in chains, he resolves to “go right back to Bristow [a secondary school in Gboko], study hard and get to the university to read law” (16). The resolve and further determination sees him get admission to study law at the University of Maiduguri (21) and later completes his NYSC (38). Zaria. He thereafter proceeds to law school in Lagos.

Both Shaagee and Targema seem to share oddly but somewhat similar ties. They were both drawn to The Leader in their developmental stages which set them up for the political career. We are told “[i]t was at Zanaria’s plaza that Targema first saw the leader [Minister of Transport]” (42) while “...Shaagee was...an activist for the United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC), a political party led the leader, who waged a war against the political marginalization of the Tiv people by the Hausa-Fulani people” (43-44).  While the personality of Shaagee’s father contrasts with Targema’s father’s; one thing is common about these two: they both killed their sons who were in the university. Again they are both given to tsav witchcraft as “Tarzoho could see and smell the white paste that Tsavnum [Targema’s father] smeared on his body. It was the gber-kpugh concoction which every skilful hunter applied as a protection against the attacks of wild beasts and stray bullets” (12).  While Shaagee’s father kills his younger brother who was a university student through witchcraft, Targema’s father kills his elder brother “...Agashua, the final year geology student who was...mapping out the landscapes for his project” (14) by accident. While, unlike Shaagee’s father Gesa, Targema’s father Tsavnum may have done this in error, the narrative seems to liken it to the formal’s case as “[t]he death of his brother, Agashua, thirty years earlier could not have been in vain.... A good ransom was paid to the gods with the blood of a young intellectual to nourish the political fortunes of the Agera Ingyoroko Dagbera family” (17). This is also the case with Shaagee. His father makes him understands how “...political power was first acquired in the spiritual world, the kind of initiation they had given to the leader...at the turan hills just before the demise of Jato-Aka” (71).He learns that “the people began their politics by acquiring spiritual influence from the Aku Uka of Wukari when they sought to be Tor-Agbande. Their wooden drums, indier, an important instrument for political communication was carved far away from the vicinity  where necessary human sacrifices were made to strengthen the institutions of power” (71).

While Shaagee strikes up a relationship with Zanaria, Targema strikes up a relationship with Torkwase – Zanaria’s daughter. Despite ups and downs, Targema’s relationship withers the storm and finally ends into marriage. The marriage is plunged into scandals that are typical of politics. A scandal which dugs their heels until Torkwase is killed in the Zaki Biam saga, consequently shattering the governorship ambitions of both Shaagee and Targema. As the novel ends, the narrator tells us that “[b]oth governorship candidates of the two parties for the election, Chief Shaagee and Barrister Targema, were, for once, united in grief over [Torkwase’s] brutal murder.... The widespread mayhem that accompanied the Zaki Biam massacre that November in Tivland...led to the cancellation of the governorship polls” (211).

Analysis of The Siege, The Saga

The Tiv agitations for minority rights and statehood in Nigeria was exemplified by the actions of the United Middle Belt Congress (UMBC) which agitated for the creation of a middle belt state came but not without a baggage of horrors – corruption, misrule, conflicts, land wars, religious and party differences.  According to Katsina Robert Iornenge, “[t]he Tiv did not learn that politics was a pluralistic institution which was designed to accommodate rural groups, conformists and dissenters, clash of interests, tough competition, both victory and defeat, persuasion, lobbying, bargain, compromise and consensus” (195). Shija captures the true picture of Benue politics with its attendant horrors. The narrator tells us that:

Chief Shaagee had been elected into the Federal House of Representatives on three occasions previously. The people of Gboko had always loved him and aided the growth of his political career. They voted for him massively. His subsequent elections, however, were mired in controversies amid criticism of his stolen wealth, increased number of wives, disdain for young elites and so on. (60)

The above portrayal of Shaagee unmasks the true image of our politicians – how they amass wealth and build mansions while the poor masses linger in abject poverty. The author’s description of Chief Shaagee’s house confirms this thus:

Among the round thatched and dotted corrugated iron roofs architecture of Gboko, Chief Shaagee’s white mansion stood [out] like an alien white fortress. The concrete fence was made even more formidable by the American wire mesh that coiled thickly on top and linked to a life electric cable. Uniformed guards stood sentry over the bullet-proof gates. As the guards pushed the massive gate to open or close, it roared like a grumbling bulldog. (61)

While the electorates sleep in make-shifts or shabbily abandoned houses, the elected sleep in gold houses of bulletproof walls like Shaagee above. As our leaders shuffle to and fro in looted funds, they use our money to decorate prostitutes as revealed in this novel thus:

That encounter with the leader in 1967 changed the fortunes and outlook of Zanaria [a prostitute]. She soon...became a contractor at the Ministry of Transport in Lagos. Through the patronage of the minister, she became a woman of fashion; the owner of a brand new car, a clear beneficiary of lust and power. Her success was instant and decisive. She drove around Gboko in her posh car and paraded herself as the first female to own a car. (45)

As if that was not enough, the leader builds her a palatial house “deliberately designed to catch up with the latest architectural design and fitted with the choicest furniture imported from Italy” (45-46). She is soon to mount a boutique for the sale of clothes besides other gift items plus the erection of a pyramidal structure called “Moonshine Plaza” – a beer parlour – which completely dwarfed the surrounding buildings even as it “became the meeting point of politicians and notable elites” (46). Despite all of these, Chief Shaagee still occupies a pride of place in the church. This is the author’s reflection of realism of our contemporary society where the religious places of worship – churches and mosques – gladly receive donations from unscrupulous politicians without remorse.  The narrator reports that:

[t]he churches also benefited from his generosity as he [Chief Shaagee] donated large sums of money to church projects. He often told church congregations that his assignment as a Tiv leader and politician was akin to that of the biblical King David whom he regarded as a mythical hero.... King David had many wives, so had he; King David had a turbulent political reign, so had he over the recalcitrant Tiv constituents; King David liked adultery, so did he.... he attended church services or organized Thanksgiving services. He believed he was really a man after God’s heart... (63)

This is nothing short of the reality of Benue cum Nigerian situation. Not only is the corrupt politician welcomes to the church, he is given a front seat as well. As he donates, he is heaped with prayers and praises by his praise singers, some of which are the religious leaders.

The novel also x-rays the horrific nature of Nigerian politicians who go to any lengths in order to hold onto power. Chief Shaagee’s father Tor Gesa Akucha, assures him that “...political power is not won merely by votes cast in the ballot” (71).  In stark confusion, Shaagee asks his father “how else is political power won?” (71). His father makes him understands how “...political power was first acquired in the spiritual world, the kind of initiation they had given to the leader...at the turan hills just before the demise of Jato-Aka” (71). He learns that “the people began their politics by acquiring spiritual influence from the Aku Uka of Wukari when they sought to be Tor-Agbande. Their wooden drums, indier, an important instrument for political communication was carved far away from the vicinity  where necessary human sacrifices were made to strengthen the institutions of power” (71). He is taken aback when his father says: “My son... the priest of poor has already been instructed to administer the Ibiamegh ceremony. You should arrange all your wives and meet the elders of the kindred at the riverside.... the elders will all be at the riverside to watch you and your wives dance naked into the shrine” (71-72).  He is furious and tells his father “you expect me to be happy that spectators are jeering at my wives’ nudity? It’s impossible. That is not my idea of seeking election into the parliament” (72).  However, he experiences his worst nightmare when he realises from his father’s confession that “...this ritual is done in the secrecy of darkness. It is then that the priest of Poor would handover the imbiorvungu to you. Remember, this priceless possession is just one, and I, Chief Gesa have already made necessary sacrifices for it” (72).  As the novel reveals from this revelation:

The last piece of information struck Shaagee with force of a thunderbolt. A chill came over him. He could now confirm his suspicion that his father was responsible for the death of three of his siblings [Movihinze, Ukan, Ashirumun, and Zaayem] while he was away in England. It had been a widespread rumour in beer parlours that Chief Gesa had killed and sacrificed three of his children in quick succession to acquire political power. (72-73)

This is the length man can go just so he holds onto power. The reader learns that even the community is taken aback by Chief Gesa’ limitless cruelty as the narrator puts it: “...it was the tragic demise of Zaayem, Shaagee’s younger brother who was in the university that sent shivers down the spine of Chief Gesa’s kinsmen and women on account of his potent witchcraft” (73). This is a sophisticated form of child abuse where a child is pressured to succeed just for the sake of his parents. While the personality of Shaagee’s father contrasts with Targema’s, one thing is common about these two: they both killed their sons who were in the university. Again they are both given to tsav witchcraft as “Tarzoho could see and smell the white paste that Tsavnum [Targema’s father] smeared on his body. It was the gber-kpugh concoction which every skilful hunter applied as a protection against the attacks of wild beasts and stray bullets” (12).  While Shaagee’s father kills his younger brother who was a university student through witchcraft, Targema’s father kills his elder brother “...Agashua, the final year geology student who was...mapping out the landscapes for his project” (14) by accident. 

The author succeeds in painting a true picture of the Zaki Biam massacre. This is reality of what remains indelible in the sand of Tiv history as it left it sad feet in our souls. Even from the eye of Nigerian military it is clear how:

...Tangale noticed the corpse of a certain pretty woman dumped with two other female bodies by the road side. He moved closer to examine it, turning the blood-stained cadaver over and over. No one among his soldiers could explain why their commander took so much interest in a bloody corpse lying side by side with militants of Zaki Biam” (210). He jumped out of his jeep one hundred metres shy of the encounter, wandered the rest of the road surveying the corpses that had lain on either side of the road. He looked at the nearby houses and shops that had been demolished and the corpses of their owners lying prostrate in various postures.... a great harmattan winds howled, multiplying the furies of the atmosphere that had been enraged by machine-guns and arson fires. (209)

As this was what Nigerian soldiers were sent to do, Major “Tangale took deliberate, gladiatorial steps of a commander, conscious of his heroic role in an epic saga. Clutching both his service pistol and swagger-stick in either hands, he assumed the tentative gait of a conquerer who had just seized a virgin territory... (209). Even in his cruelty, the repressive gravity of the saga engulfs his soul as “...it pricked  his heart as though the hundreds of souls lying at his feet here, there and everywhere in Zaki Biam  had discharged together the fumes of malevolence against him” (209).

Because of the degree of scandals which is often associated with Nigerian politicians, Taegema and Torkwase’s marriage is plunged into scandals that are typical of politics. A scandal which dugs their heels until Torkwase is killed in the Zaki Biam saga, consequently shattering the governorship ambitions of both Shaagee and Targema. As the novel ends, the narrator tells us that:

[b]oth governorship candidates of the two parties for the election, Chief Shaagee and Barrister Targema, were, for once, united in grief over [Torkwase’s] brutal murder.... The widespread mayhem that accompanied the Zaki Biam massacre that November in Tivland...led to the cancellation of the governorship polls. (211)

The manner in the novel above is purposely done by the author as both candidate are less deserving of the governorship position they desperately seek. Even though their siblings were killed and offered as sacrifice to ensure their political victory by their parents, Shija shows that the quest to true leadership does not come from such sources. Similarly, Major Tangale who commanders the military squad in the Zaki Biam massacre which ends up murdering Torkwase, the woman he so much loves and once dated shows that there is a huge prize one must pay for doing wrong, especially in taking someone else’s life or other lives. These are a true reflection of critical realism.

Realism of Character Representation

Realist writers create central characters that do not have a perfect life; they are usually, as is normal with heroes in real life, held by fringes here and there. This is the case in Shija’s The Siege, The Saga. Targema, the novel’s central character, is a classical illustration of the aforementioned as the reader hears the narrator speak oh him:

...Targema had acquired the habit of talking fast with a clenched fist.... All the elements seemed to have conspired to deny him of his well-deserved peace of mind. He had no confidence in the laughter of people. Everybody seemed to mock him by their mirth. His father was in jail, his brother dead and buried, his mother sick and poor and all his friends now ditched him and looked for worthy friends. (The Siege...:37)

It is evident that realist writers deliberately inflict their central characters with such plights to remove them from the unhampered society submerged in merriments. They are propelled, in this situation, to wear their thinking caps and act directly at the ills bedevilling the society. It is this similar situation, as the narrator reveals above, that propels Targema to engage in critical thinking thus:

He [Targema] thought of the scathing paradox of the unfair balance in affairs of men [society]. How others laboured and sacrificed with all sincerity but were scorned and despised by those who could not possibly lay claim to greater wisdom, morality or hardwork. He thought that few people actually dictated the pace in the running of affairs of people. They formulated policies while others implemented. They interpreted the times while others merely accepted without questioning. (The Siege...:37)

A critical reader of Shija’s portrayal of Torkwase’s character will observe the realism in her representation. Her psychology and way of life is a superb representation of our contemporarily Nigerian girls. It is important to hear him as he writes:

All her life, she [Torkwase] believed that a boyfriend should be able to carter for financial needs. In fact, her insistence in getting the airway rebate form was a tacit reminder to any well-meaning boyfriend of hers [Targema, in this case] to deep his hands into his pocket and tell her to forget about rebate…. She dreaded the impression that some girls, probably because of frustration, reversed their roles by spending their precious money on boyfriends. She would not condescend so low as to do that. (p.28)

One who is familiar with the present Nigerian girls will immediately confess the critical reality of Shija’s character’s mentality above. Many a Nigerian girl has turned her boyfriend into an ATM money-making machine. They haul and evacuate all their financial burdens on the heads of their boyfriends. It is quite amusing but equally interesting to say that once you tell a Nigerian girl you love her, you are owe her money. They feel contented in their mentality that it is unethical for a girl to spend on her boyfriend as exemplified in Torkwase’s character.

Conclusion

It is evident that in his dexterity, Shija captures Benue State, and by extension, Nigeria, as an irrepressible cesspool of corruption and misrule. He faultlessly reveals how our politicians help themselves freely to the state’s wealth even as elections are blatantly rigged and stooges installed by political godfathers in Benue State. In this novel, he has done what the legendary Chinua Achebe called his “overall goal of The Role of a Writer in Africa – to challenge stereotypes, myths, and the image of ourselves and our continent, and to recast them through stories – prose, poetry, essays, and books for our children” (53). While we lament about how bad and corrupt our politicians are, we must know that they do not fall down from the sky; they do not pass through a membrane from another reality; they come from Benue parents, Benue homes, Benue churches, and they are elected by Benue citizens – voters. It appears Benue’s problem also comes from her citizens apart from her leaders. If we have selfish ignorant citizens, we are going to end up with selfish ignorant leaders hence this is what the Benue political system produces: garbage in garbage out. For if the electorates’ choice of voting in a new leader during election in Benue state is merely a meaningless choice; it will aptly confirm the assertion that propaganda works best when those who are being manipulated are confident that they are acting on their own free will. But this text tells us, certainly, that at no other time than now has the voice of the writer been more pertinent or more needed in Benue State. Hence Shija, using literature as the voice of reason, tells us in this novel that if Benue people use their votes to place the right person as Governor, the leadership will inevitably transform both infrastructures and institutions which will in turn transform the people’s lives. On the other hand, if the reverse is the case as has been the lot of Benue state, then gross misrule, explosively massive plundering of the state’s treasury besides general animated insensitivity to the people’s plight may end up becoming the people’s lot. Real eyes realise real lies just as the eyes are useless when the mind is blind. This is a clarion call to the bright people of conscience.

 

 

Works Cited

Primary Source

Shija, Terhemba. The Siege, the Saga. Ibadan: Kraft Books Limited, 2015. Print.

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