causes and effects of deforestation

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despite the efforts being made on environmental awareness on the importance of forest, humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs without thinking about the consequences through deforestation. their need combined with greed have caused much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations. therefore, unless there is sufficient investigation about the cause, effects and challenges faced in managing deforestation, however, the challenges will continue and affecting the quality of life world over. hence, this study attempts to investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in chama district a case study of kabombo muchinga province.

Submitted: July 05, 2017

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Submitted: July 05, 2017

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0INTRODUCTION

This chapter focuses on the background to the study, the statement of the problem, the purpose of the study, significance of the study and the research questions. It will further cover the delimitations and the limitations of the study and definition of terms.

1.1BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

Humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs
without thinking about the consequences. Their need combined with greed have caused
much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations. The expansion
of agriculture, urbanization and industrialization needed the land which was obtained by
large scale clearing of forests. The deforestation has changed the scenario of developed
and developing countries, and has brought out vast changes resulting into a various
environmental problems.

Forests are ecological as well as a socio-economic resource. Forests have to be managed
judiciously not only because they are source of various products and industrial raw materials
but also for environmental protection and various services they provide.
Approximately 1/3rd of the earth’s total land area is covered by forests. The forests provide
habitat for wildlife, resources such as timber, fire wood, drugs etc. and aesthetic environment.
Indirectly, the forests benefit people by protecting watersheds from soil erosion, keeping
rivers and reservoirs free of silt, and facilitate the recharging of groundwater. Forest plays
an important role in the cycling of carbon, water, nitrogen and other elements.
Therefore, the University of Zambia is not an exception in solid waste issue. Early life of humans on this planet began as forest dweller. In early days human were totally
dependent on forest for food, clothing, and shelter. Even after agriculture was started
humans remained dependent upon the forests for several of their needs. The source of fuel
wood and provide raw materials to various wood industries. Indian forests also provide
many other valuable minor products such as essential oil, medicinal plants, resins, turpentine
etc. Forests are renewable resources which provide a wide variety of commodities. Forests
satisfying aesthetic needs of humans and have been a source of inspiration for the
development of culture and civilization. Forests are home to a very large variety of plants,
animals and micro-organisms. This great richness of flora and fauna which has evolved over the years is an important part of nature. Forests provide habitat and food as well as
protection to wildlife species against extremes of climate.
Forests have great biological importance as reservoirs of genetic diversity apart from
playing an important role in regulating earth’s climate.

1.2STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

Despite the efforts being made on environmental awareness on the importance of forest, humans have altered the ecosystems according to their own needs without thinking about the consequences through deforestation. Their need combined with greed have caused much damage to the environment, which will affect the coming generations. Therefore, unless there is sufficient investigation about the cause, effects and challenges faced in managing deforestation, however, the challenges will continue and affecting the quality of life world over. Hence, this study attempts to investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in Chama district a case study of kabombo Muchinga province.

1.3THE PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

The purpose of the study was to investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in Chama district

1.4OBJECTIVES

The study will be guided by the following general and specific objectives.

1.4.1  GENERAL OBJECTIVE

  • To investigate the causes and effects of deforestation in Chama District

1.4.2SPECIFIC OBJECTIVES

  • To find out the causes of deforestation in Chama District
  • To investigate the effects of deforestation in kabombo in Chama District.
  • To determine strategies of reducing deforestation Kabombo in Chama District.  

 

 

  • 1.5RESEARCH QUESTIONS

The research questions were as follows;

  • What causes deforestation in kabombo area in Chama district?
  • What are the effects of deforestation?
  • How can one adapt to the effects of deforestation?
  • Which strategies can reduce the problem of deforestation?

1.6SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

The study highlighted the causes and effects of deforestation in Kabombo Chama District.  It is hoped that the results of this study would fill the knowledge gap of what causes deforestation and its effects in Kabombo in Chama District. It would be of great importance also in the following ways;

  • The recommendation of the study would help the policy makers to understand the causes and effects of deforestation.
  • The study was designed to generate information on the strategies that would reduce the problems of deforestation in Kabombo.
  • The findings would be used in the formulation of the policies with regards to sustainable utilization of forest.

1.7 DELIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Due to lack of sponsorship, this study will be limited to Kabombo area in Chama District. From this ………. 20 respondents were recruited. Therefore, the study did not cover other members from other villages. This would in a way affect the generalization of the findings.

1.8LIMITATION OF THE STUDY

Due to lack of resources and time, the study was limited to only a small sample. As a result, the findings may be subjected to a number of interpretations, and or may not even be generalized to all institutions of learning in the country.

1.9DEFINITION OF TERMS

 

  • Environmental Education: It is one of the courses that is offered at the University of Zambia which deals with environmental issues.
  • Environmental Council of Zambia: It is the branch of the government that deals with issues affecting the environment.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER TWO

2.0LITERATURE REVIEW

This chapter presents literature that is relevant to the study. The literature review will be presented through the following themes or sub-headings derived from the study objectives and questions; causes of deforestation, effects of deforestation and strategies of reducing deforestation

  1. CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION

……..explained that expansion of farming land About 60 per cent of the clearing of tropical moist forests is for agricultural settlement with logging and other reasons like roads, urbanization and Fuelwood accounting for the rest. Deforestation is proxied by the expansion of agricultural land. This is because agricultural land expansion is generally viewed as the main source of deforestation contributing around 60 per cent of total tropical deforestation. Shifting agriculture also called slash and burn agriculture is the clearing of forested land for raising or growing the crops until the soil is exhausted of nutrients and/or the site is overtaken by weeds and then moving on to clear more forest. It is been often reported as the main agent of deforestation.

Overgrazing is more common in drier areas of the tropics where pastures degraded by
overgrazing are subject to soil erosion. Stripping trees to provide fodder for grazing
animals can also be a problem in some dry areas of the tropics but is probably not a major
cause of deforestation. Clear cutting and overgrazing have turned large areas of Qinghai
province in China into a desert.

Fires are a major tool used in clearing the forest for shifting and permanent agriculture and
for developing pastures. Fire is a good servant but has a poor master. Fire used responsibly
can be a valuable tool in agricultural and forest management but if abused it can be a
significant cause of deforestation (Repetto, 1988).

Mining is very intensive and very destructive (Mather, 1991; Sands, 2005). The area of land
involved is quite small and it is not seen as a major cause of primary deforestation. Mining
is a lucrative activity promoting development booms which may attract population growth
with consequent deforestation. Moreover, Roads constructed to support the mining operations will open up the area to shifting agriculturists, permanent farmers, ranchers, land speculators and
infrastructure developers. The construction of roads, railways, bridges, and airports opens up the land to development and brings increasing numbers of peoples to the forest frontier. If wood is used as fuel in mining operations and it is sources from plantations established for the purpose, it can cause serious deforestation in the region.

Urbanization/industrialization and infra-structure Expanding cities and towns require land to establish the infrastructures necessary to support growing population which is done by clearing the forests (Mather, 1991; Sands, 2005).

 

EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION

Trees serve as cover to the soil thereby protecting the variety of life existing in it from extreme
temperatures. They serve as carbon sink by absorbing CO2 which is a potent greenhouse gas that causes global warming. It is alarming that despite the importance and contribution of forests to global warming and climate change mitigation, many forests are being converted to agricultural lands, for industrialization and so on. This deforestation activities increase the amount of CO2 released into the atmosphere directly and indirectly. Directly in the sense that, all the uses except lumbering for which the products of deforestation (such as wood) are used
release CO2 and sometimes CH4 (in the case of decay) into the atmosphere. Deforestation increases the amount of CO 2 indirectly in the sense that there is greenhouse gas absorption deficit resulting from fewer carbon sinks thereby causing a surplus of CO2 emissions.

Deforestation also disrupts the global water cycle (Bruijnzeel, 2004). With removal of part of
the forest, the area cannot hold as much water creating a drier climate. Water resources
affected by deforestation include drinking water, fisheries and aquatic habitats,
flood/drought control, waterways and dams affected by siltation, less appealing water related recreation, and damage to crops and irrigation systems from erosion and turbidity
(Anon., 1994a; Bruijnzeel et al., 2005).

Forests especially those in the tropics serve as storehouses of biodiversity and consequently
deforestation, fragmentation and degradation destroys the biodiversity as a whole and
habitat for migratory species including the endangered ones, some of which have still to be
catalogued. The biodiversity loss and associated large changes in forest cover could trigger abrupt, irreversible and harmful changes. These include regional climate change including feedback effects that could theoretically shift rainforests to savannas and the emergence of new pathogens as the growing trade in bushmeat increases contact between humans and animals (Anon., 2005).

The tropical forests destroyed each year amounts to a loss in forest capital (Hansen, 1997). By destroying the forests, all potential future revenues and future employment that could be derived from their sustainable management for timber and nontimber products disappear.
 

Deforestation, in other words, is an expression of social injustice (Colchester and Lohmann,
1993). The social consequences of deforestation are many, often with devastating long-term
impacts. For indigenous communities, the arrival of civilization usually means the
destruction/change of their traditional life-style and the breakdown of their social
institutions mostly with their displacement from their ancestral area. The intrusion of
outsiders destroys traditional life styles, customs and religious beliefs which intensifies with
infra-structure development like construction of roads which results into frontier expansion
often with social and land conflicts (Schmink and Wood, 1992).

STRETEGIES TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION

……………………Ways to reducing deforestation must go hand in hand with improving the welfare of cultivators at the forest frontier. Any policy that does without the other is unacceptable. There are no general solutions and strategies since these will vary with region and will change over time. All strategies require cooperation and goodwill. Effective implementation
is essential including stakeholder participation, development of management plans,
monitoring and enforcement. The strategies should be such that on one hand they should
recognize the critical roles of national, state and municipal governments and on other hand
empower the civil society and the private sector to take a pro-active role in reducing
deforestation, often working in conjunction with government.

Reduction of population growth is pivotal in reducing deforestation in the developing
countries. Consequent of reduced population, increase in per capita income will occur as a
consequence of increased incomes and literacy rates which will reduce pressure on the
remaining forests for new human settlement and land use change.

There is need to promote sustainable forest management. In order to promote sustainable forest management, it must be sustainable ecologically, economically and socially. Achieving ecological sustainability means that the ecological values of the forest must not be degraded and if possible they should be improved. This means that silviculture and management should not reduce biodiversity, soil erosion should be controlled, soil fertility should not be lost, water quality on and off site should be maintained and that forest health and vitality should be safeguarded.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER THREE

3.0METHODOLOGY

This chapter describes the methodology that will be used in conducting the study. The chapter is organized under the following section: Research design, population, sample, and sampling procedure, instruments for data collection, procedure for data collection, data analysis, and ethical consideration.

3.1RESEARCH DESIGNS

This research study will use a case study research design. A case study will be used because of its ability to collect data from people by using questionnaires, observation, its emphasis on fact finding and it allows the researcher to generalize data.

3.2POPULATION

The population of the study will compromise 10 immigration officers, 40 business men and women of Chama district.

3.3SAMPLE

The population of the study will compromise 10 immigration officers, 40 business men and women of Chama district. 

3.3STUDY SAMPLE

The sample size for the study will be 50 respondents. This will be headmen [five (5) males, farmers [five (10) males and five (10) males], forestry officers [five (5) males and five (5) females and kabombo community members [ten (5) males and ten (10) females] making a total of 50.

3.4SAMPLING PROCEDURE

The study used probability sampling procedure or design. To achieve this, simple random sampling procedure was applied so that every participant or respondent had an equal chance to be in the sample. The 50 respondents were randomly selected by giving them numbers from one to two. The number ones were then picked to form the study sample. 

3.5INSTRUMENTS FOR DATA COLLECTION

The instruments used for data collection were questionnaires. Questionnaires were used because of their ability to collect data from large sample and their rigidity against biasness. The other justification is that, a questionnaire is relevant in this study because it assures the respondents confidentiality and it is of less time consuming where data collection and analysis is concerned.

3.6DATA COLLECTION PROCEDURE

Data collection refers to the gathering of information to serve or prove facts. It involves collection of views on the attitudes of the people about the state of affairs of the phenomenon. Data collection is important in research as it allows for the dissemination of accurate information and development of meaningful programmes.

In this study, information will be collected using the structured interview guide. After collection, data will systematically be coded to help build themes in line with the objectives of the research. Additional information will be obtained using the observation schedule.

Data will be collected during the year 2016. All respondents will be allowed to complete the questionnaire at least within a day.

 

3.7ETHICAL CONSIDERATIONS

The study will be guided by the following ethical considerations:

  • Participants will be allowed to participate freely.
  • Names of participants will be kept anonymous.
  • Derogatory statements that can offend the respondents will be avoided.

 

 

 

CHAPTER FOUR

 

4.0PRESENTATION OF FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY

This chapter presents findings obtained from the study regarding the investigation of the impact of leakages and examination malpractices on the education standards and show evidence. The findings are presented under the subheadings derived from the study objectives. The subheadings are as follows: Gender distribution of respondents, age distribution, educational qualification of respondents, the causes of deforestation, the effects of deforestation, and strategies of reducing deforestation.

4.1TABLE 1.0: GENDER OF THE RESPONDENTS

 

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

MALE

10

50.0

50.0

50.0

FEMALE

10

50.0

50.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

 

 

(Table 1.0 gender of the respondent)

Table 1.0 shows the gender of the research participants. It was found that the research was gendered and gender sensitive. Furthermore, it indicates that 10 (50%) were males and also 10 (50%) were females. Hence, the research was balanced.

 

4.2TABLE 2.0: AGE RANGE OF THE RESPONDENTS

The table below shows the age ranges of the respondents that were involved in the survey. Those that were between the ages of 20 – 30 years were (5) representing 25.0%, also those between 31 – 40 years were (5) representing 25.0%, between 41 – 50 years were (8) indicating 40.0%, those that were 51- 60 years was only (1) representing 5% and above 61 years was only (1) representing 5 %. The total number of the respondents was 20 representing 100%. 

(Table 2: shows the age ranges of the respondent)

 

 

 

Frequency

Percent

Valid Percent

Cumulative Percent

Valid

20-30 years

5

25.0

25.0

25.0

31-40 years

5

25.0

25.0

50.0

41-50 years

8

40.0

40.0

90.0

51-60 years

1

5.0

5.0

95.0

61 and above

1

5.0

5.0

100.0

Total

20

100.0

100.0

 

 

 

4.4FIGURE 1: CAUSES OF DEFORESTION IN KABOMBO

 

(Figure 1: Views of the respondents on the state of leakages and examination malpractice in chipata district).

 

Figure 1 above shows the views of the respondents on the state of leakages and examination malpractice in chipata district. It revealed that 70% said there were leakages and examination malpractice while 30 % said no that there were no leakages and examination malpractice. 

 

4.5FIGURE 2: EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION

 

(Figure 2: Attitude toward leakages and examination malpractice)

Figure 2 indicates that 15% said the attitude of both teachers and pupils towards examination was good, 35% said it was bad while 50% of the respondents said the attitude was very bad on examination. 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

4.7TABLE 4: STRATEGIES OF REDUCING DEFORESTATION

(Table 4: Measures)

Table 4 postulates that 5 (25%) said measures were put in place to reduce on the leakages and examination malpractice in Chipata District and 15 (75%) said measures were not put in place at all. Therefore, this clearly shows that the majority of the respondents stated that there were no measures put in place to reduce the prevalence of leakages in the District. However, the total number of respondents was 20.

 

4.8SUGGESTED MEASURES BY THE RESPONDENTS

 

CHAPTER FIVE

5.0DISCUSIONS OF THE FINDINGS OF THE RESEARCH STUDY

This chapter presents on the discussion of the findings of the research which was on the causes and effects of deforestation and strategies of reducing deforestation in kabombo area in Chama district. The findings have been presented using the following subheadings: causes of deforestation: the effects of deforestation in Kabombo in Chama district and strategies that have been put to reduce deforestation

5.1CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION

In this research study it was found that some of the causes

5.2THE EFFECTS OF DEFORESTATION

5.3STRATERGIES THAT HAVE PUT IN PLACE TO REDUCE DEFORESTATION

 

 

5.4SUGGESTED MEASURES

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

CHAPTER SIX

6.0CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

The cha pter represents the conclusion and recommendation of the Research study.

6.1CONCLUSION

 

 

6.2RECOMMENDATIONS

 

 

 

 

 

 

REFERENCES

 

 

 

 

 

APPENDIX ONE

Instructions:

In the box provided tick or circle your best answer. Briefly write explanations in the spaces provided.

Section A: General Information

  1. Gender
  2.  
  3.  
  4. Age

10 - 20years{}

21 - 30years{}

31 - 40years{}

41 - 50years{}

51 and above{}

  1. Highest Level of Educational Qualification

Primary Education{}

Secondary Education{}

Tertiary Education{}

  1. Who are you?

Forestry officer{}

Community member{}

 

 

 

 

 

 

Section B: Causes of deforestation in Kambombo in Chama district.

  1. What causes deforestation in your area?
  2.  
  3.  
  4.  
  5. Are there any other sources of energy apart from wood?
  6.  
  7.  

Section C: EFECTS OF DEFORESTION

  1. Are there any effects of deforestation in your area?
  2.  
  3.  
  4. If the answer to question seven is yes, what are these effects

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Section D:  strategies that have been put in place so as to reduce deforestation in Kambombo in Chama district.

  1.  Does the forestry department work hand in hand with the community members in managing deforestation issues?
  2.  

 

  1. Are there other measures that have been put in place to reduce deforestation?
  2.  
  3.  
  4. If yes, specify? ..................................................................................................................... ..............................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................................
  5. Suggest strategies and measures that can be used to reduce deforestation.

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THANK YOU FOR YOUR PARTICIPATION: GOD BLESS YOU.

 

 


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