Ways of thinking

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The evolution of human thinking and perception,from dawn of History to modern times.

Submitted: July 08, 2017

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Submitted: July 08, 2017



 During my studies in the Mathematics Department of Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, I followed the course of History of Mathematics Education (Grade:7/10,no longer taught) of the diligent and labourious mathematics historian Lector Nikolaos Kastanis.

 According to the lesson, the first way of thinking was the direct way of thinking.I want a glass of water, so I get up, take a glass and pour some water.The second way of thinking was the indirect way of thinking.This way includes the former, the direct way, as every next way thereafter includes all the previous.The indirect way was brought by three achievements.The alphabet, currency and democracy.Alphabet results in writing, which is an indirect way of communication.Currency is an indirect method of economy.From giving bread for wine, everything were traded for currency,an indirect form of transactions, which is what economy in my opinion.Democracy is an indirect form of government.To make a decision, you must convince the rest.Because I think, the essence of democracy is convincing and saying what you have to say in front of everyone.The indirect way of thinking led to accomplishments such us cartogaphy, inter-cities-states alliances, war machines, systematic approach to knowledge(Elements of Euclid in geometry), multi person paintings,sculputure and representations, and Parthenon architecture.

The next way of thinking was structural way of thinking.It's argument was that a structure existed in the world around.According to the lesson, at end of 19th century, Pluto was discovered after noticing that the mass of the planets and their orbits didn't match.So since there is a solar system, it was assumed a planet existed at the boundaries.Making the calculations, it's position was pinpointed, turned the telescopes and found Pluto.I see this as the correct use of technology, but the explanation as correct but incomplete.The start of the structural way begun with the sun-centered system of Gallileo.Next step came with much wronged Christopher Columbus.He went down in History for discovery of the New World, but it was his thinking that Earth was a sphere that was a breakthrough.As Hungarian mathematician Imre Lakatos(1922-1974) wrote in Proofs and Refutations, "Christopher Columbus never reached West Indies, but he did discover something very interesting.Today we know that Earth is a sphere, even if spheroid (an ellipse rotated about it's axis).So in few words, the seeds of stuctural way of thinking started from Gallileo age.

At the point above the lesson ended, but I made an attempt to continue in the same spirit, on the grounds personal computers are revolutionizing human civilization.So the last way of thinking is the net way of thinking.It's core is that most things are a net.It was brought by three breakthroughs, all of American origin.The atom bomb with nuclear chain reaction(Szilárd and Enrico Fermi in New York,August 1939), the man on the moon in 20 July 1969, with Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin on Apollo 11, and the invention of Internet.

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