library research: speaking

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speaking

Submitted: August 22, 2017

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Submitted: August 22, 2017

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Chapter 1:  Introduction

Speaking is the one of the important parts in English language skills that should be mastered by students besides reading, writing and listening. The function of speaking skill are to express an idea, someone feeling, thought, and it express spontaneously by orally. Speaking is one of the language art of talk as communication interaction with someone, and it is very difficult to master it. Speaking skill is have a closely relationship with listening skill, in speaking act, the students must be listening and then speak up, because speaking is not only remembering and memorizing the sentences in written but speaking is spontaneous to show the students idea by orally.

According to Chaney (1998:3), “speaking is the process of building and sharing meaning through the use of verbal and non verbal symbols in a variety of contexts. Speaking is a crucial part of second language learning and teaching.” It means students should be able to communicate with the others to get or to share information and/or to express what they feel.

Learning to speak foreign language needs more than understanding grammatical and semantic rules but learners also need to know how native speakers use the spoken language in context of interpersonal exchange. It is difficult for language learner to communicate effectively because requires the ability to use the language in proper social interaction. Many people who learning a second or foreign language claimed that one has ability to overcome art of speaking has the most significant aspect of language pedagogy.

Another difficulty is that the students are lack of English vocabulary because they are passive users of English. They only use English in English class. It is also very often that in the English class they do not use English as the main language. Moreover, they are unwilling to open their dictionary. They prefer asking to their teacher or friends to finding the words in dictionary.  In order to speak in target language truly effective and make the interlocutor understood of what we say, there are some prerequisites of spoken language needed to get better in oral communication. The following item are part of the discourse knowledge: knowing the relevant vocabulary in certain situation, able to use discourse connector, able to use proper phrases, able to use correct intonation or tone, able to use stress in word and understand about the interlocutor’s response and input.

As second language, it needs a long time to master it. Therefore, it is not surprising that the students could not communicative well in English.
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Chapter 2:  Presentation of Data

A. Definition of Speaking

Speaking is an act of making vocal sounds. We can say that speaking means to converse, or expressing one's thoughts and feelings in spoken language. To speak often implies conveying information.

Speaking skills are the skills that give us the ability to communicate effectively.

B. Important Advantages of Speaking

Proficiency in each Speaking is necessary to become a well-rounded communicator, but the ability to speak skillfully provides the speaker with several distinct advantages. The capacity to put words together in a meaningful way to reflect thoughts, opinions, and feelings provides the speaker with these important advantages:

1. Ability to inform, persuade, and direct (Italic and Bold ). Business managers, educators, military leaders, lawyers, and politicians, among others, seek to develop their speaking skills to such a level that they are transformed into master communicators. Speaking clearly and confidently can gain the attention of an audience, providing the golden opportunity for the speaker to make the message known. Wise is the speaker who gains and then holds the attention of an audience, with well-chosen words in a well-delivered presentation, forming a message that is effective, informative, and understood.

2. Ability to stand out from the rest (Italic and Bold ). When one thinks of speaking skills, one tends to think of it as a common skill. Think again. The ability to stand before others and speak effectively is not an ordinary ability. Many people are deathly afraid of public speaking; others have little ability to form thoughts into sentences and then deliver those words in a believable way. The bad news is that at any given moment the world has precious few with the speaking talents of, say, Winston Churchill or John F. Kennedy. The good news is that a speaker whose skills are honed and developed with constant application and hard work can stand out.

3. Ability to benefit derivatively (Italic and Bold ). Well-developed verbal skills can increase one’s negotiation skills. Self-confidence is improved. A growing sense of comfort comes from speaking in front of larger and larger audiences. A reputation for excellence in speaking can accrue over time, thereby imparting a certain credibility to the speaker.

4. Career enhancement (Italic and Bold ). Employers have always valued the ability to speak well. It is, and always will be, an important skill, and well worth the effort in fully developing. Speaking skills are important for career success, but certainly not limited to one’s professional aspirations. Speaking skills can enhance one’s personal life, thereby bringing about the well-rounded growth we should all seek.

C. Different Types of Speaking
C.1. Ceremonial Speaking stresses sharing of identities and values that unite people into communities. These are the special occasions on which we celebrate and reinforce common aims, benefits, and aspirations.

Osborn suggests that there are two techniques basic to all forms of ceremonial speeches: Identification and Magnification.

C.1.1. Identification - By identification we mean the means whereby we create close feelings among members of the audience, and between audience and speaker.
C.1.2. Magnification - Magnify the significance of the person or event being honoured.

With magnification we emphasize certain values.


C.2. Demonstrative Speaking - explains how to do something or how something works. The speech must be instructive and present valuable and significant information.

C.3. Informative Speaking - can be loosely defined as sharing knowledge and reducing audience ignorance. Speeches of this type likely describe an activity, event, object person, or place, demonstrate an event or activity, or explain abstract or complicated subjects or issues.

C.4. Persuasive Speaking - is a specific type of speech in which the speaker has a goal of convincing the audience to accept his or her point of view. The speech is arranged in such a way as to hopefully cause the audience to accept all or part of the expressed view.
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Chapter 3:  Conclusion

This is the general statement of ideas derived from the conduct of the research/term paper.

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Chapter 4:  Insight Gained

This is the presentation of ideas or learnings gained by the reaserchers in the conduct of the research paper. This should be stated in the  researchers own words.
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References

This is the list of books user as sources of data. Surnames of all the authors should be arranged alphabetically.

*http://www.geraldgillis.com/importance-speaking-skills/
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Curriculum Vitae

This part contains the personal information about the researchers and their educational background.


Note*** (ikaw na po sa conclusion, insight gained, references at curriculum vitae)


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