# Regarding the Magnetic Moments of Protons and Neutrons

Essay by: Mark Creek-water Dorazio

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**Regarding the Magnetic Moments of Protons and Neutrons **

**SUMMARY [i.e., "abstract"]**

**Physical Review Journal**a paper in which he showed the possibility that an electron and a positron can rotate [i.e., orbit] in a very tight orbit [radius approximately 0.7E-15 meter], each moving at almost the speed of light. Surprisingly, some PhD holders have a problem with this idea, as it's not a part of the currently-accepted "standard model of particle physics." One objection is that such a tiny positronium-like system cannot possibly be stable, because the electron and positron would surely annihilate each other.

**Key words: electron, electron-positron pair, magnetic moment, neutron, positron, proton, Sternglass.**

**Part 1: THE PROTON**

**[Ref.#1]**. {Please note that nobody has ever observed any "quarks" in a physics lab

**[Ref.#2]**}. The unpaired positron at the center accounts for the proton's positive electric charge, given that the charges in each of the pairs cancel each other.

**Ref.#3**Sternglass describes one of these four ep-pairs in detail, as an electron and a positron which rotate [i.e., orbit] around each other in a very tight orbit [radius approximately 0.7E-13 cm, i.e., 0.7E-15 meter], each moving at almost the speed of light.

**mag.mom. =**

*I x A***---(Equation 1)**,

*"I"*is electric current and

*"A"*is the area around which the current flows. According to the standard textbook explanation, one visualizes the electric charge as a point on the surface of a sphere, which traces a circle whose area is

**"**as the sphere rotates. The area is given by:

*A*"*A = (pi).R.R*-----where "

*R*" is the radius of the circle.

*I = Q/T,*where "

*I*" is current, "

*Q*" is charge, and "

*T*" is the amount of time needed to complete one rotation. Simple geometry gives

**where "**

*T =*2*.(pi).R/v,**v*" is velocity. Assuming that the charge moves at the fastest rate possible, (i.e., assuming that

*v = c,*the speed of light), one obtains:

*I = Q.c /*2

*.(pi).R*.

**.**

*mag.mom. = Q.c.R /*2 ---(Equation 2)*R*to obtain

*R =*0.587E-15 meter = 0.587E-13 cm = 0.587 fm.**Part 2: THE NEUTRON**

**superimposed on top of the positron,**and the two charges spinning together in the same direction as a unit.

*-*0.9662E-26 joule/tesla = [(-Q).[c].(Re) / 2] + (+Q).[c.(Rp/Re)].Rp / 2 ---(Equation 3)*,**Re*" is the radius of the electron's charge distribution, and "

*Rp*" the radius of the positron's charge distribution.

*c*by the factor

*(Rp/Re)*to account for the fact that the speed of the outer edge of the positron is significantly less than

*c.*In other words, the fact that the outer edge of the electron can move no faster than

*c*limits the speed at which the outer edge of the positron can move to a magnitude which is less than

*c.*

*Q = +/-*1.602E-19 coulomb and

*Rp =*0.587E-15 meter,

*Re*to obtain

**, which is the charge-radius of the electron.**

*Re =*0.821E-15 meter**CONCLUSION**

**prevented by magnetic repulsion from annihilating each other,**rotating together as a unit, with the outer edge of the electric charge moving at almost the speed of light. Using only easy maths, (high-school algebra and geometry) and the known magnetic moments of the proton and the neutron, one can calculate the approximate radius of the positron and that of the electron. The numeric values so calculated agree reasonably well with the known distribution of electric charges, both positive and negative, inside the neutron

**[Ref.#4 (scroll down to the schematic diagram)]**.

**REFERENCES**

**Before the Big Bang**(1997, 2001);

**Quantum Generations**(1999), pages 322-324;

**Phys.Rev. 123,**(1 July 1961);

**http://www.sjsu.edu/faculty/watkins/neutronnucleus.htm**{scroll down to the schematic diagram}.

**Submitted:** August 23, 2017

© Copyright 2023 **Mark Creek-water Dorazio**. All rights reserved.

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