Hacking the Cosmic Computer

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Hacking the Cosmic Computer The Manual for Building a Universe



This article is for all readers who are interested in some thought experiments to help in understanding the world around them. These thought experiments refer to various theories like: General
Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory (QFT), Loop Quantum Gravity, String (M) Theory and others, as they all offer partial answers as to how the the universe works. There is no
intention to use maths or conduct experiments to validate these thoughts. However a great deal has been made to ensure that they are consistent with all tried and tested experiments by theoretical
physicists. These thought experiments have been in the making over many years and seen many modifications to ensure that they are in line with the latest findings. They have also been used to offer
tentative rational explanations to many of the unanswered questions in physics today. They are also made to encourage fresh thinking, and to offer some possible visualisations of the principles
behind the String (M) theory and others. When physicists assume that all the elementary particles are actually one-dimensional loops, or "strings”, each of which vibrates at a different frequency,
physics gets much easier. String theory allows physicists to reconcile the laws governing particles, called quantum mechanics, with the laws governing space-time, called general relativity, and
tries to unify the four fundamental forces of nature into a single framework. But the problem is that string theory can only work in a universe with 10 or 11 dimensions: three large spatial ones,
six or seven compacted spatial ones, and a time dimension. The compacted spatial dimensions — as well as the vibrating strings themselves are about a billionth of a trillionth of the size of an
atomic nucleus. There's no conceivable way to detect anything that small, so there's no known way to experimentally validate or invalidate the string theory. On the other hands, Quantum Field
Theory explains the small scale reality as a vibrations in quantum fields which does not contradict the arrow of time.



Our thought experiments give support to some aspects of all the above theories by suggesting a common and very simplified structure behind all subatomic particles. They also suggest the existence
of “Space Particles” and highlight their roles in shaping our reality. It is hoped that this approach will offer some rational explanations to the many unanswered questions in physics today. This
work is in response to the great contributions by physicists to popularise fresh thinking in theoretical physics. All comments, for or against, to enrich these thoughts experiments are very
welcomed. This work covers many of the basic aspects essential to the fundamental understanding of physics. We are giving it the title “S Theory” to signify the emphasis on “Simplified”/ “Space
Particles”/ “Spinning Singularities” as the basis for this Model of the Universe. The key propositions of the S Theory start with the suggestions that the universe started due to a Big Bounce.
Space Particles, Neutrinos and anti Neutrinos were densely packed in the form of Dark Energy. The fabric of space unfolded first as a precondition for the universe to exist. This followed by a huge
atomic activities due to the unleashed great store of energy. It is proposed that all Fermion subatomic particles (the particles which make up the universe as we know it) and the proposed Space
Particles are made of two fundamental energies in the form of: a) singularities at the nuclei of all subatomic particles and b) energy quanta in the form of vibrating strings. All subatomic
particles (generation I of the standard model) have a total of six singularities Spinning either cloak wise or anti cloak wise, except the Space Particles which have six of each. The universe
exists in the form of matters (at the expense of antimatter) due to the slower interaction of the electrons with the SP in comparison to that of the anti electrons (the positrons). It also proposes
that the neutrons and anti protons are constituted of the same fundamental elementary energy particles and therefore they are identical. The Neutrons, under extreme pressure, are stable and
constitute dense mass with very high gravity. They helped in the collection of the cosmic dust to form the stars and the galaxies following the Big Bounce. This theory offer a unified explanations
to the 4 forces of nature and defines micro gravity as the folding of the Space Particles resulting from the formation of the six additional dimensions predicted by the string theory. The macro
gravity, as we know it is the cumulative sum of these shrinkages at the micro level plus the role played by the Gravitons predicted by the String Theory. It also proposes the existence of a fifth
force which connect the Space Particles to form the flexible fabric of space. The S Theory also supports the findings by the String Theory of the existence of computer codes impeded in the energy
strings. These codes offer rational answers to the many of the current conundrums in physics. The S Theory tries offers possible answers regarding the nature of Black Matters, Black energy and
their roles in the working of the perpetual universe. It offers some possible explanations to followings: -the mystery of the collapse of the electrons’ waves when observed in the double slit
experiments, -the mystery of Entanglement, -the definition of time, -whether we live in a hologram and much more. This work makes the Philosophical suggestion that cosmic intelligence are destined
to advance knowledge and to achieve interstellar communication to make a better use of the proposed simple tools the universe is made of.



The main headings of this work are:



1) Abbreviations of the terms used in this article. 2) How did the universe start (Genesis Revisited)? 3) The most elementary building blocks that make up the entire universe. 4) The law of
Spinners/ charge conservation. 5) E quanta are responsible for all forms of energy. 6) The Fabric of the pixelated Space. 7) The Entanglement conundrum, the Uncertainty (Heisenberg) Principle and
the Wave Particle Duality. 8) The most common subatomic particles & their E Quanta & Spinners 9) Explaining Fusion and Fission using the new tools. 10) Why there are more Matters than anti Matters
in the universe? 11) The geometry of the space particles and the creation of the gravitational force. 12) The Roles of the SP in the creation of the Strong Force. 13) The Roles of the space
particles in creating the weak force. 14) The Roles of the SP in creating the Electromagnetic force. 15) The Proposed Fifth Force of Nature: The Space Particles Force - The Spinning Loop Force. 16)
Dark Matters, Dark Energy and Neutron Stars 17) What is time, what is reality and the life time of the universe! 18) The key elements associated a universe design manual.

Submitted: November 21, 2017

A A A | A A A

Submitted: November 21, 2017

A A A

A A A


Hacking the Cosmic Computer
The Manual for Building a Universe

This article is for all readers who are interested in some thought experiments to help in understanding the world around them. These thought experiments refer to various theories like: General Relativity, Quantum  Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory (QFT), Loop Quantum Gravity, String (M) Theory and others, as they all offer partial answers as to how the the universe works. There is no intention to use maths or conduct experiments to validate these thoughts. However a great deal has been made to ensure that they are consistent with all tried and tested experiments by theoretical physicists. These thought experiments have been in the making over many years and seen many modifications to ensure that they are in line with the latest findings. They have also been used to offer tentative rational explanations to many of the unanswered questions in physics today. They are also made to encourage fresh thinking, and to offer some possible visualisations of the principles behind the String (M) theory and others. When physicists assume that all the elementary particles are actually one-dimensional loops, or "strings”, each of which vibrates at a different frequency, physics gets much easier. String theory allows physicists to reconcile the laws governing particles, called quantum mechanics, with the laws governing space-time, called general relativity, and tries to unify the four fundamental forces of nature into a single framework. But the problem is that string theory can only work in a universe with 10 or 11 dimensions: three large spatial ones, six or seven compacted spatial ones, and a time dimension. The compacted spatial dimensions — as well as the vibrating strings themselves are about a billionth of a trillionth of the size of an atomic nucleus. There's no conceivable way to detect anything that small, so there's no known way to experimentally validate or invalidate the string theory. On the other hands, Quantum Field Theory explains the small scale reality as a vibrations in quantum fields which does not contradict the arrow of time.

Our thought experiments give support to some aspects of all the above theories by suggesting a common and very simplified structure behind all subatomic particles. They also suggest the existence of “Space Particles” and highlight their roles in shaping our reality. It is hoped that this approach will offer some rational explanations to the many unanswered questions in physics today. This work is in response to the great contributions by physicists  to popularise fresh thinking in theoretical physics. All comments, for or against, to enrich these thoughts experiments are  very welcomed.
This work covers many of the basic aspects essential to the fundamental understanding of physics. We are giving it the title “S Theory” to signify the emphasis on “Simplified”/ “Space Particles”/ “Spinning Singularities” as the basis for this Model of the Universe.
The key propositions of the S Theory start with the suggestions that the universe started due to a Big Bounce. Space Particles, Neutrinos and anti Neutrinos were densely packed in the form of Dark Energy. The fabric of space unfolded first as a precondition for the universe to exist. This followed by a huge atomic activities due to the unleashed great store of energy. It is proposed that all Fermion subatomic particles (the particles which make up the universe as we know it) and the proposed Space Particles are made of two fundamental energies in the form of:
 a) singularities at the nuclei of all subatomic particles and 
b) energy quanta in the form of vibrating strings. 
All  subatomic particles (generation I of the standard model) have a total of six singularities Spinning either cloak wise or anti cloak wise, except the Space Particles which have six of each. The universe exists in the form of matters (at the expense of antimatter) due to the slower interaction of the electrons with the SP in comparison to that of the anti electrons (the positrons). It also proposes that the neutrons and anti protons are constituted of the same fundamental elementary energy particles and therefore they are identical. The Neutrons, under extreme pressure, are stable and constitute dense mass with very high gravity. They  helped in the collection of the cosmic dust to form the stars and the galaxies following the Big Bounce. 
This theory offer a unified explanations to the 4 forces of nature and defines micro gravity as the folding of the Space Particles resulting from the formation of the six additional dimensions predicted by the string theory. The macro gravity, as we know it is the cumulative sum of these shrinkages at the micro level plus the role played by the Gravitons predicted by the String Theory. It also proposes the existence of a fifth force which connect the Space Particles to form the flexible fabric of space. The S Theory also supports the findings by the String Theory of the existence of computer codes impeded in the energy strings. These codes offer rational answers to the many of the current conundrums in physics.
The S Theory tries offers possible answers regarding the nature of Black Matters, Black energy and their roles in the working of the perpetual universe. It offers some possible explanations to followings: 
-the mystery of the collapse of the electrons’ waves when observed in the double slit experiments, 
-the mystery of Entanglement, 
-the definition of time, 
-whether we live in a hologram and much more. 
This work makes the Philosophical suggestion that cosmic intelligence are destined to advance knowledge and to achieve interstellar communication to make a better use of the proposed simple tools the universe is made of.

 The main headings of this work are:

1) Abbreviations of the terms used in this article.
2) How did the universe start (Genesis Revisited)?
3) The most elementary building blocks that make up the entire universe.
4) The law of Spinners/ charge conservation.
5) E quanta are responsible for all forms of energy.
6) The Fabric of the pixelated Space.
7) The Entanglement conundrum,  the Uncertainty (Heisenberg) Principle and the Wave Particle Duality.
8) The most common subatomic particles & their E Quanta & Spinners
9) Explaining Fusion and Fission using the new tools.
10) Why there are more Matters than anti Matters in the universe?
11) The geometry of the space particles and the creation of the gravitational force.
12) The Roles of the SP in the creation of the Strong Force.
13) The Roles of the space particles in creating the weak force.
14) The Roles of the SP in creating the Electromagnetic force.
15) The Proposed Fifth Force of Nature: The Space Particles Force - The Spinning Loop Force.
16) Dark Matters, Dark Energy and Neutron Stars
17)  What is time, what is reality and the life time of the universe!
18) The key elements associated a universe design manual.

1) Abbreviations of the terms used in this article.

 


2) How did the universe start (Genesis Revisited)?
Lets speculate that the universe has started with a Big Bounce of highly compressed Space Particles (SP), Neutrinos (Ve-) and anti Neutrinos (Ve+) plus stored potential energy (the energy used to compress these particles). The SP are responsible for the Instant formation of the Fabric of Space Matrix. Ve- & Ve+ are responsible for the formation of all matters and anti matters. The dark energy is responsible for all the types of electromagnetic radiations and providing stored energy essential for all the subatomic activities. 
The instantaneous unfolding of the fabric of space structure was a perquisite to the creation of the physical universe. The creation of the fabric of space was 

followed immediately by un-compacting the Ve- & Ve+ to commence the process of the creating hydrogen atoms. The Big Bounce and the formation of the fabric of space was followed immediately by the release of the Electromagnetic radiations (Photons) and the formation of all the Fermion particles. The Fermion particles like quarks and leptons are responsible for the creation of the hydrogen atoms (cosmic dust) followed by heavier atoms, which in turn led to the formation of the galaxies, stars and planets.

All the compacted SP,  Ve- & Ve+  in addition to the stored potential energy (Dark Energy) are made of  two types of fundamental elementary energy particles responsible for all that exist in the universe. 

The perception of infinite space.
The Photons and all the subatomic Particles cannot exist outside the fabric of space. The photons continuously travel at the speed of light with the necessary curved lines in order to remain within the fabric of space. This would give the illusion that space is infinite. Such reality could explain the possible existence of multi verses in proximity without ever coming into contact with each other, as no photons could jump their respective space time. In other words all the subatomic particles for each universe stay trapped within their own spacetime.

Entropy
Our “Big Bounce”  thought experiment is supported by the current physicists conclusion that “Time” moves forward because a property of the universe called "entropy”. Current rough  definition of entropy:  as the level of disorder increases, a rise in entropy after it has occurred become irreversible.
This thinking is in line with our speculations. The universe started with the orderly pr-packed SP, Ve-, Ve+  and stored potential energy. Once they are released, the process of creating all other subatomic particles started with a rising level of disorder associated the various stages of fusion and fission.

A State of Equilibrium for a Perpetual Universe.
However we speculate that the march from order to disorder would reach a state of equilibrium through the role played by the Dark Matters as cosmic vacuum cleaners. This process involves re-compacting some of the SP, with other subatomic particles in the form  Ve- & Ve+ to be ready for the next secondary Bounces. Our thought experiments regarding the process of continuous subatomic particles compactions will be explored when we discuss the collapse of massive Neutron stars into Blackholes. As the fabric of the universe is finite, then the fragmentation of the heavenly bodies should also be finite.

3) The most elementary building blocks that make up the entire universe.


Physicists have been questioning for a long time the possibilities that all subatomic particles could be made of even smaller elementary particles. In this work we are proposing that at the heart of everything in the universe there are only two types of ultimate elementary energy particles. The various combinations and permutations of these two elementary particles lead to the creation of all the known and yet to be discovered subatomic particles and anti particles. They are also responsible for all the theorised Quantum Numbers used to explain the working of the physical universe. The two elementary energy particles which make up the entire universe are:
The elementary particles are responsible for all subatomic particles.

The table below shows the number of spinners for all 3 generations subatomic particles.

 


The Two fundamental Elementary Energy Particles are:
A ) Energy Quanta (E Quanta, for a single string of energy, E quantum).
E quanta are identical elementary strings of vibrating energy moving at the speed of light.  They move in either linear or rotational (orbital) angular momentum. Each E quantum has also a spin angular momentum (left handed (L-R) or right handed (R-L) spins) that does not depend on its vibration or orbital angular momentum. There are equal number L-R and R-L  E quanta in the universe. The total number of the E quanta and the directions of their spin are conserved. 
As a reference from current literature: “The helicity of a particle is right-handed if the direction of its spin is the same as the direction of its motion. It is left-handed if the directions of spin and motion are opposite. Helicity is just the projection of the spin onto the direction of liner momentum. Helicity is conserved”. For our purposes we refer to Helicity only to indicate the L-R or R-L spin of each energy quantum.

 A varying number of these E quanta with linear angular momentum join together to form different Photons with various energy levels, hence the law E=h*f where E is the energy, h is the Plank constant (or a single string of energy) and f is frequency (i.e. the number of strings in the photon).
So the various frequencies of any photons are determined by the number of the E Quanta linked/ joined in a chain like structure. This explains why all Photons of different frequencies/ vibrations travel at the constant speed of light. 
 
The purple photon has billions of times of E quanta of the yellow photon.

The greater the number of the E quanta in a photon the more squeezed they are within that photon leading to its greater vibration/ shorter frequency. The photon has a spin of 1 and it is theorised to be its own anti particle. This would imply that the photons are made of a chain of double E strings made of R-L and L-R helicity.

A different clusters of E quanta ( with their rotational/ orbital angular momentum) form the various energy clouds of all the Fermion and other subatomic particles (electrons, Quarks, etc). The vibrating and flexible fabric of space is  also made of the E quanta. Fermions come in 3 generations, according to the standard model, determined by the level of their energy cloud.

B)Basic Energy Singularities/ Spinners (Sing). 
At the nuclei of all Fermion subatomic particles and the SP, there are Sings spinning clockwise or anti clockwise at the speed of light. These Sings give the subatomic particles their electric charge and responsible for their intrinsic spinning characteristics. The continuous change of the spinners’ locations and combinations within the subatomic Particles determine the geometry and movements of the various energy clouds. The various energy clouds arrangements of the SP are in effect the fields of energy excitations in which all the observable subatomic particles materialise. For example the interactions between the non integer charged Fermion particles with the SP give rise to most of the mass of the Quarks.
Most of physics can be explained in terms of the:
A) The Number of Sings in each subatomic particles (Fermions) and the direction of their spins.
B) The quantity of the Energy Quanta and their helicity. i.e L-R, R-L spins
C) The existence of the space particles and their continuous interactions with the Fermions to create the various energy excitation fields.
D) The role of the Lepton particles (Positrons, Neutrinos and Anti Neutrinos) in acting as mediators in creating the strong force and the weak force as a result the subatomic particles interact with the SP. The electron helicity (L-R), its 6 ACW Spinners and the way they interact with the SP and other subatomic particles make them slower to interact.

What are the key characteristics of the vibrating E quanta and the Spinners?

????Each E Quantum (Elementary String of Energy): 
- Is in a state of continuous vibration
- Has a minimum amount of identical energy level equivalent to Plank constant. 
- Have a predetermined lefthand (L-R) or righthand (R-L) spin. Each of these spins is identified as ½ spin. The directions of the spin of the E-Quanta is one determinant of the quantum numbers. This spin is not the same as the orbital/ rotational momentum of the energy clouds of the various subatomic particles mentioned below. Only subatomic particles with different spins interchange their Singularities and change to different subatomic particles.
- Adopts a linear or rotational angular momentum. Switches between the two momentum as photons are absorbed or emitted. The law of conservation of momentum is obeyed. Photons behave as if they are both particles and anti particles.
- Is always found in a large group forming E quanta
- Forms the energy field as they react to the relevant Spinners and the SP.
- Carries identity and location codes. Such codes are essential for the “now-time” snapshots which form the time dimension. This may also offer a rational explanation to the entanglement conundrum (as we will touch on later). This speculation is in line with the recently discovered computer codes buried within the maths of the string theory. 
- Never get created or destroyed.
- The E quanta level and their spin determine some of the subatomic particles quantum numbers.
The E quanta level determines the three generations of the Fermion particles.

???? Each Spinner (Singularity)
- Spins either cloak wise ( termed as positive charge) or anti clockwise (termed as negative charge). Spinners of different charge don’t annihilate each other.
- Change its position within the subatomic particle nucleus in response to/ due to the interaction with the other spinners, including those of the SP.
- Has a plank length radius & spins at the speed of light.
- Is always found in the company of other spinners in a group of 6 or multiple of 6 as in the case of the SP only. Six is the only number that is both the sum and the product of their consecutive positive numbers (1,2,3). When we say the up quark has a charge of 2/3+ we mean a net of 4 CW spinners (2/3*6=4, ie 5 CW less 1 ACW). 
- Each singularity’s spin is equivalent to an atomic second, thus giving Spacetime concept a visualised meaning. Each atomic second is equivalent to a Plank time.

Other possible features of the spinners:
- Spinners act as the engines which keep all the subatomic particles interacting with each others.
- The various clustering of the spinners, locations and interactions lead to changes in the energy clouds of the various subatomic particles. This vibration/ changes in the energy clouds are in effect the various energy fields which permeates through out the entire space.
- The total number of the spinners and the directions of their spins are conserved. They are divided equally between those spinning clock wise and those Spinning anti clockwise. 
- The spinners play a key role in determining the subatomic particles quantum numbers.

4) The law of Spinners/ charge conservation.
Just as the energy in the universe is conserved under the law of conservation of energy, so is the number of singularities and their spin directions are conserved. 
Most of the subatomic particles’ mass are generated from their interaction with the space particles and with each others. The greater the interaction mediated by the spinners the greater the mass. Various combinations of spinners generate different subatomic particles’ spin, this  leads to the different energy level of each subatomic particle.  
Neutrinos & Anti Neutrinos which have zero charge display almost zero mass, as they don’t interact at all with the space particles. Their energy cloud are in a collapsed started. Their speed is determined by the force applied as they are ejected from the various stars. Those generated from supernovas’ explosions are expected to have a much greater speed than those generated from our Sun. Could that speed exceed the speed of light? In principle the speed of light applies to the constant speed of the elementary strings of energy (Photons) and the spinning of the singularities. As the varying speeds of the neutrinos are determined by the ejecting force at the point of their creation, therefore there is no intrinsic reason for it to be limited by the speed of light. However if Neutrinos speed cannot exceed the speed of light, then we must conclude that they lose some of their energy before they reach the speed of light. 
The conservation of spinners is in line with the law of conservation of charge which states that the total amount of electric charge in a system does not change with time. This is also consistent with the observations that at the subatomic level, charged particles can be created, but always in pairs with equal positive and negative charges, so that the total amount of charge always remains constant. According to S Theory, the creation of Charge is in reality the transfer of spinners from unobserved Neutrinos or other subatomic particles.

5) E quanta are responsible for all forms of energy.

All forms of Energy are in effect the result of the vibrating E Quanta. They can  shift between forms. The two groups of energy forms are:

A) Potential Energy: which is found in all types of stored energy. It can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, mechanical, elastic, etc. They are all the result of adding E quanta to subatomic particles/ atoms leading to a change in their geometry or structure.

B) Kinetic Energy: which is found in all types of motions. All forms of kinetic energy starts with the increased vibrations of the subatomic particles as a result of more E quanta are being added to their existing energy cloud. Examples are an airplane flying or a meteor plummeting each have kinetic energy. Sound is a type of energy as atoms vibrate in the process of transmitting the sound. Electricity is the kinetic energy of flowing electrons between atoms.

Just as we measure the complete absence of atoms excitation as absolute zero kinetic energy, in the same token we need to measure the complete absence of any distortion to the geometry of the subatomic particles as absolute zero potential energy. For example at the centre of our planet there will be absolute zero gravitational force.

So under the law of energy conservation the transition between different forms of energy could take the following steps:
Photons radiation (heat or light) leads to ( ?? ) conversion of E quanta from linear angular momentum to rotational angular momentum ?? increased atoms vibrations (motion) ?? the increased atoms’ motion is converted to other types of kinetic energy (motion) ?? increased in other/ adjacent atoms vibrations ?? E quanta are passed from atoms with high vibrations to atoms with lower vibrations until a state of equilibrium is reached.
The kinetic and electromagnetic radiations could also be used to create  potential energy: energy quanta is gained from other sources of energy ?? change in the geometry of the subatomic particles/atoms relative to their rest state ?? energy is released when the subatomic particles/ atoms are allowed to return to their geometrical rest state.

6) The Fabric of the pixelated Space.
The fabric of Space is made of interwoven SP. In listing the characteristics of the SP we try to keep in mind those associated with the Higgs Boson Particles. 
Each Space Particle (SP):
- Has outer shell made of E quanta continuously changing its geometry due to the interaction of its spinners with other subatomic particles. 
- Has a location code for enabling all other subatomic particle to report their location at each atomic second for the “ Now Time” snapshots.
- May exhibit zero spin as speculated in case of the Higgs Boson. This may lead us to conclude that its E cloud may have both R-L & L-R types of E strings. However we speculate that the SP to have a dominance of R-L spin of their E quanta over L-R spin. This assumption is key in explaining the dominance of matters over anti matters as we will touch on later.
- Has 6 Singularities spinning clockwise and six anti clockwise. This makes its charge neutral.
- Has a Hexagon geometry.
- Allocates six of its spinners to creates the loops responsible for joining the SP into a flexible fabric and the other six for interaction with other Fermion particles.
- The SP in a state of continuous vibrations and act as the platform for all the energy fields that permeate throughout the entire universe.
- Any subatomic particles Plus it’s anti particle have the same number of spinners, and helicity as a Space Particle. Then it may be possible to reconcile these thought experiments with current literature by suggesting that in case of their annihilation (and non conversion to other subatomic particles) they create a Space Particle in order to conserve the singularities. The energy released is in effect is the excess energy they possess over their rest mass. However, before such a conclusion can be reached with certainty one needs to make absolutely sure that no unobserved Neutrinos have been created to resolve this potential conundrum.
The energy cloud of the SP are responsible fir the creation of energy fields that permeate through out space. The interaction of the Fermion particles with the SP leads to the excitation of the energy fields. This in turn leads to the manifestation of matters and gravity. The energy fields also move between different gravitational fields as virtual Graviton. More on that under “Gravity”.

These characteristics of the SP make the fabric of space vibrates, very stable, very flexible, unbreakable, folds, bend, twist, change its geometry, get compressed and readily interacts with all charged subatomic particles. The latest experiment in the USA which detected the vibration of space resulting from a Big Bang supports this speculation.

The spinners act as the stitching nodes of the space matrix. 6 at each connection.

 

 

The flexible fabric of the space matrix

For example the various spiral shapes of galaxies are the result of the twisting of the fabric of space due to the gravitational force of the Blackholes at the centre
 of those galaxies.
7) The Entanglement conundrum,  the Uncertainty (Heisenberg) Principle and the Wave Particle Duality.

A) Entanglement 
It is also possible to speculate that the fabric of space acts as a “comic fibre optics” which acts as the universe communications network. It transmits the information carried by the computer codes imbedded within the E quanta. The information does not travel between the two entangled particles via exchange of photons but instantaneously transmitted by the vibrating fabric of space. This will mean that the computer codes of the entangled particles would include a reference of the code of the paired particle such as its quantum numbers and its location within the Space Matrix. 
Once human beings fully understand and exploit the many features of the fabric of space and the actions of the spinners in all the subatomic particles, a major scientific revolution will be unleashed leading to a huge advancement in technology. Communications with other civilisation, without the need to leave our planet, will become possible.

B) uncertainty (Heisenberg) principle.
In essence the current principle says that we cannot measure the position and momentum of a particle with absolute precision. The more accurately we know one of the two values, the less accurately we know the other. At the subatomic world, there is a fundamental limit to what we can know about the behaviour of subatomic particles. The most we can hope for is to calculate the probabilities of where things are likely to be.
According to our thought experiments we postulate that the continuous movement of the spinners within the nuclei of the subatomic particles and their interactions with the SP determine their geometry, rotational angular momentum, positions and other quantum numbers. Once we master the relevant maths calculating their behaviours , then the uncertainty will disappear.
The current thinking by physicists do not incorporate the existence of the spinners, hence they think in terms of probabilities of where the subatomic Particles could be found rather than in being determined by the location of the spinners in their nuclei. So it is safe to say that what is expressed as uncertain but probabilistically predictable positions are in fact determined by the movement of the spinners forming the nuclei of the Fermion subatomic particles. This also explains why even the repetitive firing of just one electron at a time through a single slit will show the Electrons landing at different positions in the detector. See also (11) below.
C) Electrons wave particle duality. 
The continuously moving spinners are not observable and hidden within the nucleus of electrons’ cloud. This explain the continuous change in the shape of the electrons (or even its popping in and out of existence). This also explains what appear as the wave function of the electrons in the single slit and double slits experiments. As the number of the spinners are 6, then there are a number of possible different positions as they hit the intercepting wall. Different combinations of the spinners lead to a different cloud shape, hence the different landing locations

Possible explanation to the collapse of the waves function.
Our definition of time in terms of “now snapshots” could explain why the act of observation in the double slits experiments leads to the collapse of the wave function. Once an electron is observed in a “Now Time” snapshots, then that snapshot will register the act of the observation and the fact that it is being observed as a Particle. Then all  the subsequent snapshots, until the electron hits the barrier, will register that electron as a particle, hence the collapse of the wave function. If this explanation turns to be correct then there must be some laws which ensure the consistency of the recorded information in the cosmic computer or something similar.

Philosophically we could say that the age of a person as a living biological entity is equal to the number of snapshots from the fertilisation of the egg to the cessation of the brain activities of that entity. However if a person existence is measured in terms of his atoms as an entity, then age will extend further to include the additional snapshots involving the disintegration of all the molecules which made up the body. On the other hand if live is measured by the individual meaningful achievements in terms his contribution to total humanities’ well-beings, then only those snapshots which record lasting achievements are considered and all other are ignored

8) The most common subatomic particles & their E Quanta & Spinners.

Using our thought experiments let us examine the roles of the spinners and helicity of the energy quanta in forming the most common Fermion particles:

A) Electrons
The electron is a charged lepton particle with ½ spin. It energy cloud spins L-R. By the way, we say -1 and not -6 as all fermion particles are made of 6 spinners.This direction of the spin is relevant to the creation of the electron neutrino as opposed to the positron neutrino. The direction of the spin of the Lepton particles are key to determining the stability of matter over anti matter. This is due to the electron being less energetic than the positron due to the way they interact with the SP.

- Electron Up Spin : the spinners are organised as (1) at the top, followed by (2) in the middle and (3) at the bottom. The Tornado like spinning cloud points upwards.

- Electron Down spin: When the spinners change to 3 at the top followed by 2 in the middle and 1 at the bottom, it is known as Down spin. The Tornado like spinning cloud points downwards.
Up or Down electron spin but not in between

- Electrons Quantum Numbers ( Determine the Quantum State or the Wave function of the electron). 
The spinners and the E quanta and their interaction with the nucleus of the Atoms and with those of the adjacent electrons are responsible for all the 4 constitutes of the quantum numbers/ the quantum state of the electron. 

The total E quanta level is responsible for the electron energy. This is known as the principal quantum number (n). As a discrete variable, the principal quantum number is always an integer. As n increases, the number of electronic shells increases and the electron spends more time farther from the nucleus. In that state the electron is less tightly bound to the nucleus.

The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number which determine the electrons’ orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital. This number is determined by the 6 possible combinations and permutations of the electrons’ spinners. This what gives the electron its wave appearance in the double slit experiment. This what gives the electron its up and down spin and leads to its disappearance between the different shells.

The third quantum number is the magnetic quantum number which describes the electron unique quantum state. It distinguishes the orbitals available for the electron within a sub shell. It is the result of the interactions between the electron’s spinners ( which give the negative charge) and the those of the atom nucleus’ spinners (which give it its positive charge) and its gravitational force. This magnetic force is mediated by the SP as we will see when we discuss electromagnetism.

The forth quantum number is determined by the E quanta L-R spin which make up the electron cloud. This is the spin quantum number, which parameterises the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of the electron. 

- Electrons disappearing and then re-appearing at different shells. 
Scientist have spotted a strange type of quantum movement occurring in electrons travelling between the different atomic shells of the atoms. Instead of travelling from the top to the bottom layer through the middle, the electrons were caught disappearing from the top layer and reappearing in the bottom layer in a fraction of a second later - with no trace of them existing in between. According to our thought experiment, we speculate that when the spinners cluster closely together, the surrounding electron’s energy cloud gets compressed/ collapses to an unobservable level. Once the electron reaches its correct shell, the spinners resume their up and down positions and the electron reappears. This characteristic indicates the great sensitivity of the distribution/ location of the spinners by the surrounding field force and the effect of the spinners on the geometry of the energy cloud.

.

- Electrons Scattering
Our thought experiments offer a possible explanation as to why particles of similar charge repulse each other and those of different charge attract each other.
As we shown above, all observed particles are nothing but a manifestation of localised energy fields vibrations resulting from the interaction of the spinners of the particles with those of the space particles. Particles of the same charge create similar distortion in the geometry of the fabric of space. This lead to pushing them apart. While particles with different charge create complimentary geometry leading to being attracted to each other. However according to the Pauli Exclusion principle, no two Fermion particles could occupy the same space. According to our terminology, as each subatomic particles is nothing but a manifestation of the state of excitement of the relevant field in the space vector, then no two subatomic particles will occupy the same SP.

 Repulsive geometry in the fabric of space explains electron scattering

- The Pauli Exclusion Principle
This principle states that in case of any atom or molecule or electrons no two can have the same four quantum numbers. For example, since all electrons are manifestation of the of the excitations in the electron field (i.e. interaction with the SP), then each electron must have its own allocated SP in which to materialise. As an electron acquires more energy, it will need bigger space in which to vibrate and spin, hence their movement to higher shells. This principle applies to all Fermion particles as they need the SP to interact with and materialise.

-Electrons absorbing and emitting photons
This is a fundamental law of nature. We theorise that the electrons  orbiting any atom has a specific number of energy strings making up the cloud of any electron. As the electron moves to a higher shell, it will need a photon with the same number of energy strings. This is how we can identify the atoms emitting the photons. If a photon has exactly double or tribble the specific number of energy strings for that atom, then the electron may jump more than one shell. In case of free electron acquires substantial extra energy, it turns to the unstable Muon or Tau. The Beta decay never produces sufficient energy to create these particles. 
One unresolved question according to the thinking behind the S Theory: if a photon is made of a collection of double E quantum strings to create a spin of 1 (i.e. it has both R-L and L-R E strings) and the electron has a spin of ½ only, then how the electron absorbs and emits photons? Does the photon lose its R-L energy quanta to the condensate (SP) which make up the electron quantum field in the process of photon  absorption and then regain them as the photon is emitted? 

-The Study of Chemistry 
The SP interactions with various atoms nuclei and their orbiting electrons determine the specific geometry, solidity and many other characteristics of all matters. The study of chemistry is in effect the study these relationships. Now we have new tools in the form of the SP, the spinners and E quanta for a better understanding of all aspects of chemistry

 

In summary, the electron is key to chemistry, electromagnetism, dominance of matters over anti matters and to every aspects of the functioning of the Universe as we know it.

B) The positron (Anti Electron) 
It is a charged lepton particle with +1 charge.

- Each positron  has also 6 singularities but they are spinning clockwise, hence its positive charge of (+1). It has R-L helicity. It’s annihilation with any electron leads to the creation of Ve+ & Ve-. e+ plays a major role in the working of the universe as all nuclear reactions involve the annihilations of neutrinos and anti neutrinos leading to the creation of other subatomic particles.

C) Neutrinos and Anti Neutrinos 
They are lepton particles with neutral charge and (½) spin. Each neutrino and anti neutrino has 3 singularities spinning clockwise and 3 spinning anti-clockwise, hence they display a neutral charge.  The only difference between Neutrino and Anti neutrino is their opposite helicity, ie the different spin of their Energy quantum. In the former it is L-R (as in the electrons), while in the latter it is R-L (as in the positrons). The neutrinos and anti neutrinos are the fundamental first subatomic particles to bounce out of the compacted black matters (or created from the split of a Space Particle) to start the creation of the cosmic dust. Neutrinos don’t spin “up and down” as in the e & e+. Their spinners clusters in proximity in their nuclei leading to the collapse of their energy clouds, hence their lack of interaction with the SP and the difficulties to be observed.
According to the standard model, neutrinos are massless particles. However, neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that neutrinos do have mass. Mass terms for the neutrinos can be added to the standard model by hand, but these lead to new theoretical problems. For example, the mass terms need to be extraordinarily small and it is not clear if the neutrino masses would arise in the same way that the masses of other fundamental particles do in the Standard Model.
According to S Theory, the Neutrinos neutral Charge and their collapsed clouds render them to have no meaningful interactions with the SP. Hence the only mass they have is equivalent to the E Quanta making up their clouds, which is similar to the energy of a photon.

Recent experiments in Japan (T2K) has shown that the neutrinos are more likely to switch to other flavours as compared to the anti neutrinos. The latter experience relatively less resistance in the fabric of space.
Evidence mounts that neutrinos are the key to the universe's existence as we have speculated.
Quote from the recent publications in this regards: “New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and anti neutrinos behave. Neutrinos and antineutrinos are one of the last matter-antimatter pairs to be investigated since they are difficult to produce and measure, but their strange behaviour hints that they could be the key to the mystery of the universe existence.
Neutrinos (and antineutrinos) come in three 'flavours' of tau, muon and electron, each of which can spontaneously change into the other as the neutrinos travel over long distances.
The latest results, announced recently by a team of researchers including physicists from Imperial College London, show more muon neutrinos changing into electron neutrinos than muon antineutrinos changing into electron antineutrinos.
This difference in muon-to-electron changing behaviour between neutrinos and antineutrinos means they would have different properties, which could have prevented them from destroying each other and allow the universe to exist”

We speculate that the interaction of subatomic particles with L-R spin create more resistance with the SP relative to those with R-L spin. Probably this absence of complete symmetry is behind the observation above and the dominance of matters over anti matters. This relative  increased resistance makes the electrons and their derivatives the Muon, Tau to have slower interaction with the SP than the Positrons and their derivatives. If this analysis is correct then we should expect Ve+ to move relatively faster through space than Ve-.

D) Each Up Quark 
Has 5 singularities spinning clockwise and 1 anti clockwise hence it displays 2/3 positive charge (5/6-1/6= +2/3). It has R-L helicity. This helicity may lead to lower resistance as it interacts with the SP leading to greater interactions with the SP hence a more dominant strong force in comparison with that of the anti proton. The quarks cannot be found on their own and they come in a group of 3. The process of their flavour changing within the confinement of the strong force is shown under the heading (Proton). 


E) Each Down Quark 
Has 4 negative spinners and 2 positive spinners giving it -1/3 negative charge (2/6-4/6=-1/3). It has L-R helicity likes that of the electron.

F) A proton
Is a composite particle made of u, u, d (ie a total of 12 positive and 6 negative spinners. The continuous changes of the spinners locations within the nuclei of the 3 Quarks and combinations and their interactions with the SP lead to their boomerang like localised movements. The Gluons act as the source of the energy for this continuous activity. Within these 6 dimensional confinement they are in a state of continuous flavours changing (annihilations and recreations). These energetic movements and the changes in the combinations and permutations of the spinners are responsible for the creation of the 6 Quarks flavours. Three flavours are the result of quark/ quark interactions and three flavours involve changes mediated by a lepton particle as indicated in the exhibit below. The rules for the flavours changes and the possible activities are shown below.

 


G) Hydrogen Atoms

We have shown how each Hydrogen atom is formed.
1) Ve- & Ve+ are released with the original Big Bounce (or probably as a result of splitting a Space Particle).
2) The released Dark energy from the Big Bounce get the process of their conversion to e, e+, u, u_,d & d_ started
3) A Hydrogen atom is made of only a Proton and an electron and therefore it’s the first product in creating atoms from elementary subatomic particles.

Let us see how the current literature explains the process:
When an electron and positron collide at high energy, they can annihilate to produce Quark and anti Quark bound together by strong interaction.
1: The electron and positron zoom towards their certain doom
2: They collide and annihilate, releasing tremendous amounts of energy.
3: The electron and positron have annihilated into a photon, or a Z particle, both of which may be virtual force carrier particles
4: A charm quark and a charm antiquark emerge from the virtual force carrier particle.
5: They begin moving apart, stretching the color force field (gluon field) between them.
6: The quarks move apart, further spreading their force field.
7: The energy in the force field increases with the separation between the quarks. When there is sufficient energy in the force field, the energy is converted into a quark and an anti-quark.
8: The quarks separate into distinct, color-neutral particles: the D+ (a charm and anti-down quark) and D- (an anti-charm and down quark) mesons. The intermediate stages of this process occur in about a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a second, and are not observable

According to the S Theory tools, there is a simplified explanations of how this is done as indicated in the table below. For more details refer to the section on the generation of the strong force.
The exhibit below shows how 2 Ve- & 2 Ve+ create the hydrogen atom. Every (Ve- & Ve+) could convert to (e, e+) or (u, u_) or (d, d_). This is a continuous process when these particles are subjected  to a great energy in a confined space. Once the electron is created and in a position to assume its tornado like spin, it no longer participate in the strong force activities (and become W- boson with huge energy acting as a force carrier to get it ejected outside the proton’s confinement) and move away to orbit the proton.
The conversion of neutrinos to other forms of subatomic particles obey fixed rules in accordance to the table below. These rules are associated with the flavors changing within the confinement of the proton:

 

 

 

 

The exhibit below shows the following sequence in creating the hydrogen atom. One set of Ve- & Ve+ forms u, u_. Another set forms e, e+. Then e+ & u_ form u, d. The result is u, u, d (a proton) plus e = hydrogen atom.

 

 


The anti hydrogen atoms are not dominant in the universe due to the instability of the anti proton as shown from the exhibit below. The presence of the electrons slow down the interaction within the confinement leading to the formation of lepton particles instead of quarks, hence the break up of the strong force.


H) Neutron/ Anti Neutron 

Neutron is made up of: u,d,d,Ve+
Anti Neutron is made up of: u_,d_,d_,Ve-

As they are both made of the same total number of spinners, charges and helicity, they oscillate between both states, ie between a Neutron and anti Neutron. So it is safe to conclude that a Neutron is its own anti Neutron, just like a photon is its own anti photon.
There are 7 flavours changing, 3 involves quark/quark and 4 involves quark/ leptons. This is in effect a way of combining the strong force and the weak force. The weak force is generated only when the electron flavour is produced. If the applied pressure is weak, then it reassume its tornado like spin, leading to its conversion to W- boson and acts as force carrier This leads to the split of the Neutron to a proton and an electron as in beta decay and in a nuclear fission.
From the above exhibit the Neutron has a  total of 12 positive spinners and 12 negative spinners as in the case of a hydrogen atom. For example as a result of a supernova, the hydrogen or other atoms ultimately collapse into neutrons plus huge amount of released energy and neutrinos. The neutrons in turn get compacted to form a Neutron star of massive gravity and spin. Each Neutron  star becomes as if it is one big atom nucleus. Very large size Neutron stars collapse into Dark Matters or Blackholes.

I) Second and third generation Fermions plus Exotic Particles
For the sake of completion let us speculate the structures of the second and third generations Fermions as shown in the Standard model.
Using the Spinners and E Quanta, we could speculate that first generation of common Fermions are 8 in number (including the anti subatomic particles) and each is made of six spinners. The next generation subatomic particles are made of 12 spinners. Eight of them represent a second generation of the 8 common ones and 4 are exotic subatomic particles. Using the same logic, then the third generation subatomic particles will include eight as per the standard model and 10 exotic subatomic particles. The greater the spinners the greater the energy cloud orbiting them and therefore the greater the mass.
That table below show the 3 generations Fermions.

If this analysis is valid, then we must predict that the third generation subatomic particles to be less stable than the second and the latter less stable than the first.

The second generation must be created when two Ve- are combined to interact with 2 Ve+ (or 2e’s are combined to interact with 2e+),
By the same logic, the third generation must be 3Ve- are combined to interact with 3Ve+ (or 3 electrons are combined to interact with 3 positrons).

9) Explaining Fusion and Fission using the new tools.
To understand these two fundamental key activities we need to highlight the main principles according to our thought experiments which are relevant these two opposite processes.
- All the subatomic particles started by fussing neutrinos and anti neutrinos the very micro seconds after the Big Bounce. In this process great amount of energy was stored as Gluons associated with the strong force. The strong force is the result of the confined kinetic energy within the proton.
- The process of involving particles decay and atomic fission involves the conversion of  heavier composite particles to lighter ones. The fission process leads to the release of  the stored energy responsible for the strong force and the weak force.
- Due to the law of spinners conservation, the annihilation of  subatomic particles convert them to lighter particles with lower levels of clouds energy. They don’t convert completely to photons but to photons plus ultimately to neutrinos or possibly to SP.

A) Fusion 
Fusion is a process where subatomic particles are forced to join together to form a heavier particles.
A1) The most fundamental fusion process, which requires huge amount of energy, took place  just seconds after the Big Bounce/ Big Bang. The most basic subatomic particles, Neutrinos and anti neutrinos were fused to form quarks (protons) and electrons leading to the creation of the hydrogen and heavier atoms.

A2) The lighter fusion process involves the conversion of Hydrogen atoms to heavier atoms like the stable Helium releasing in the process huge amount of energy stored in the form of the strong force as some of the hydrogen atoms convert back to Neutrinos and Anti Neutrinos. The fusion process is responsible for creating all known elements in the universe and require varying degrees of energies.
According to the  current literature the diagram below shows that every 8 Hydrogen atoms are converted to one Helium atom + 2 Positrons+ 2 Neutrinos + Photons. We assume that the resulting 2 positrons get immediately annihilated with 2 electrons leading to the release of additional 2 neutrinos and 2 anti neutrinos.

According to our thought experiments, the 8 hydrogen atoms turn to one helium atom plus 4 neutrinos and 4 Anti Neutrinos plus energy. The reason for the difference from those reported by the standard model is due to our calculation that each neutron also includes an anti neutrino.
The energy released is mainly due 4 hydrogen atoms being converted to Ve- & Ve+. In support of this argument we just need to remember that according to the current literature 99% of the proton’s energy is due to the Gluons Activities responsible for the kinetic energy of the strong force.
Our calculation in the table below is based on the proposed conservation of the Spinners and Helicity of the E quanta.
We assume that the number of hydrogen atoms required to produce the one helium atom differs from one nuclear reaction to another depending on the energy exercised to get the fusion process to happen.


A3) The production of a neutron
It is clear from the above process that a neutron must be produced first to create the helium atom. It is important to understand how it is produced in order to understand the Beta decay associated with the weak force. The Standard model diagram below represents the current thinking of the process. 

 

Let us highlights the points made above in order to reconciliation the Standard Model with the S Theory thinking regarding this process.
1) According to the Standard model the Neutron converts to Proton + e + Ve+. How could that be if it was made of combining P + e only?
2) Out of W- we get the up quark + e + Ve+. What does that tell us about the nature of W-.

Our model of the Neutron creation process in the exhibit below resolve these two conundrums. 
1) The Neutron is not made of u, d ,d only but of u, d, d,Ve+ due to the law of spinners and helicity conservations. 
2) As a part of the flavors changing activities within the Neutron, when the electron flavor appears and the pressure is too weak to collapse its waves, the tornado like spin of the electron will take hold. This will gather great energy from the adjacent SP leading to the energized W- gauge boson. As the W- escapes the confinement of the proton, the acquired additional energy from the SP returns to what is regarded as the condensate under the Higgs Mechanism.
3) The appearance of W+ and Z bosons in addition to W- could only be reported if the decay of some neutrons are also associated with the annihilation of the protons to Lepton particles .

In the table that below we show our expected input and output of subatomic particles associated with the conversion of a proton plus electron to a neutron provided that an appropriate energy level is exercised. This type of fusion does not required more energy than that found in our Sun, since the strong force already exists as a part of the proton.  
According to our model, proton + electron + energy, create a neutron made of u, d, d, Ve+. 

A4) The production of other heavier atoms.
The same fusion process applies to create all know atoms. The heavier the atom the greater the energy required to get them fused. Most of the elements on earth must have been created at some other stars than our Sun and delivered through some heavenly collisions due to the great energy required to fuse such atoms.
B) Fission

Fission is another word for splitting composite particles. The process of splitting a nucleus is called nuclear fission. 
B1) The simplest and most common type of fission is the conversion of a neutron to a proton and electron under a process known as beta decay.
The process using Feynman diagram: It assumes that the neutron is composed of up, down, down quarks which turns into up, up, down quarks, plus electron and anti neutrino mediated by W- gauge boson.
According to the S Theory model this process was explained earlier.
B2) The well known fission process involves uranium or plutonium isotopes which are normally used as the fuel in nuclear reactors, because their atoms have relatively large nuclei that are easy to split, especially when hit by neutrons.


Once sufficient energy is used to break up the heavy atoms, a split happens due to the release of neutrons. Free neutrons quickly decay, a process called beta decay. The chain reaction leads to more energy is being released from the stored weak force energy. The cumulative energy generated quickly becomes sufficient to break up some protons and release the high energy associated with the strong force. The break up of heavy elements end up as lighter elements plus neutrinos and anti neutrinos plus huge amount of energy relative to chemical energy produced by burning oil for example.
10) Why there are more Matters than anti Matters in the universe?
Quotes from current literature:
“This is one of the key conundrum in physics today. Quantum Field Theory (QFT) requires for consistency reasons that every charged particle has its anti particle with the same characteristics from the point of view of space-time with the opposite charges.
The law of Charge-Parity (C-P) symmetry requires the universe to have an equal amount of matters and anti matters, unless that law is broken. We know in order to create more matter than antimatter in the universe, you need a process that violates C-P symmetry. If all types of matters and antimatters behave the same way, they should have obliterated each other shortly after the Big Bang. So far, when scientists have looked at matter-antimatter pairs of particles, no differences have been large enough to explain why the universe is made up of matters -and exists- rather than being annihilated by anti matter.”

Let us examine some possible reasons why there is more matters than anti matters in the universe. It is true that if the law of C-P symmetry cannot be violated, not only at the level of Fermion particles interactions, but also at the level of their interactions with the SP then we should have equal amount of matters and anti matters.
Let us list our thought experiments to the possible explanations as to why there are more matters than anti matters:
A) Subatomic Particles constituting Matters don’t annihilate their respective antimatters completely. We have argued that the law of spinners conservation, always leads to the creation of other subatomic particles like Ve- & Ve+ ( which are difficult to observe). This will explain why subatomic particles must always exist in some format.  
B) The law of C-P symmetry stands as far as the interactions between Fermion particles. However when it comes to their interaction with the SP, the electrons with their left handed helicity generate tornado like Spins under weakened pressure, as they interact with the SP. The positrons don’t exhibit mirror-like image behaviours, hence the break of the C-P symmetry. This unique lack of C-P symmetry is sufficient to explain the dominance of matters over anti matters. 
The quote from a current research supports this thought experiment: “ Only left-handed fermions and right-handed anti-fermions interact with the weak interaction . In most circumstances, two left-handed fermions interact more strongly than right-handed or opposite-handed fermions, implying that the universe has a preference for left-handed chirality, which violates a symmetry of the other forces of nature. Experiments have shown that the way the spin of a fermion is oriented with respect to its motion, gives different interaction cross sections; for example Ve- nucleon scattering versus Ve+ nucleon scattering.”
To reconcile this quote with our thought experiments:
I) the Left handed and right handed interactions refer to the creations and annihilations of energetic e, e+, Ve- & Ve+. This is seen as W- & W+ Gauge Boson. 
II) Left handed e interacts more strongly with the SP only when its wave function is in a tornado like spin. Once it’s wave function collapses due to the spinners clustering in the middle, then the electron behaves like a mirror image of the positron.
Another recent CERN LEP collider experiment supporting the lack of symmetry came from the electron, positron Annihilations. They found the Zboson (which is an energised Ve+ in a state of transformation) to be heavier than Zelectron (which is an energised Ve- in a state of transformation) 
C) As the anti protons are unstable due the presence of the electrons, the addition of positrons could have led to the creation of  anti neutrons. With the presence of high pressure, this has led to the creation of the neutron stars. We have argued earlier that Neutrons and anti Neutrons are made of the same fundamental elementary particles and therefore Neutron is its own anti Neutron.
D) We have argued that the universe started with an equal amount of compacted  neutrinos and anti neutrinos. From these two fundamental subatomic particles all matters and anti matters can be created. However only protons proved to be stable due to the absence of the electron flavour associated with the strong force in its confinement.
E) According to quantum chromodynamics there could be a violation of CP symmetry in the strong interactions. This violation occurs as the flavour changes involves the creation and annihilations of the Lepton particles. As we have speculated, the electron interaction with the SP is not a mirror image of the positron interaction with the SP. 

11) The geometry of the space particles and the creation of the gravitational force.
How do we explain Gravity at the micro and macro levels?
The search for an explanation to the meaning of gravity is still on going. Newton described it as a gravitational pull between two objects in direct relations to their mass and in reverse relation to the square distance between them. This gravitational pull is measured in terms of the weight of the objects. An astronaut in space will be weightless while his mass is the same as on earth. Einstein on the other hand defined gravity as a result of the distortion in the curvature of fabric of space-time according to his general theory of relativity. Still more recent theories of gravity expresses the phenomenon in terms of particles and waves. String theory states that particles called “gravitons” (never been observed) causes objects to be attracted to one another similar to the role played by virtual photons. Other theories speak of the existence of gravitational waves generated when an object is accelerated by an external force. They are in fact ripples in the curvature of space-time that is generated due to certain gravitational interactions and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. This theory speculates that gravitational waves transport energy as gravitational radiation, a form of radiant energy similar to electromagnetic radiation. The existence of gravitational waves have been confirmed in 2016.
The Loop quantum gravity theory merges quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a theory of discrete quantised units of space time because, according to general relativity, gravity is a manifestation of the geometry of spacetime. It is the leading competitor to string theory. The main output of the theory is a physical picture of granular space. The granularity is a direct consequence of quantisation. Here, it is space itself that is discrete. In other words, there is a minimum distance possible to travel through it. More precisely, space can be viewed as an extremely fine fabric or network "woven" of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks. The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam. The predicted size of this structure is the Planck length, which is approximately 10?35 meters. According to the theory, there is no meaning to distance at scales smaller than the Planck scale. Therefore, this theory predicts that not just matter, but space itself, has an atomic structure..

So it is safe to say that our thought experiments regarding the existence of SP are in line with many aspects of the Loop Quantum Gravity. Referring to the above literature, we can speculate that Gravity at the micro level is nothing but the manifestation of the bending and twisting of the space particles as they interact with the Fermion Particles, in particular the Quarks due to their non integer charges. As each Quark has a total of six spinners made of positive and negative charge, then their 6 different combinations and locations within the nucleus of the Quark are responsible for their 6 possible interactions with the SP. These interactions also provide the answer to the theoretical 6 dimensions predicted by the String (M) theory. As these micro dimensions are created, the shrinkage and distributions in the hexagonal geometry of the space particles manifest itself as the change in the curvature of the fabric of space at the subatomic level.

Using this line of thinking, we can conclude that Gravity at the macro level is nothing but the cumulative shrinkage and distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space affected by the total atoms which make up the mass of the object in question. This is what make gravity between two objects proportional to their mass and in reverse relationship with the square distance between them. Gravity is not limited by the twisted space particles, unlike the confined strong force and the weak force.
We have seen that all matters are nothing but the manifestations of the total  excitations of the energy fields that permeate through out space generated by the interactions of the Fermion particles making up the objects with the relevant SP. This energy field excitations responsible for the creation of mass are also responsible for the curvature of spacetime. This curvature/ distortion is referred to as the mass gravitational field. So gravitational attractions between two object exist whenever their gravitational fields interact with each other. This interaction leads to the flow of the energy cloud of the SP, responsible for the manifestation of the two objects, to flow between them. This flowing energy is what is termed as gravitons. It is responsible for the gravitational attractions between objects in the same way as virtual photons are responsible for the magnetic attractions. As to the creation of Gravitational waves, massive moving objects at a high speed lead to measurable disturbances in the fabric of space, as some SP go back to their Hexagon geometry while others assume the excited state required for the continuous manifestation of the moving mass. We speculate that gravity is the weaker of the 4 forces as it involves only the changes in the geometry of the SP and the Gravitons, while the other forces get the spinners to participate in the creation of those forces in addition the changes in the geometry of the SP and energy clouds as we will see later.

If Gravity is the associated with the very existence of atoms, i.e. the creation of the observable mass & volume, then it is unthinkable to have negative gravity. Without the gravity, the cosmic dust would not have gathered to form stars and planets. However one question remain valid. If gravity is the result of the shrinkage/ distortion in the fabric of space, and if gravitational attraction is the flow of graviton then is it possible to create some mechanism to block the movement of the graviton or to neutralise the distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space?

12) The Roles of the SP in the creation of the Strong Force.

According to the current literature: “The strong force is approximately 137 times as strong as electromagnetism, a million times as strong as the weak interaction and 1038 times as strong as gravitation. The strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and neutron. In addition, the strong force binds neutrons and protons to create atomic nuclei. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only about 1% of the mass of a proton.
The strong interaction is observable at two ranges: on a larger scale,  it is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale, it is the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other hadron particles. In the latter context, it is often known as the color force.  The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles. Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation (gluons). This property of the strong force is called color confinement, and it prevents the free "emission" of the strong force: instead, in practice, jets of massive particles are produced.”
Now let us use S Theory tools (the SP, the spinners, the E Quanta and the proposed key roles of the lepton particles) to explain the virtual Gluons responsible for all the colour activities generating the strong force. 

According to the S theory, the Gluons are in reality a high energy photons (in irregular rotational momentum) trapped within a six dimensional energy field generated by the  change in the geometry of the SP. The six dimensions are formed by folding and twisting 6 SP due to the non integer charge of the quarks. The Strong Force is the main factor in explaining the mass generation mechanism. This explains the primary role of mass which is to mediate gravitational interaction between bodies. This also explains the appearance of the 3 dimensional volume.
The non integer and uneven charge of the quarks generate 6 possible combinations and permutations of their spinners. This leads to the boomerang spin of their energy clouds. This in turn twists and folds the SP quantum field, hence the six dimensions. This leads to the formation of the confined quantum field essential for trapping the Gluons to generate localised whirling Activities. With the presence of this huge localised and trapped kinetic energy, the 3 quarks get into a process of continuous change from one flavour to another. These changes in the flavours are achieved by converting “two quarks” or a “quark and a lepton”  to other types of quarks & leptons particle. The various combinations of these activities are recognised as the 6 flavours of the quarks.
In the table below the two subatomic particles involved in the flavour changes process are marked with the symbol “????”. The symbol “????” denotes that the change over could be in either direction. The great energy generated by the Gluons within the confinement are what make flavors’ changes possible.

 

The rules observed in the flavours’ changes are shown in the table below.
The 3 quarks energised by the Gluons are continuously in a state of flavour changes. It could be visualised as starting by changing (u, d) flavour to (e+,u_) or to (d_,Ve-). Then each of these two combinations could change to different flavours as shown in the exhibit above, leading to the creating the 6 flavours. Three flavours involves quark/ quark exchange of spinners, namely: (u????u_), (d????d_) and (u????d, / u_????d_). And three flavours involve quarks/ leptons exchange of spinners namely: (e+ with u_ or d) , (Ve- with u or d_) or (Ve+ with u_ or d).
In case of the anti proton, the process relies on 3 anti quarks combination (u_, u_, d_) which have 2 L-R spins out of the 3 and create the slow interacting electron leading to the proton instability according to rule 4 of the interactions between the 3 quarks. The Anti proton table shows the dominance of the electron in the process which leads to its decay. This explains the absence of anti matters due the lack of symmetry of the interaction of the e & e+ with the SP.

 

13) The Roles of the space particles in creating the weak force.

The weak force, according to current literature is carried by particles known as the W+/- and Z Bosons. As force carriers they are virtual particles. The weak force leads to Neutron beta decay. 
“In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons. Without the Higgs mechanism, all bosons (a type of fundamental particle) would be massless, but measurements show that the W+, W?, and Z bosons actually have relatively large masses of around 80 GeV/c2. The Higgs field resolves this conundrum. The simplest description of the mechanism adds a quantum field (the Higgs field) that permeates all space, to the Standard Model. Below some extremely high temperature, the field causes spontaneous symmetry breaking during interactions. The breaking of symmetry triggers the bosons to interact with the Higgs fields, causing them to have mass. In the Standard Model, the phrase "Higgs mechanism" refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking.”
Now let us turn to the S Theory tools for explaining the weak force.
This force is associated with the decay of the free neutrons. To understand this force let us start by exhibiting the table which shows the process of creating the neutrons by forcing an electron and a proton to get combined together due the application of great energy as in case of the fusion activities in our Sun. This leads to the pushing of the electron to the confinement of the proton. Once the electron enters, its wave function collapses and start to interact with one of the up quarks hence converting it to down quark and anti neutrino. The neutron has a half time of just over 10 minutes to give it time to be united with a proton in order to form the first step of forming heavier atoms. This process is continuously taking place in our sun leading to the creation of the very stable helium atoms. The exhibit below shows some of the possible flavours changing due to the exchange of singularities between subatomic atoms with different helicity spin. All lepton particles are created and annihilated in these processes.

So we can say that the weak force is in effect the force which leads to the beta decays of the free neutrons due to the creation of a flavour involving the presence of the weak interacting electron. We are suggesting to redefine the term “electroweak” to mean the “electron weak” in the process of flavours changing within the Neutron. It is like someone reluctant to join the continuous orgy of the changing flavours within the confinement of the additional 6 dimensions. This happens when the electron regains its tornado like wave function. Once a door is opened within the confinement, due to the absence of the atom residual force, the wildly spinning electron escapes, sweeping on its way out great energy from the SP field that permeates through out space. This manifest itself as the observed massive W- gauge boson. It is like when someone sneezing, he needs to gather a great wind force for it to happen. So we can say that the week force is a temporary borrowed force generated to eject the electron out of the confinement by the W- gauge boson acting as the force carrier.
A neutron outside the atom, being free from its residual strong force, will decay with a half-life of about 10.3 minutes. This is rather a long time in the subatomic world. This may confirm that the distorted additional six dimensions created by the strong force of the neutron (due the presence of u, d, d,Ve+) leaves a smallish probability for the relatively slow electron to escape its confinement , hence this long half- life.
The combined strong and weak forces includes, in addition to the Gluons, the additional flavour changing mediated by the energised anti neutrino (Ve+) leading to the creation and annihilation of e, e+. This could explain why the neutron is slightly heavier than the proton. The process of annihilations/ creations associated with these 4 Lepton subatomic particles is what give rise to the observed heavy virtual particles known as gauge bosons W+, W-  & the two Z force carriers. They are in fact nothing but  the heavily energised electron/ positron, neutrino and anti neutrino as the Neutron completely annihilated.
The relatively large energies associated with the four virtual particles: W-, W+ and the neutrally charged Z Bosons are explained by current literature as follows: “In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons. Without the Higgs mechanism, all bosons (a type of fundamental particle) would be massless, but measurements show that the W+, W?, and Z bosons actually have relatively large masses of around 80 GeV/c2. The Higgs field resolves this conundrum. The simplest description of the mechanism adds a quantum field (the Higgs field) that permeates all space, to the Standard Model. Below some extremely high temperature, the field causes spontaneous symmetry breaking during interactions. The breaking of symmetry triggers the Higgs mechanism, causing the bosons to interact, hence to have mass. In the Standard Model, the phrase "Higgs mechanism" refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking.”
If the measurements confirming the existence of the heavy W±, and Z gauge bosons are correct then the acquisition of this excess energy can only materialise just as the Neutron decays or gets completely annihilated. If this is not the case then Neutron must reflect that mass, which is not the case. Following this analysis, then as the energised electron breaks out of the Neutron, it must sweep with it great amount of energy from the SP only to be returned back to the Space fields, which are regarded as the condensate according to the Higgs mechanism. There is also the possibility that the excess energy leading to the observed high mass of these gauge Bosons is gained from the acceleration of the Lepton particles before the ultimate decay of the Neutron. Below is a Quote from one of the CERN experiments which confirms that annihilation of highly energised e & e+ leading to the observation of the  created virtual gauge bosons before they decay to other subatomic particles after they lose their acquired energy. The reference to virtual Z gauge Bosons must refer to both Z+ & Z- to reflect both Ve+ & Ve- which are created from the annihilation of e & e+ as the S Theory predicts.

“When the particles are accelerated to maximum energy an electron and a positron collide, and they annihilate to a virtual particle, either a photon or a Z boson. The virtual particle almost immediately decays into other elementary particles, which are then detected by huge particle detectors.
The detector determined the mass of the W-boson and Z-boson to within one part in a thousand.”
So we could say that:
W- boson is a reference to the energised electron with borrowed energy, 
W+ boson is a reference to the energised positron. 
Z- boson is a reference to the energised Neutrino 
Z+ boson is a reference to the energised anti neutrino. 
The intermediate stages of these processes occur in about a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a second, and are not observable, hence the speculation of the existence of the virtual bosons as force carrier. 
From the above analysis of Gravity, the Strong force and the Weak forces, we conclude that they are all linked to the activities in the form of flavours changing  associated with the protons and neutrons confinements. The Gluons and the non integer charge of the quarks play the key role in the creation of these three forces.

14) The Roles of the SP in creating the Electromagnetic force.
According to magnetism classical theory, magnetic fields are clouds of energy around magnetic particles that pull in or push away other magnetic objects. According to quantum mechanics, electrons emit undetectable virtual particles that tell other objects to move away or come closer. Although these two theories help scientists understand how magnets behave in almost every circumstance, two important aspects of magnetism remain unexplained: why magnets always have a north and south pole , and why particles emit magnetic fields in the first place.We just observe that when you make a charged particle move, it creates a magnetic field and two poles. We don't really know why. It's just a feature of the universe, and the mathematical explanations are just attempts of getting through the 'homework assignment' of nature and getting the answers.

Due to the high importance of electromagnetism in our modern life we will discuss this subject in some details. Our thoughts experiments focused on the roles of the space particles and the existence of the spinners in explaining the working of the universe, including electromagnetism. We hope to offer some possible answers to the questions above. For example, potential energy is stored when kinetic energy is used to pack extra charged particles ( like the electrons) in a wire. This potential energy changes the geometry of the quantum fields of the subatomic particles making up the atoms of the charged wire. This is in reality a change in the geometry of the adjacent SP, which is observed as an electric field. The change in the geometry of the SP is due to the rearranged distribution of their spinners as they reflect the additional charged particles in the wire. The existence of insulating materials can easily interrupt this distortion in the geometry of the SP.

Magnetism
On the other hand, a Magnetic field is the region in the neighbourhood of a magnet or a moving electric field. In both cases the moving charged particles cause the Polarised movement of the spinners within the adjacent SP. This leads to the conversion of the SP into micro magnets.
For example, a move in the electric field due to a moving electric current, (or the presence of a magnet due to the unpaired electrons being organised to spin in tandem) lead to the the spinners of the SP not just to polarise as in the case of electric field but also to move in a non random way. The magnetic field is a manifestation of the various positions of the SP vector acting as subatomic magnets.

Magnetic Force
Now let us discuss the source of energy in a magnet used to attract iron shavings. The original energy used to magnetise an iron bar becomes a potential energy. This potential energy keeps the unpaired electrons of the atoms making the iron bar to spin in tandem. The adjacent space particles spinners get polarised and spin in tandem in response, hence converting them to micro magnets. The strength of these miniature magnets are in direct proportion to the strength of the magnetised source and in reverse proportion to the square distance from it. As the iron shavings approaches the magnetic field, they in turn convert to little magnets by making the unpaired electrons to spin in tandem. The magnetic field of the original magnet and that of the iron filings start to interact with each other’s mediated by the magnetised SP. It is these synchronised actions leads to the stored E Quanta in the original magnet to circulate as virtual photons. This is how we can explain the role of the virtual photons in the attraction and repulsion force of a magnet. As the iron shavings are pulled away from the magnet, the pulling kinetic energy used is converted back to potential energy and re-stored in the magnet. It is the mediation of the space particles which allows the conversion of the potential energy to kinetic energy (and vices versa).

The vector lines observed around a magnet when we apply irons files are the manifestation of the way the magnetised space particles are being organised.


Why we have North South Poles?
As the world is dominated by matters, and the electrons play the key role in electromagnetism, so the anti clock wise of the 6 spinners of each electron determine the magnetic polarisation, hence the north south poles.

Why magnetic force much stronger than gravity?
The conversion of the SP to miniature magnets as per our thought experiment and the flow of the virtual photons offers a possible explanation as to why the electromagnetic force is much greater than the gravitational force. The former relies on the spinners and the circulating energy quanta (virtual photons) in the system, while the gravitational force relies only on the cumulative changes in the geometry of the space particles caused  mainly by the strong force.

Electromagnetic waves
According to the current standard explanations, Electromagnetic waves are the combination of electric and magnetic field waves produced by oscillation or acceleration of charged particles.The magnetic and electrical waves oscillate in perpendicular planes with respect to each other, due to the oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Once in motion, the electric and magnetic fields become self-perpetuating and time-dependent.
According to our simplified approach, the kinetic energy accelerating/ oscillating the charged particles is passed to the SP responsible for creating the relevant electrical and magnetic fields. This energy then emitted by the SP as electromagnetic radiations. The emitted waves are a form of energy and made of multiple energy quantum, i.e. E=h*f where E is the energy, h is Plank constant (the single string of elementary energy) and f is the total number of the elementary energy strings joined together to form the photons. 
Just as the transmission of electrons to lower shells emits photons, the oscillation in the geometry of SP lead to the absorption of virtual photons and the emission of the electromagnetic waves. The frequencies of the photons emitted by the space particles are determined by the presence and strength of the appropriate fields and the level of the accelerating/ oscillating energy exercised to generate those fields.

15) The Proposed Fifth Force of Nature: The Space Particles Force - The Spinning Loop Force.
According to our thought experiment this is the fifth and the strongest force essential for building the fabric of space. It is the Space Particles weaving force. We have already spoken at some length that the fabric of space is made of Space Particles. For these subatomic Particles to form the powerful fabric of space, there must be a huge force to hold these particles together. We speculate that this force must be the result of the spinners of adjacent Space particles working together to create the joining loop force. Just as you can’t punch a hole in any liquid, you cannot break the fabric of space due to the flexibility of their geometry.

16) Dark Matters, Dark Energy and Neutron Stars.
According to current scientific speculations, Dark Energy makes up roughly 68% of the universe and dark Matters makes up 27%. This leaves only 5% for the rest which we know as stars, planets and photons energy. This implies that Dark Energy is almost equivalent to 3 times the Dark Matters and the latter is almost five times the normal matters.
According to our thought experiments, Dark matters in the universe are mainly the remnants parts of the original Dark Matters which did not unfold to form the fabric of space and the observed normal universe. Dark Matters are also the result of the vacuumed debris of all the subatomic particles including Photons.

Since Spinners are conserved, then the stored debris must be reduced to Neutrinos and and anti Neutrinos.This process is essential for slowing down entropy until it reaches a state equilibrium for the universe continuous renewal.
Based on the above analysis we conclude that Dark Matters are made of compressed SP, Ve- & Ve+  particles plus Dark energy stored in the form of potential energy.
Small fractions of the Dark Matters and/ or a cluster of condensed neutrons may have played a key role in providing the necessary gravity for collecting the cosmic dust to form the various stars. The bigger this core of dense matters (up to a certain level) the bigger the star. Beyond a given level, the forming stars would collapse and turns into Neutron stars or Blackholes.
Bigger fractions of the Dark Matters are in effect the Blackholes at the centre of the galaxies. The masses of these Blackholes over time become proportional to the size of their respective galaxies, otherwise those galaxies would not be stable. A relatively small Blackhole at the centre would lead to the distant heavenly bodies to leave its orbit due to any slight disturbance in its gravitational field. A relatively massive Blackhole will keep trapping loose space debris within its field of gravity and get bigger.
So we can say that without the Blackholes/ Dark matters there would be no stable galaxies, no stars nor planets and no continuous renewal of the universe. 

Within the Dark Matters, all the subatomic particles are converted into Ve- & Ve+. They get compressed with the SP to a Plank length which lead to the enhancement of gravity at the micro gravitational level. Great kinetic energy (dark energy) is stored in the compression process. 

Only when the compressed potential energy exceeds the gravitational pull of the Dark Matters can the Hawking Radiation escape. The greater the mass of the Dark Matters the lower the escaping Hawking radiations and vice versa.

The distortion in the fabric of space in the proximity of the Dark Matters lead to the bending of the photons passing in proximity. It also leads to time dilation.

At the Dark Matters level, the known laws of physics don’t work as all distances are reduced to Plank length. New laws of physics are required to accommodate all the subatomic particles activities at the Plank length.

Dark Energy
According to these thought experiments, then Dark Energy is the potential energy stored in the compressed SP and other subatomic particles which make up the Dark Matters. The Dark energy is manifested as the energy responsible for the expansion of the fabric of space resulting from the bounced space particles which form the majority of the mass of the Dark Matters. Dark energy is used by the unfolding the SP as they form the fabric of space and used to convert Ve- & Ve+ to atoms. A process which involve the storage of energy as within the confinement of the protons and neutrons strong force and weak force. 

Neutron Stars
The great gravity of the dense Neutron/ anti neutrons’ clusters may have provided the necessary environment for the creation of the stars by providing the force to gather the cosmic dust. The exhibit below shows that under extreme pressures the Neutrons may turn to anti neutrons and vice versa as both are made of the same combinations of spinners & helicity. This flavour changing is stable unless the pressure falls to a level which allows the free neutrons to decay. Large Neutron stars collapse into Dark Matters.

 

17)  What is time, what is reality and the life time of the universe!
According to our thought experiments, time is a measure of the number of observed snapshot of the universe “Now Time” taken per cosmic second. A cosmic second is the Plank time or the time required for a Singularity to spin around itself. 
In terms of cosmic seconds, time does not get dilated with acceleration or relative gravitational fields force since we are in effect measuring time in terms of Plank time, which is a constant.
Acceleration & time dilation.
However if time to be defined as the number of observed snapshots of a given event, then from the point of views of two different observers, time is relative and depends on the number of the “now snapshots” observed by each of them. A person accelerating at a very high speed away from Earth, while the other is working in his Lab, the photons carrying the images of the same events on Earth would reach them at different times. Since the speed of the photons caring the images is equal to the constant speed of light, then we must allow for time dilatation to explain the reasons for this difference.
Gravity leads to time dilation.
As we have seen that gravity is in reality a compaction in the geometry of space. As an extreme example, at a blackhole level, i.e. Beyond the event horizon, the compaction in the space particles is so great, to the extent that a photon traveling at the speed of light, cannot escape it gravity and get sucked into the Blackhole . So the denser the relative gravity the greater the time dilation and the fewer the number of observed “snapshots” from that location.
Plank Time
Each snapshot of the total universe subatomic activities is equivalent to an Atomic Second or Plank time. This means that time is quantised just as Space is pixilated. This would explain the forward moving arrow of time. Spacetime is a key foundation of general relativity. So if we think of Space as the three spatial dimensions, then time, the forth dimension, is made of the sequence of the “now snapshots” associated with Space.

The sequence snapshots of the horse is in effect the time dimension. 

What is reality?
The conscious reality of an observer is nothing but a collection of the images of past “snapshots” determined by the photons getting to the vision of that observer. For example, as we experience a sun set, we in reality seeing it as it was 8 minutes earlier. If we move away from the sun at the speed of light, then the snapshot of the sun setting will be the last one we experience as if time has been frozen.

 

From the local frame of reference of the blue clock, the red clock, being in motion, is perceived as ticking slower, i.e it received fewer snapshots of a given observed event.
Are we living in a hologram?
A replay of the recorded “now time” of the total cosmic activities, at Plank time intervals, would lead to a difficulty in differentiating between experiencing reality or being in a holographic universe. Many physicists are struggling with this notion.
The universe, i.e. everything we see and feel and experience, may actually have two spatial dimensions. Think of a 2D hologram, like the one on the back of a credit card: it can have all of the information of a 3D images but in only two dimensions. Some scientists have postulated that our universe is like the hologram on your credit cards: space seems like it has three dimensions, but it may turn out that all we are seeing is a projection from a 2D universe outside of our perception.
According to our thought experiment this possibility is viable as all strings of energy and the singularities have identity code to enable the universe “Now Time” snap shots to be recorded at every “Atomic Second” including their location relative to each other. The replay of the recoded total snapshots is in effect what could be imagined as images responsible for the Holographic Universe.
Conservation of information.
As the working of the universe is governed by very strict rules then there is no difficulty in arguing the case of conservation of information until the various strings of energy and singularities are absorbed by Dark Matters. Once they are absorbed then a reset button is activated.  This is the case as it is not possible to determine from what origin each string of energy or Singularity came from. However the the continuous recording of the “Now Time” trace their journey from their original release from the Dark Matters to their new rebirth. So information is not lost if we think in terms of the continuously recorded Snapshots, as these will include those E Quanta in the Dark Matters.
The lifetime of the universe
 According to some current literature, the two opposing theories are: the Big Crunch and the Big Rip. Neither of these outcomes support the existence of a universe in a state of a continuous renewal. 
The Big Crunch is the opposite of the Big Rip – all of the pieces of matter in the universe will stop accelerating away from each other and start accelerating toward each other. A boiling collision of all of the matter in the universe ensues. 
The Big Rip is where all of the pieces of matter in the universe continue to accelerate away from each other, faster and faster until eventually space-time moves so fast that it rips atoms apart.
These two possibilities, according to current scientific wisdom are the only two possible outcomes for the universe.  
The perpetual universe
However we argue that due to the finite size of the fabric of space, galaxies move away from each other in a non liner fashion, leading to ultimately get closer and collide. Dark matters in the universe would recycle the debris made of  Photons, neutrinos and other subatomic particles. This must imply that the universe will continue in a state of upheaval and regeneration. The Dark Matters act as cosmic vacuum cleaner. This involved the decomposition and re-compaction of Space Particles, other subatomic particles and potential energy into a Dark Matters format, waiting for the right trigger to Re-Bounce. This would mean that Space is in a continuous state of contractions and expansions.

18) The key elements associated a universe design manual.
Let us speculate what a “Universe Design Manual” would include based on the above thought experiments.
1) All the particles are to be created from vibrating strings of energy and spinners (singularities) at their nuclei. These two fundamental particles are condensed/ packed into compressed Dark Matters ready for a Big Bounce. With the Big Bounce the arrow of time to commence. Time to be recorded at a Plank time per a spinner rotation.
1) Great amount of potential energy (Dark energy) to be stored in the process of  creating the Dark Matters. This stored potential energy to be released at the point of unpacking the two fundamental elementary particles to ensure the instantaneous creation of the fabric of space and the subsequent creation of the photons and the neutrinos.
2) An automatic trigger mechanism for Dark Matters to unfold and restart the creation process. 
3) The normal universe to materialize as a result of the interactions between the SP and other subatomic particles. The various force fields to ensure the creation of additional micro dimensions for mass and volume to materialize..
4) Strict mathematical laws and processes to govern the working of the universe. The very specific use of maths, the various universal constants like the speed of light and the laws of conservation are to ensure the conservation of the various properties of the universe and its renewal processes.
5) The abundant distribution of dark matters and solid Neutrons mass in space at various levels as an essential part of the processes for holding the Galaxies together and for the formation of the stars and the planets in addition to providing a mechanism for perpetuity of the universe.
6) The inclusion of computer codes in the energy strings, to identify their locations and activities in relation to other energy strings and the space matrix. They are also designed to serve in the sharing of information between entangled particles and to allow for instant cosmic communications between various intelligent beings in the universe. They are also to play a key role in the collection of the information for a master cosmic Computer to record the whole activities of the universe from the moment of the Big Bounce for a possible rerun as a Holographic universe. Mastering the retrieval of cosmic records would make it possible to re-examine the past as a part of virtual reality.


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