The Grand Unification Theory

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This is a new manuscript in theoretical physics which explains the Nature and structure of all Subatomic Particles. It offers a complete explanation of how the universe works and the roles of the
Space Particles. Extracts from this manuscript to answer the multiple question in Quora, has made the author the most read contributor.

Submitted: April 06, 2018

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Submitted: December 23, 2017

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A Grand Unification Theory  
The Universe Two Basic Energy Particles (BEP) 
 The Nature and Structure of Subatomic and Space Particles
For the full manuscript with photos click on the link here:
https://docs.google.com/document/d/1qpnegrI9ox0gBRnN-jvA0PXHgcbpAdhwwpS__eBocq8
Contents
 Introduction
1) Abbreviations and summary of the key concepts. 
2) How did the universe start?
3) The Universe Two Basic Energy Particles.
4) The law of Spinners Conservation.
5) Types of Energy: Potential and Kinetic.
6) The Fabric of the pixelated Space.
7) Entanglement, Uncertainty Principle, Wave Particle Duality.
8) Subatomic particles made of Basic Energy Particles.
9) Explaining Fusion and Fission using the new tools.
10) Dominance of Matters over AntiMatters Explained.
11) The geometry of the Space Particles (SP) and the creation of the gravitational force.
12) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the creation of the Strong Force.
13) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the creation of the weak force.
14) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the creation of the Electromagnetic force.
15) The Proposed Fifth Force of Nature: The Spinning Loop Force.
16) Dark Matters, Dark Energy, Expanding Universe, Neutron Stars
17) What is Time and  What is Time Dilation?
18) Quantum Cosmic Information and the Holographic Universe.
 
 Introduction
 
This manuscript is for all those who are interested in some “out of the box” thought experiments in theoretical physics. References are made to various theories like: General Relativity, Quantum Mechanics, Quantum Field Theory (QFT), Loop Quantum Gravity, String (M) Theory, Quantum Chromodynamics, Grand Unifications Theory and others. They all offer partial answers to the nature and working of the universe based on some key assumptions regarding the intrinsic nature of the basic substances which make up the universe. For example some physicists argued that the shortcomings of  the state of a physical system, as formulated by quantum mechanics, is due to the existence of hidden  particles. Therefore for a complete theory of everything one must look for those hidden basic particles and try to incorporate them in a revised model of the universe. 
 
Unfortunately these hidden particles are expected to be very small. They can only be given Planck measurements. This would make any study of their nature and characteristics based on rational speculations and mathematical models. In this work we have made some speculations as to the nature and characteristics of the proposed two hidden particles which are responsible for the creation and the working of the entire universe. We base our thought experiments on the latest work in theoretical and experimental physics. The aim of this work is to create a working and simplified computer model of the universe. We will argue that the binary values generated by the spins of the proposed two basic energy particles offer the foundation for an interactive holographic universe. We offer an explanation to the reported conundrums like the mystery of the Entanglement and the collapse of the wave function in the double slit experiments. This model of the universe supports the argument that the universe is deterministic and not probabilistic as proposed by most physicists dealing with the quantum world.
These thought experiments have been in the making over many years. They have seen and going through many modifications to ensure that they are in line with the latest findings by physicists. For example we derive great pleasure in the newly reported possible key roles the neutrinos and the other lepton particles play in the various micro activities of the universe. The confirmation coming out of CERN that the Higgs Bosons are still being elusive particles to detect is supported by our suggestion that once the Space Particles are knocked out of the fabric of space they turn into other subatomic particles. 
It is hoped that this work would encourage fresh thinking in theoretical physics and offers possible visualizations of the time dimension, the quantum fields responsible for the manifestation of the Subatomic particles and the energy strings proposed by the Superior String (M) theory.
The String theory allows physicists to reconcile the laws governing subatomic particles, called quantum mechanics, with the laws governing space-time, called general relativity, and tries to unify the four fundamental forces of nature into a single framework. However this theory can only work in a universe with 10 or 11 dimensions: three large spatial ones, six or seven compacted spatial ones, and a time dimension. The compacted spatial dimensions — as well as the vibrating strings themselves are about a billionth of a trillionth of the size of an atomic nucleus. There's no conceivable way to detect anything that small. So there is no known way to experimentally validate or invalidate the string theory. 
The Quantum Field Theory explains the small scale’s reality as vibrations in quantum fields which do not contradict the arrow of time. Most of the existing theories works subject to key assumptions made in the maths associated with each of them. All theories dealing with the Quantum world report its weirdness due to the measurement problem, the entanglement conundrum, observations like the appearing and disappearing of electrons between the atoms’ shells, the collapse of the wave function in the double slit experiments, etc. It is hoped to show in this work to offer some rational explanations to these mysteries based on the proposed nature and characteristics of the two Basic Energy Particles. Of course many would raise valid objections regarding the proposed assumptions. This would be a healthy approach to find more realistic explanations of the working of the universe instead of physicists relying on the need to incorporate wormholes in the fabric of space or the existence of multiverse or other weird speculations to explain some of the current conundrums in physics. As a minimum, it is hoped that physicists would seriously consider that all the Subatomic particles of the standard model are in reality composite particles made of the two proposed BEP. 
 
The Manuscript Abstract 
It is proposed that all Fermion subatomic particles and the Space Particles (the Higgs Bosons) are made of the proposed two types of basic energy particles in the form of:
a) Point-like Singularities spinning clockwise or anticlockwise at the speed of light, forming the nuclei of all subatomic and Space particles. A law for the conservation of singularities has been proposed. This leads us to the conclusion that subatomic particles don’t get completely annihilated into photons but always generate other subatomic particles like the almost massless neutrinos and antineutrinos which are difficult to detect. The different electric charges of the subatomic particles are determined by the net direction of the singularities spins. The two directional spins present the binary values of zeros and ones needed for the comic computer based universe.
b) Strings of Energy (Quanta) made of identically vibrating strings with equal number of left handed or right handed spins. They form the photons and the orbiting cloud of energy surrounding the singularities which act as the driving force of the subatomic particles’ wave function. Here again their two directional spins provide the zeros and ones for the building the Cosmic Information.
 
It is proposed that all the subatomic particles (generation one of the standard model) have at their nuclei a total of six singularities spinning in a combination of clockwise or anticlockwise depending on their types. On the other hand, each Space Particle (SP) has 12 singularities, six of each type. Any of one SP could split into any Fermion Particle with its antiparticle (Generation I). 
 
For these reasons it is also proposed that the number “6” is dominant in the various activities of the universe in addition to the constant value of “pi” which is relevant to the maths associated with circular geometry. 
 
These thought experiments suggest that the fabric of space is made of interwoven “Space Particles”. The Space Particles are key in shaping our reality. They are the reported Higgs Bosons which create the Higgs or Space field (the unified field) that permeates throughout the entire universe. It is proposed that the fabric of space was formed in the first few seconds of creation as a precondition for the universe to exist. It is the display platform for the Holographic Universe. The formation of space was then followed by huge subatomic activities leading to the formation of the cosmic dust and all what exist today in the known universe. It is also proposed that the universe is finite in size, yet it appears to be infinite as photons are continuously moving within the curved fabric of space.
 
As there is no such thing as matters and antimatters at the level of the basic energy particles, a new approach needs to be considered to understand the conundrum of the dominance of matters over antimatters. In this work we propose that this dominance is mainly due to the non symmetrical  of the strength of the wave function of the electrons and the positrons in their respective quantum fields. The electrons are more energetic and ready to resume their wave functions relative the positrons.
Our work shows that the neutrons and antineutrons are identical in nature as they are ultimately made up of the same combination of BEP (just as the photons are both matters and antimatters). It is proposed that each Neutron is made of up quark, two down quarks and one antineutrino. It also proposed that the Neutrons are stable under extreme pressure and a large cluster of them create a dense mass with very high gravitational attraction. Clusters of the dense neutrons and/ or fractions of dark matters played an important role in collecting the cosmic dust to form the newly born stars and galaxies.
 
The Nature and Structure of Subatomic and Space Particles Theory offers unified explanations to the 4 forces of nature. It is also proposed that the boomerang like momentums of the quarks, due to their non integer charges, play key role in the creation of the confinements. The confinements are the result of the additional six/ seven micro dimensions (predicted by the string theory) generated by the twisting and pending of the fabric of space at micro spatial level. This in turn leads to the creation of the microgravity, locality and mass. On the other hand, the macro gravity is the cumulative sum of these micro distortions in the fabric of space. This Work also defines the Gravitons, predicted by the String Theory, as the moving strings of energy (which constitute the energy clouds of the relevant Space Particles) between any two interacting gravitational fields. This is similar to the virtual photons moving between two magnetic fields.
It is proposed that the Gluons are trapped kinetic energy in the protons and neutrons’ confinements. The 6/7 flavors’ changes of the quarks are explained using the proposed law of singularities’ conservations. Rules for the continuous subatomic activities within the confinements are also proposed. The theory also predicts that in case of neutrons there are additional flavor change involving the creation and annihilation of the electron hence the additional 7th dimension. The presence of the electron’s flavor leads to the neutron instability once the electron resumes its wave function (due to the absence of the necessary pressure/ force to suppress it). The 6/7 flavors changes observed within the confinement of the strong force are due to the exchange of singularities between any two Subatomic particles with different helicity. This work also confirms the oscillation of Neutron-Antineutron and the violation of Byron Conservation.
 
This manuscript also makes suggestions and offer some possible explanations to the followings:
- The nature of Dark Matters, Dark Energy and their roles in the working of the perpetual universe.
- The mystery associated with the collapse of the electrons’ waves function when observed in the double slit experiments. It is linked to the entanglement conundrum.
- The mystery of the Entanglement explained in terms of the Cosmic Information. The two entangled particles share the same spacetime code which is given to them as they interact with each other. This shared code ceases when one of them interact with another subatomic particle as in the case of observation.
- The existence of a fifth force (the spinning loop force) responsible for interweaving the Space Particles to form the strong, yet flexible, fabric of space
- The definition of the time dimension as the sequence of the “Now-Time” snapshots (per cosmic second) of the total activities of the universe as reported by the binary values of the two basic energy particles. A cosmic second is the equivalent of a spin of a singularity. 
- Expanded on the way the digital information are formed, collected and recorded to ensure the conservation of information and the working of the Cosmic Computer.
 
Finally we confirm that this work is in response to the great contributions by many physicists to popularize fresh thinking in theoretical physics like Stephen Hawking. All comments, for or against, to enrich these thoughts experiments are very welcomed.
 
1) Abbreviations and Summary of Key Concepts
 
 
 
Space particle code:OOOOOO-111111-O1 (12 spinners with both helicity)
 
 
Definitions, Abbreviations and assumptions behind some of the new concepts introduced in this work: 
 
Basic Energy Particles (BEP): They are the two types of energy particles that make up the entire universe. They are known as the singularities (Spinners) and the Strings of Energy (Quanta).
 
Spinners (Singularities): They are dot-like Energy Particles. They have fixed Planck length radii. They spin at the constant speed of light either clockwise (CW) or Anticlockwise (ACW). Each Spin direction represent either zero or one which are essential for determining part of the universe digital information. The spinners are responsible for the intrinsic electric charge of the Subatomic Particles which are labeled as positive when they spin CW (0) and negative when the spin ACW (1).
 
Strings of Energy (Quanta): They are string like energy particles. Each string’s helicity (the projection of the spin on the direction of the momentum) could be either left handed spin (0) or right handed spin (1). The helicity of the quanta also provide the zeros and ones necessary for building the main digital codes essential for the working of the universe. A number of string of energy form a of strings the equivalent of a Planck Constant energy level which physicists have given it the symbol (h). These packets of Energy, made of a collection of zeros and ones, form the letters for a modular approach in building the Cosmic information database, similar to the four letters of the DNA.
 
Supersymmetry: The two BEP offer support to the Supersymmetry theory. Each of the two classes of basic particles have identical characteristics except the directions of their spin. Conservation of symmetry is key the working of the universe. 
 
Space Particles (SP): They are made of nuclei containing spinners surrounded by bubble-like Structure made of  Strings of Energy with both helicities. Each SP has 12 spinners, 6 of each type, hence its neutral charge. They are allocated as follows:  6 spinners forming the nucleus and the other 6 are divided at the rate of one per side of its hexagon geometry. The side spinners act as the spinning loops necessary for joining the SP to form the fabric of space. The SP are in effect the elusive Higgs Bosons. The splitting of any single space particle Could turn into any of the Subatomic particles with its antiparticle (generation I only). Every two SP are responsible for generation II and every three are responsible for generation III of the Subatomic particles in the standard model. The moving strings of energy between different gravitational fields are in effect the gravitons. The Fabric of Space is similar to an interactive computer screen in which the physical universe manifests itself.
 
Spinning Loop Force: It is the fifth and probably the most powerful force in nature. The SP side spinners act as the spinning loops which interweave the bubbles-like Structures to form the highly strong yet flexible beehive shaped fabric of space. 
 
Unified Field: The fabric of space which is made of the Space Particles acts as the unified field for all the Subatomic particles to manifest themselves. 
 
Dark Matters: In this work we speculate that Dark Matters are made of condensed singularities and quanta spinning at the constant speed of light.  
One cluster of singularities spin clockwise surrounded by left handed quanta and another cluster of singularities spinning anticlockwise surrounded by the right handed quanta. 
 
Dark Energy: It is the potential energy (condensed strings of energy) used to collapse the singularities and the energy quanta into Dark Matters.
 
Redshift of the Candlesticks: photons from supernovae which have known wavelength have been used as candlesticks to measure the distance of stars. We speculate that the drop in the candlesticks frequency from blue to red is due to the loss of some of their energy quanta, which is proportional to their increased distance, and not due to the expansion of the universe at accelerating speed.
 
Subatomic Particles Waves Function: They are the waves generated by the movement of the Quanta in response to the continuous dance of the spinners at their nuclei as they interact with other Subatomic Particles. When the spinners get  dry close to each other to reset their movements, the orbiting quanta wave function collapses in response.
 
Wave/ Particles Duality: The Subatomic particles are made of the two basic particles in continuous motion, hence they behave as particles in addition to being observed as waves. The duality can be equated to the water molecules acting as particles and the water mass acting as waves when subjected to external forces.
 
Photons: Are made of joined packets of energy quanta. They form wavey structures. The numbers of the energy packets determine the photons wavelengths. They are made of both types of helicities similar to the energy clouds of the SP and to the other Bosonic force carriers. The zeros and ones are associated with the helicities of the photons’ energy quanta. This what makes the photons as essential digital information carriers.
 
Fermion Particles: They are in reality composite Subatomic Particles with nuclei made of spinners and orbiting Energy Clouds with half integer spin due to having either left handed or right handed strings of energy but not both. 
 
Bosonic Particles: These are force carriers particles like the Photons, Gluons and Gravitons which are made of both type of strings in equal number, hence they have integer spin. They have no singularities.
 
W and Z Gauge Bosons: They are lepton Subatomic Particles wrapped by borrowed quanta from the Space Particles. They act as force carrier and very quickly get disinterested, once they are outside the confinements, into a lepton particle and Quanta.
 
Three Generations of Different Subatomic Particles: They differ by the number of the spinners and energy quanta.
Generation I has six spinners at their nuclei with the appropriate energy cloud. They are the stable Subatomic particles responsible for creating the known physical universe. Any single Space Particle could split into a Subatomic Particle plus its corresponding antiParticle.
Generation II has twelve spinners with greater energy clouds. Any two Space Particles may join together and split to form one of the Subatomic Particles included in this generation plus its corresponding antiparticle. Other combinations and permutations of the spinners create some exotic particles from such split.
Generation III has eighteen spinners with yet greater energy clouds. Three Space Particles join together and then split to form any Subatomic Particles included in this generation plus its corresponding antiparticle. Several exotic Subatomic particles are also created as a result of different combinations and permutations of the spinners.
 
Matters and Antimatters: Each Subatomic particle has its own antiparticle. Both are made of the BEP. Therefore at the BEP level it is meaningless to speak of matters and antimatters. Photons are both matters and antimatters since they are composed of both types of energy strings. Our work leads us to conclude that Neutrons and antineutrons have identical combinations of BEP, therefore they switch between the two states as part of the continuous flavor changes, therefore they can be regarded as both matters and antimatters. 
 
Annihilation of matters and antimatters: Due to the proposed conservation of Spinners law, the act of annihilation is simply the conversion of the two particles into lower mass fermion particles plus the release of energy, hence the abundance of the very difficult to detect neutrinos and antineutrinos. There is also the possibility that the act of annihilation leads to the formation of space particles due to the law of spinners conservation.This may explain the reported disappearance and reappearance of Subatomic particles.
 
Quantum Numbers (QN): It is also known as the Quantum State. The combinations and permutations of the BEP of each Subatomic particle and their interaction with other particles determine their Quantum Numbers, ie their different Waves/ Particles behaviours plus other characteristics. The QN digital codes of each Subatomic particle is derived from their: 
A) spinners codes (determined by the number of their zeros and ones), 
B) strings of energy codes ( determined by the quanta zeros and ones), and
C) the type of interaction with the adjacent Subatomic particles codes, the gravitational, electric and magnetic fields.
 
Time Dimension: It is the very high sequence of the “Now-Time” Snapshots of the entire cosmic activities.
 
Cosmic Seconds (Time): Are the equivalent of Plank Time. Each complete spin of a singularity constitutes a cosmic second. It is a constant value since all the spinners have a fixed Planck Length radii and they spin at the constant speed of light.
 
Cosmic Second Code (CSC): Generated by the cosmic clock just as our clock define time in term of seconds. The first Cosmic Second started  with the Big Bounce. It is continuously moving forward and responsible for the arrow of time.
 
Quantum Cosmic Location code (QCLC): The space particles form the three space coordinates necessary for defining the Quantum Cosmic Location Codes. These coordinates form the Space Matrix coordinates. Within the Space Matrix, each Space Particle is given a unique QCLC. This is similar to the use of the GPS in modern satellite technologies. 
 
Spacetime Code: It is made of the QCLC and the CSC. 
 
Subatomic Particles Cosmic Records (SPCR): Each Subatomic Particle generates a cosmic record made of: 
The unique index representing the Spacetime code associated with its creation/ last interaction, and 
The rest of the record digital information containing, 
1) The index of the previous Subatomic particles participated in its creation/ interaction. This information is essential for tracing all the cosmic activities and also essential for the conservation of information., 
2) The Subatomic particle type code which is made of the number and types of the spinners plus the energy cloud helicity,
3) The quantum number code which represent its quantum state. 
 
Now-Time Snapshots (NTS): At each cosmic second, information are collected from all the Subatomic particles to create a snapshot of the universe activities at that cosmic second. Each NTS has a unique cosmic second number. 
 
Cosmic Information: It is the total records of the collected and stored “Now-Time” snapshots of the entire universe. Hence Information are recorded and conserved in a Cosmic Computer ( may be at the original black hole horizon). The gathering of the cosmic information must be governed by the laws of physics, laws of chemistry and the laws governing the living entities. These laws represent the universe information operating systems.
 
Entanglement: When two Subatomic Particles share the same Spacetime code they become entangled. As experiments have shown that two entangled particles act as one system as if they are communicating with each other instantaneously. If this is the case, then it’s reasonable to conclude that the data stored in the Cosmic Database are indexed in accordance to their “Spacetime codes”. So any update to one record leads to updating both records. Based on this postulation, then this would  also lead us to conclude that any change in the “Cosmic record” of an entangled particle must lead instantaneously to a change in the observed physical quantum state. It also lead us to conclude that the act of entanglement is necessary for the conservation of momentum and information. It also supports the possibility that we are living in a Holographic Universe.
 
Measurement problem: 
The existence of the wave functions of the Subatomic particles are due to the nature and characteristics of two Basic Energy Particles responsible for their existence. To explain the collapse of the wave function we speculate that as photons interact with the fired electrons in the double slits experiments they share the same “Spacetime code” which make them entangled. Once an observer capture these photons (in the act of measurement and record the data) a new space time codes are given to the photons. This leads to the cessation of the state of entanglements as the photons no longer have the same spacetime code of the observed electrons. In response to erasing the act of entanglement, the observed electrons reset themselves by getting their energy cloud collapsing in readiness to start a new cycle of spin.This is done to preserve the law of supersymmetry. 
 
Consciousness and data recording: It is suggested by some physicists that the act of observations through effective meditation lead to the collapse of the wave functions. We speculate that such trained meditators are able to concentrate, capture and register the information carried by the entangled particles in their memoirs. This in effect constitutes particles interactions similar to capturing the data by measuring devices. Such interactions lead to the resetting of the relevant entangled pairs, hence the collapse of the wave function.
 
Cosmic Data Verifications: In creating each “Now-Time” snapshot, the Subatomic Particles records are sorted according to their Spacetime indices. Any two Subatomic particles which share the same index get checked to synchronize their quantum states to comply with the various laws of conservation. Only then the data get delivered to the cosmic computer for record keeping. This confirms the finding of self correcting of codes reported by Dr. James Gates Jr., working on a branch of physics called supersymmetry. He discovered what he describes as the presence of what appear to resemble a form of computer code, called error correcting codes, embedded within, or resulting from, the equations of supersymmetry that describe fundamental particles. 
 
 
Holographic Universe Evidences: If the update of the information of an entangled particle through the process of the Cosmic Data Verifications leads to the observed quantum state to change then it is right to conclude that observed physical state is a mere projection of information. 
 
Quantum superposition: It states that any two (or more) quantum states can be added together ("superposed") and the result will be another valid quantum state; and conversely, that every quantum state can be represented as a sum of two or more other distinct states. If we accept our postulation that the “biological unit” data collection, processing and recording is slower than the cosmic data recording speed, then each position recorded in the conscious mind is in reality in a superposition of the many quantum states wrapped up as one record. This principle is key to protect the biological units from data overloads.
 
2) How did the universe start?
 
Let us speculate that the universe started due to a Big Bounce of highly compressed singularities and strings of energy which we have termed as the Basic Energy Particles (BEP). The released BEP are responsible for the creation of the fabric of space (which is made of interwoven Space Particles) and all that exist in the universe . The act of compression was due to a stored potential energy (the elusive Dark Energy). The proposed structure of each Space Particle in this work supports the possibility of getting it split into any subatomic particle and its antiparticle (as per generation one in the Standard Model). More on that later.
 
The released Space Particles (SP) got interwoven to instantly generate the Fabric of Space which is also referred to as the unified field. The instantaneous formation/ unfolding of the fabric of space was a perquisite to the creation of the universe. The formation of the fabric of space was then followed by the conversion of some of the SP to fermion and bosonic Particles. The fermion particles like the quarks and the leptons are responsible for the creation of the hydrogen atoms (and all other elements that make up the cosmic dust). This was then followed by the formation of the galaxies, stars and planets.
For the big bounce to happen it is proposed that the condensed dark matters formed of two very dense layers of BEP. The outer layer is made of the dense singularities spinning CW at the speed of light wrapped up by Right handed strings of energy forming a rob like Structure. And the inner layer is made of singularities spinning at the speed of light ACW wrapped up with Left handed strings of energy. The Big Bounce or the Big Bang happened when these two condensed spinning moving belts of energy smashed into each other.
 
 
 
The perception of infinite space.
The Photons and all the Fermion Particles cannot exist outside the fabric of space due to their continuous need to interact with the spinners of the Space Particles (SP). This is in line with Quantum Field Theory. The photons are in continuous move at the speed of light with the necessary curvature in order to remain within the fabric of space. This would give the illusion of an infinite universe. Such speculation could explain the possible existence of multiverses in relative proximity without them ever coming into contact with each other, as photons of different verses couldn’t jump their respective spacetime. In other words all Photons and subatomic particles for each universe stay trapped within their own spacetime.
The observation of a universe expanding at great speed is probably nothing but a relative measurement of the movement of the observed heavenly bodies to the movement of the observer on planet Earth. This is so since the movements and directions of  galaxies are independent of each other. Therefore an observer at planet Earth may see a distant galaxy moving away at a high speed while other observer on a different Galaxy may see the same Galaxy approaching them. This explains why some galaxies are moving away while others are getting closers and crashing into each other. The redshift associated with the candlestick measurement is explained as possible loss of energy associated with long distances and not as a proof that the universe is expanding at accelerating speed. This is why the observed redshift is proportional to the distance of the observed supernovae.
 
Entropy
Is defined as the gradual decline into disorder. This is assumed to be the property of the universe.
We recognize that the universe has started with the orderly pre-packed singularities and strings of energy. Following the creation of the fabric of space, great cosmic nuclear activities led to the creation of the galaxies and the stars. This continuing activities led to increasing level of disorder. However, we speculate that the move from order to disorder would reach a state of equilibrium through the role played by Dark Matters acting as cosmic vacuum cleaners. This process involves re-compacting photons and other Subatomic Particles into condensed and folded SP ready for the next secondary Big Bounce. Our thought experiments regarding the process of continuous subatomic particles compactions will be explored when we discuss the collapse of massive Neutron stars into black holes.
 
Grand Unified Theory
According to current literature:
“A Grand Unified Theory (GUT) is a model in particle physics in which, at high energy, the three gauge interactions of the Standard Model which define the electromagnetic, weak, and strong interactions, or forces, are merged into one single force. This unified interaction is characterized by one larger gauge symmetry and thus several force carriers, but one unified coupling constant. If Grand Unification is realized in nature, there is the possibility of a grand unification epoch in the early universe in which the fundamental forces are not yet distinct.”
 
According to our thought experiments, we are proposing that all the four forces of nature are the result of the Basic Energy Particles activities. In case of both the strong and weak forces, they are generated by the trapped energy quanta with both helicities in the confinements of the protons and neutrons. On the other hand Gravity and electromagnetic forces are generated by similar energy quanta of both helicities except that they move between the relevant gravitational and electromagnetic fields at macro level.
 
3) The Universe Two Basic Energy Particles (BEP)
 
 
Physicists have been questioning for a long time the possibilities that all subatomic particles could be made of even smaller elementary particles. Such speculations also included the possible existence of unknown elementary particles which could be behind the weird observations made at the quantum level. The Nature and Structure of Subatomic and Space Particles Theory proposes that at the heart of everything in the universe lies only two types of basic energy particles. The various combinations and permutations of these two particles lead to the creation of all the known and yet to be discovered subatomic particles and antiparticles. They are also responsible for all the theorized Quantum Numbers used to explain the working of the physical universe.
 
Most of physics can be explained in terms of the:
A) The Number of Singularities (Spinners) in each subatomic particle and the direction of their spins.
B) The number of the Energy Strings (Quanta) and their helicity (Left handed or Right handed spins).
C) The existence of the Space Particles (SP) and their continuous interactions with the two elementary energy particles leading to the creation of the various energy excitation fields responsible for the manifestation of all the Subatomic Particles.
D) The role played by the Lepton particles (Electrons, Positrons, Neutrinos and Antineutrinos) and their interaction with the Space Particles and Quarks.  These  interaction are key to the flavor changes associated with the strong force and the weak force.
E) The exchange of singularities between any two Subatomic particles is restricted to those with different helicity like an up quark interacting with a down quark as part of the flavor changes in the confinement of a proton or neutron. These exchanges of singularities which lead to changes in the nature of the subatomic particles are key to all the Subatomic Activities associated with fusion and fission.
F) The two types of spins associated with each BEP provide the basis binary codes necessary for the building the digital (Holographic) universe.
 
The table below shows how the two basic types of energy particles form the different types of the subatomic and space particles.
The table below shows the number of spinners associated with the three generations of subatomic particles.
 
 
The table below shows the digital codes associated with the Subatomic Particles types. The Space Particles code type is OOOOOO111111-O1
 
 
 
The Two Basic Elementary Energy Particles (BEP) are:
 
A ) The Strings of Energy (Quanta)
 
A varying number of Energy Strings (of both helicity) are joined  together in a wavy thread-like structure to form the different types of photons with linear angular momentum. This is explained by the equation E=h*f where E is the total energy of a photon, h is the Planck constant (an energy strings) and f is the frequency (i.e. the number of strings packets making up the photon). The photons adopt a linear angular momentum due to the absence of the spinners. On the other hand the packets of the energy strings of the Fermion Particles form a cloud-like structure with orbital angular momentum surrounding the nucleus made of spinners.
 
 
The purple photon has billions of times more E strings than the yellow photon. This is what enable photons with different frequencies to have the same constant speed of light.
 
The Quanta Key Characteristics:
- The energy strings are in a continuous state of vibration moving continuously at the speed of light.
- Each has a minimum amount of identical energy level equivalent to the reported planck constant (h).
- Each has a predetermined helicity (spin): left-handed (L-R) or right-handed (R-L) spin. Each type is known as ½ spin. The helicity is one of the determinants of the quantum numbers of the Subatomic Particles. There are equal numbers of energy strings with each helicity in the universe. 
- The two types of helicities represent the zeros and ones of the universe digital information. They are key to the formation of the binary codes essential for the working of the universe.
- A cluster of both helicities form the photons, gluons and gravitons, hence their spin is equal to one. Billions of zeros and ones are joined together in a thread-like Structure. This Characteristic enables the photons to carry and transmit the information necessary for the working of the universe. Since the photons are made of quanta of both helicities, they are regarded as Particles and antiparticles. The photons’ and other Subatomic Particles waves/ particles duality can now be easily explained, since they are made of energy particles squeezed together to form a wavy thread-like Structures with liner or orbital angular momentum.
- The Strings of Energy of both helicities form the foams/ bubbles-like structures of the Space Particles. The unique combinations of the zeros and ones form the unique digital codes essential for the mapping the entire Space matrix coordinates of the universe. Each Space Particle represents a Cosmic Location Code essential for recording the universe activities similar to the use of Global Positioning System (GPS) in satellite communications, except that it is billions of time more accurate. The Space Particles are assumed to have zero spin as their energy strings are interwoven in the process of forming the fabric of space.
- In the presence of singularities forming the nuclei, the Quanta with only one type helicity are used to form all other Subatomic Particles, hence they have ½ spin. 
- Only subatomic particles with quanta of different helicity interact with each other and exchange their Singularities. This lead to the continuous flavor changes observed within the confinements of the protons and neutrons. All Particles have opposite helicity to that of their corresponding antiParticles. 
- The Energy Strings never get created or destroyed, hence the law of energy conservation. A number of quanta are joined together forming per designed packets of energy with specific digital values to assist in the modular approach of building the universe information data. This is similar to the four letters of the DNA which are made of specific molecules. Each letter has a specific digital value reflecting the Subatomic particles involved in its formation.
 
B) The Energy Singularities (Spinners).
We are proposing the existence of the elusive Singularities spinning clockwise or anti clockwise at the speed of light located at the nuclei of all Fermions and Space particles. Most of the conundrums in physics emanate from their absence in all the models and theories dealing with the working of the universe.These Spinning dot-like Particles are responsible for the electric charge of the subatomic particles. Their continuous motions and locations within the nuclei determine the geometry of the energy cloud (quantum energy fields) of all the subatomic particles. For example, the interactions between the 3 quarks (which have non integer charges) with each other and with the Space Particles lead to the formation of the confinements which trap the Gluons responsible for most of the proton mass. The confinements are nothing but the twisting and folding in the fabric of space (the speculated six dimensions of the Superstrings theory). The Fermion Particles come in 3 generations, according to the standard model. This is determined by the number of their spinners which in turn determine the level of the energy clouds they attract, hence their mass.
Characteristics of Spinners (Singularities):
- The Spinners are dot-like energy Particles. They spin either clockwise (positive charge) or anti clockwise (negative charge). The Spinners of different charges don’t annihilate each other. The direction of the spin represent the zeros and ones used by the universe digital information to determine with the orbiting quanta the types of  the Subatomic particles
-They are in continuous motion within the nuclei of all the subatomic and Space Particles (SP). 
- Each spinner has a Planck length radius and continuously spinning at the speed of light.
- The Spinners are always found in the company of other spinners and always found in group of 6 or multiple thereof (as in the case of the SP or the second and third generations fermion Particles). The number “Six” is the unit of measurement when it comes to the spinners. It is the only number that is both the sum and the product of their consecutive positive numbers (1,2,3). So the electron charge of -1 means it has 6 anti clockwise spinners. The up quarks +? charge means it has 5 cloak wise and 1 anti clockwise spinners ((+5-1)/6=+?). The spinners are responsible for the formation of the Subatomic Particles mass and locality.
- The Spinners are in continuous interactions with the SP. They act as the driver of the Quanta which are observed as the Subatomic Particles’ wave functions. In doing so the different clouds of energy create the quantum fields responsible for the manifestation of the various subatomic Particles. For example the electrons up and down spins and the collapse of their waves functions are all determined by the positions of the spinners at their nuclei. The spinners reset their motions by coming together in very close proximity before they resume their rituals. This leads to the collapse of the wave function. The Neutrinos and Antineutrinos which both have zero charges display almost zero mass, as they don’t interact at all with the neutrally charged space particles. Their energy clouds are continuously in a collapsed state. This is why they move at near the speed of light and very difficult to detect. The only difference between the two neutrinos is the helicity of their energy clouds.
- The total number of the spinners in the universe and the directions of their spins is conserved. The spinners are divided equally between those spinning clockwise and those Spinning anti clockwise.
- They play key role in giving the Subatomic Particles their digital code types as shown in the table above. They are also very important in determining other aspects of the Subatomic Particles Quantum state.
- Many of the weird quantum world observations can be explained once we recognize the presence of the spinners at the nuclei of the Subatomic particles. This will move our understanding of the quantum world from being probabilistic to being deterministic. Realism and locality concepts become accepted and explainable in the quantum world as in the macro world.
- It is speculated that each spin of singularity is equivalent to a cosmic second. Each cosmic second is equivalent to the proposed Planck time. The continuous sequence of the cosmic seconds is the time dimension. The continuous action of the spinners represent the Cosmic clock. Each second represent a unique cosmic time code. The combination of the “cosmic space Locations” and the “cosmic time codes” represent the “space time” codes which are key for indexing the total digital information of the universe and the concept of the Holographic Universe.
- The spinners are responsible for the very important fifth force of nature which interweaves the bubble/ foam like space particles into a hexagon (balloon-like) matrix.
- The presence of the spinners and the orbital rotation of the quanta explains the reasons for the prominence of the constant value of “pi” in physics. This value is equal the circumference of a circle divided by its diameter (equal 22/7). It is also equal to the sum of 1/n2, where the value of n ranges from 1 to infinity divided 6. Here again we see the relevance of the  number “6”, since it is the unit of measurement used in the construction of the cosmos. For example the electric charge of electron is -1, because it has 6 ACW spinners. The up quark has +? charge because it has 5 CW spinners and 1 ACW spinners, making the net spin effect +4/6 (ie+?). The laws of physics mostly derived from the maths associated circular motions of the spinners at the speed of light. Area of a circle = r2*pi. The circumference =2r * pi.
 
4) Law of the Spinners’ Conservation
 
Just as the total energy in the universe is conserved under the law of “conservation of energy”, so is the number of singularities and their direction of spins are conserved.
The annihilations of particles with their corresponding antiparticles do not lead to the disappearance of the spinners. They just move to other Subatomic particles including the shy neutrinos and antineutrinos. This explains the reason for the abundance of these particles in the universe. Since any Subatomic particle and its antiparticle could be combined to form a space particle, then the annihilation could lead to the spinners disappear by creating a space particle while their orbiting strings of different helicities get combined to form the released photons. 
The law of spinners conservation is in line with the law of conservation of charge which states that the total amount of electric charge in a system does not change with time. For example the annihilation of neutrinos with antineutrinos lead to the creation of electrons and positrons in equal number. The net charge of the input is zero (ie the number of  CW spinners = the number of ACW) and the net charge of the output is also zero. In the same way the electrons and positrons annihilations lead to the creation of any pair of: neutrinos and antineutrinos, up quark and anti up quake, or down quark and anti down quark with similar number of spinners and helicities. Any interaction of Subatomic particle with its antiParticle could turn into another pair. This principle is key to the continuous flavor changes in the confinements of the protons and neutrons.
 
According to these thought experiments, the Space Particles have six CW spinners and Six ACW spinners, hence the neutral charge of the speculated Higgs Bosons. Each space particle could be converted to any pair of the generation one Subatomic Particle with its corresponding antiParticle. Here again the total charge is preserved. This also could explain the difficulties of discovering the Higgs Boson at CERN, as their break up from the fabric of space would lead to the creation Subatomic particles with different masses. While the Higgs Bosons have an observed zero spin (due to being interwoven to form the fabric of space), once it is separated from the fabric of space, the energy would split into R-L and L-R quanta to form any pair of the generation one particles with its corresponding antiparticle.
 
5) Forms of Energy: Potential and Kinetic
 
All forms of Energy in the universe are in effect the result of the basic Strings of energy. They can shift between orbital or linear angular momentum and they can split into left-handed and right-handed helicities. These specific characteristics of the quanta leads to the creation of two groups of energy forms:
A) Potential Energy: which is found in all types of stored energy. It can be chemical, nuclear, gravitational, mechanical, elastic, etc. They are the result of adding the Energy Strings of both helicity to the clouds of the space particles (the Quantum fields) responsible for the creation of the relevant subatomic particles making up the atoms. This stored energy lead to changes in their geometries or molecular structures. Such form of energy remains stored until a trigger is applied to release it. Example of such triggers are two gravitational field comes in contwith each other or a stretched elastic band is released. A waterfall could convert the stored energy to kinetic or electrical energy.
 
B) Kinetic Energy: which is responsible for all types of motions. All forms of kinetic energy start with the increased vibrations of the subatomic particles as a result of more E Strings being added to their existing energy cloud. For example heating water leads to increased kinetic energy of the water molecule. Such energy could be  converted to mechanical energy as in the steam engine or to store energy by lifting the water molecules forming the clouds. The wind turbine converts the wind energy to mechanical energy. The wind gets its energy from the sun. 
According to our thought experiment, the photons are made of quanta of both helicity. As they hit the atoms, their energy strings get split. Those with left-handed helicity and specific frequency get added to the electrons energy clouds pushing them to higher orbital Shells. The released right handed energy of the photons get added to the up quarks energy cloud of those atoms. The quarks are mainly responsible for the formation of the protons and neutrons. This increased level of quanta leads an increased level of atoms’ nuclei excitation. The remaining energy of the photons which don’t get absorbed by the various types of atoms get reflected as heat. As the atoms return to their rest state, the absorbed energy in the form of left-handed quanta leave the electrons. On their way out of the atoms the capture the relevant right-handed quanta stored in the up quarks. This leads to the emission of the specific photons associated with each element. 
 
Absolute “Zero potential energy” concept.
Just as the complete absence of atoms’ excitation is defined as “absolute zero kinetic energy”, the complete absence of any distortion in the geometry of the quantum fields responsible for the creation of the specific Subatomic particles can be defined as “absolute zero potential energy”. For example, in outer space there will be absolute zero potential Earth gravitational energy on objects outside the earth gravitational field. At the Dark Matters level, the potential energy is at its greatest as the space particles containing the spinners and the strings of energy are pressed and squeezed and their wave functions collapse into two layers with planck length dimensional geometry. 
Under the law of energy conservation, the transition between different types of energy could take many forms. For example, Photons’ radiation (heat or light) leads to an increase in atoms vibrations due to some of the E Strings move from the photons linear angular momentum to the energy clouds of the Subatomic Particles. The increased atoms vibration could be converted to other types of kinetic energy (motion). E Strings are passed from atoms with high level of kinetic energy (vibrations) to those with lower vibrations until a state of equilibrium is reached. 
 
6) The Fabric of the Pixelated Space.
 
Some quotes from current literature:
“During the twentieth century, scientists learned that space is not "nothingness." First, Einstein showed that space has structure: It is flexible and can be stretched. (In fact, when astronomers talk about the "expansion of the universe," they are referring to the stretching of space between clusters of galaxies - NOT to the motion of galaxies through space.) Later, scientists found other properties of space. For example, matters and antimatters are routinely created in the laboratory from space itself (and an energy source); the kinds of particles that can exist and reflect the structure of space. In fact, there is now evidence that space itself MAY possess some slight amount of energy of its own, of a form previously unknown. If so, space may actually have weight!
Discovering the properties of space remains one of the deepest and most important problems in modern science
 
The version of Einstein's gravity theory that contains a cosmological constant, makes the prediction: "empty space" is not empty, it possess its own energy. 
Some physicists have speculated that "empty space" is actually full of temporary ("virtual") particles that continually form and then disappear. But when physicists tried to calculate how much energy this would give empty space, the answer came out wrong - wrong by a lot. The number came as 1 with 120 zeros after it. It's hard to get an answer that bad. So the mystery continues.
Quantum theory correctly predicts the random
emergence of particles and antiparticles from "nothing" (space)
which to me suggests it is "something" ...and we know quantum
fluctuations, and dark energy, reside there in the form of the
cosmological constant.... One way to imagine space is as Penrose
Spin networks...which can be drawn out from string
theory. In physics, a spin network is a type of diagram which can be use to represent states and interactions between particles and fields in quantum mechanics.”
According to our thoughts experiment the empty space is made of space particles and not virtual particles which get formed then disappear. Each space particle has the necessary basic energy particles for creating any of the most common Subatomic particles (SP) with its respective antiparticle. This could certainly means that the energy of space is very large as predicted above.
In listing the characteristics of the SP we try to keep in mind those associated with the Higgs Bosons and other speculated features of space.
Each Space Particle:
- Has energy cloud (made of Strings of energy of both helicity) which is very flexible. Its geometry is affected by the positions and the rotational momentum of the spinners and their interaction with other subatomic particles.
- Exhibits zero spin as speculated in the case of the Higgs Bosons. This lead us to conclude that its energy cloud would have both R-L and L-R types of E strings like the photons, but interwoven with other space particles, hence the speculated zero spin.
- Has a nucleus with 6 Singularities spinning clockwise and 6 spinning anti-clockwise. This is what makes its charge neutral. This makes its number of spinners equivalent to a combination of any subatomic particle ( first generation of the Standard model) with its anti subatomic particle.
- Has a bubble/ foam- like Structure. As the Space particles get interwoven the form the fabric of space with Hexagon shaped boundaries. These boundaries form the space coordinates essential for the converting the universe into a giant interactive cosmic information system.
- Allocates six of the 12 spinners (3 CW and 3 ACW) to create the spinning loops force responsible for joining the SP into the flexible fabric of space. The other six spinners are form the nucleus dedicated for interaction with the Fermion particles.
- Has a unique “Cosmic Location Code” to enable all other subatomic particle to report their location at each “Cosmic Second” for the “Now Time” snapshots. The cosmic location code and the cosmic second form the unique spacetime code for collecting the information regarding the entire universe activities to be recorded in the cosmic computer. The spacetime code plus the Subatomic particle type code form the index for the each Subatomic activity.
- The energy cloud of the SP are responsible for the creation of the energy fields that permeate throughout space. The interaction of the Fermion particles with the SP cause the excitation of the space energy field and a change in their Hexagon geometry. The excitation of the space energy field and the distortion in the geometry of the SP lead to the manifestation of matters and gravity. The energy strings of the SP also move between different gravitational fields as virtual Graviton. More on that below under the heading “Gravity”.
 
These characteristics of the SP make the fabric of space vibrates, very stable, very flexible, unbreakable, folds, bend, twist, change its geometry, get compressed and readily interacts with all charged subatomic particles. The latest experiment in the USA which detected the vibration of space resulting from a Big Bang supports this speculation. This must also mean that the attempt at CERN to discover the Higgs Boson would only lead to getting some particles with different combination of spinners and energy clouds. 
 
The spinners act as the stitching nodes of the space matrix. Six at each point of connection with other Space Particles.
 
 
 
 
 
The flexible fabric of the space matrix
 
For example, the various spiral shapes of galaxies are the result of the twisting of the fabric of space due to the spinning and gravitational force of the black holes at the centre of all the galaxies.
 
 
7) Entanglement, Uncertainty Principle and Wave Particle Duality.  
 
 Let us see if our formulation regarding the Natures and Characteristics of Subatomic and Space Particles would offer possible rational answers to some of the weirdest observations in quantum physics.  Very likely that the explanations lie in the roles played by the two basic energy particles in the formation of all the Subatomic particles and the universe digital information essential for the working of the universe. Let us expand on these assumed Features of the universe in our endeavors to offer a rational explanation to the weirdest conundrums in physics today.
 
 
A) Entanglement
Quotes below from the current literature:
“The equations of physics are created to understand the Universe, and it can be hard to separate them from the Universe’s innate properties. It turns out that one of the weirdest things scientists have come up with regarding entanglement is more than just math, it’s fact of reality.
Entanglement allows particles that have once interacted to share a connection regardless of the separation between them. Most physicists believe that there is a richer and deeper theory of nature beyond quantum theory. Such theory has to have explanation of this conundrum.
Scientists are repeatedly observing the acts of entanglement. Chinese scientists set up this special inter-particle connection between light particles on a ground station and a satellite 100 kilometers away, for example. They observed correlations between the light particles in space and on Earth that couldn’t exist based on the laws of classical physics alone. 
It is important to note that most of the current physics theories are as strong as the assumptions and definitions the authors include in the work. There’s a long road ahead. The physicists only proved part of quantum mechanics, not the whole theory.” End of qute.
 
 
Now let us turn to our model of the universe and try to expand on what we have already said under paragraph (1) definitions, clarification and assumptions above to explain the entanglement conundrum. We suggest that when two Subatomic particles interact they create the same spacetime code. This leads to the synchronization of their quantum states activities.
1. Cosmic Digital Information: The entire universe, including the space matrix (i.e.the fabric of space) is made of only two basic energy particles (BEP). These are the Singularities which spin either CW or ACW (the Spinners) and the Elementary Energy Strings (Quanta) which have either left handed or right handed helicity. This makes each of the spinners and the energy strings represents a bit of information (0 or 1) which are necessary for building the required cosmic information, hence the gathering of data necessary for the working of the universe. 
2. Cosmic Space Location Code: The pixelated fabric of space is made of interwoven bubble-like Space Particles which are made of the spinners and the energy strings (Quanta). This matrix-like structure has 3 dimensional coordinates. Each space particle would have a unique “Cosmic Location” code determined by these space coordinates. This is similar to the use of GPS in satellite communications except that it is million of times more accurate.
3. Cosmic Time Code: A cosmic second is equal to one spin of a spinner. A spinner has a fixed Planck length radius and spins at the speed of light. This make the cosmic second a very constant value. The Cosmic Seconds code is the result of the continuous forward ticking of the “Cosmic Clock” which started at the very second of the Big  Bounce. The “Time Dimension” is made of the display, per “Cosmic Second”, of the “Now Time” snapshots of the entire universe. This is similar to a movie made by the rapid display of a sequence of the frames.
4. Spacetime Code: It is made of the “Cosmic Space Location” Code, plus  the “Cosmic Time” code.
5. Subatomic Particles Type Code: This code is created from the digital information of the spinners forming their nuclei and the helicity of their energy cloud. 
 
 
6. Quantum States information: made of the level of quanta, the positions of the spinners, etc. expressed in binary numbers.
7. Last Interaction Code: Subatomic Particles are continuously being created, annihilated or interacting with other Subatomic Particles. The Spacetime code and the type code of the last Subatomic Particles they interacted with is captured as  the “Last Interaction” code . This is necessary for compliance with the law of Information Conservation. This is how the history of each Subatomic particle could be traced back to the second of its formation following the Big Bounce.
8. Subatomic Particle Digital record: It is made of the Spacetime code as its record index, followed by the type code, followed by the last interaction code, followed by the quantum states information.
9. Cosmic Information Register: It is the equivalent of the “Cosmic Computer” or the “Black-hole Horizon” where the information get recorded to provide a total register of the universe activities from the second of its creation.
Based on this computer like model of the universe we can define Entangled Subatomic particles are those which have the same spacetime codes. This means that whenever two particles are created or interacted at the same Spacetime point, they get entangled since they would share the same cosmic records index. To conserve symmetry and other quantum laws, any change in the quantum state of one entangled particle leads to updating the cosmic record of the other particle with the same spacetime code. If this is a valid explanation of how the universe works, then we must  make the rational explanation that at the stage of data collection for “Nowtime” snapshots of the universe, data is verified to ensure full compliance with the relevant conservation laws, prior to delivering the record to the cosmic computer. The verifications and correction of data lead to the synchronization of the quantum states of the relevant entangled particles. The collapse of the wave functions is associated with this synchronization.
If correcting the information related to an entangled particle leads to a change in its quantum state, then this may reasonably lead us to the spooky conclusion that we are living in an interactive holographic universe. Interactive due to the ability of the biological units to act with some degree of freedom, in accordance with predetermined laws of biology, as participants in affecting the information being gathered and stored in the cosmic computer. Each biological unit has its own unique number in the form of genetic code to ensure a full control on its activities and comply with the law of information conservation.
The passing of information does not involve photons and therefore the speed of light limitation is irrelevant. The state of entanglement gets erased if one of the entangled pair interacts with another particle and assumes a new SpaceTime index.  
This explanation is less weird than the multiverse explanation of the measurement problem or other explanations which don’t rely on the existence of the spinners and the role of information in the working of the universe. Once human beings fully understand the working of the universe as Cosmic Computer and how to retrieve information, then time travel to the past will be possible, at least in a movie like style. Such understanding would lead to a major scientific revolution. 
 
 
B) uncertainty (Heisenberg) principle.
In essence the current principle says that we cannot measure the position and momentum of a particle with absolute precision. The more accurately we know one of the two values, the less accurately we know the other. At the subatomic world, there is a fundamental limit to what we can know about the behaviors of subatomic particles. The most we can hope for is to calculate the probabilities of where things are likely to be.
The key shortcomings of the current physics’ theories are the the lack of understanding of the makeup of the Subatomic Particles. The string theory recognized the existence of vibrating strings of energy but it did not spell out the existence of the singularities forming the nuclei as we have postulated. Once this is recognized, then many of the mysteries of the quantum world would disappear. 
As explained earlier we postulate that the continuous movement of the spinners within the nuclei of the subatomic particles and their interactions with the Space Particles determine their quantum fields, geometry, rotational angular momentum, positions and other quantum numbers. Once we master the relevant maths incorporating the spinners, then the quantum world uncertainties will disappear.
To summarize, the current thinking by physicists does not incorporate the existence of the spinners, this leaves them with no choice but to think in terms of probabilities as they try to explain the results of their various experiments. So, it is safe to conclude that what is expressed as uncertain but probabilistically predictable positions are in fact determined by the movement of the 6 spinners forming the nuclei of the Fermion subatomic particles. 
 
 
C) Electrons wave particle duality. 
 
The continuously moving spinners are not observable. They are hidden within the nucleus of the electrons’ cloud. This explain the continuous change in the shape of the electrons (or even their popping in and out of existence). This also explains the wave function of the electrons in the double slits experiment. As the number of the spinners are 6 in the electron, then there are at least 5 possible geometry the electron cloud be at depending on the positions of their spinners. The different combinations of the spinners lead to different cloud shapes, hence the different landing locations. The reset position of the spinners is when they join together to become as one and the energy cloud collapses in response. This reset position manifest itself as: the disappearance of the electrons between the different shells of the atoms, their popping in and out of existence or the collapse of the wave functions.
Having defined what a collapse in the wave function means, let us turn to explaining why the act of observation leads to this collapse. To do that let  us define the act of observation as an indirect interference with the observed particle. 
Experimentally, the act of observation would involve the fixing of a device to receive and record the photons which have interacted with  the electrons going through the double slits. If the measuring device is switched off, there is no act of observation. If it is switched on and a record is being made, then the act of observation is created. This means the following:
1. Photons interacting with the fired electrons through the double slits cause both them to get entangled.
2. The observation camera lets the photons pass through. The act of recording the information carried by these photons constitute an interaction between the photons and the recording materials. 
3. The photons acquire a new Spacetime index and erase the act of entanglement with the relevant electrons.
4. The relevant electrons immediately reset their spinners leading to the collapse of their wave function.
So the collapse of the wave function and the act of entanglement are interlinked. The role of consciousness in the collapse of the wave function is often misunderstood. The fired electrons or photons through the double slits devices are too small to observe by the naked eye. So the mere looking at their path would not usually lead to the collapse of the wave functions. It is not the act of looking at the data by the observer which leads to erasing the entanglement but the interaction of the entangled photons with the recording materials, be it a device or brain tissues. This interaction leads to erasing the act of entanglement.
The reported use of meditation by trained monks to have the same effect as the use of recording devices can only be explained by the ability of trained meditators to have strong empathy which enable them to capture the reflected photons and record them in their memories in the same way as the measuring devices do. This in turn leads to erasing the state of entanglement.
In the real world, the act of observations is in effect capturing the photons reflected of objects and recording them in our brains. This create interactions between the observed photons and the Subatomic particles making up our brains. The interactions in turn leads to erasing the act of entanglement with the Subatomic particles of the observed objects, hence the collapse of their waves functions. This explains why we observe objects as particles and not wave function.
 
8) Subatomic Particles are made of Basic Energy Particles (PEP).
 
Quote from current literature: “Quantum Field Theory was historically widely believed to be truly fundamental. It is now believed to be only a very good low-energy approximation, i.e. an effective field theory, to some more fundamental theory. QFT treats particles as excited states of the underlying field, so these are called field quanta. In quantum field theory, quantum mechanical interactions among particles are described by interaction terms among the corresponding underlying quantum fields. These interactions are conveniently visualized by Feynman diagrams, which are a formal tool of relativistically covariant perturbation theory, serving to evaluate particle processes.”
 
Using our thought experiments we introduce the roles of the spinners, the helicity of the energy quanta and the type of angular momentum in determining the types of the digital codes of the Subatomic particles. As some of the fermion particles interact with the space particles they form the relevant quantum field excitations referred to in the QFT. Below is the speculated digital type codes of fermion and bosonic Subatomic Particles. It is also proposed that the the W and Z Gauge Bosons are lepton particles wrapped by borrowed energy quanta from the energy clouds of the Space Particles.
 
let’s examine the most common Subatomic particles in terms of BEP.
 
A) Electrons
The electron is a charged lepton particle with ½ spin. Its energy cloud spins L-R. This left handed helicity is relevant in the creation of the electron neutrino as opposed to the positron neutrino. It has a “-1” charge due to the six anti clockwise spinners at its nuclei. (By the way, we say -1 and not -6 as all first generation fermion particles are made of 6 spinners). The electrons, like all subatomic particles, get manifested as a result of the quantum excitation of the Space (Unified) field resulting from the interaction of its spinners with those of the Space Particles (SP). The electrons play major roles in the existence of the universe including the dominance of matters over anti matters as we will argue the case later.
 
 
- Electron Spin Up: the spinners are organized as one spinner at the top, followed by two in the middle and three at the bottom row. The Tornado like spinning cloud would have upwards pointing Vector (north) in its rest state. However the spin of the energy cloud can be manipulated in different directions by they use of magnetic fields. To turn it from its rest state pointing north, it’s quantum field needs to acquire some energy.
 
- Electron Spin Down: When the spinners change to 3 at the top followed by 2 in the middle and 1 at the bottom, it is known as Intrinsic Spin Down.
 
 
- Collapse of the spinners is when they become close enough to become as if the are United. This is the reset state of the spinners various positions. All the spinners join together as one before they restart their up and down positions. This what causes the wave function of the electrons to collapse. At this state the electron disappear as the energy cloud is pulled down toward the spinners tiny radius. The reset state is fundamental in explaining why the electrons disappear between the different shells of the atoms and the collapse of the wave function due the presence of observations in the double slit experiments. When the electron is forced into the confinement of the proton, it’s wave function collapses and a neutron is formed. When the necessary force to collapse the wave functions is reduced below the critical level, the electron gathers great energy from the SP and resumes its wave function. This leads to being observed as the massive, negatively charged, W Gauge Boson. It then immediately disintegrates into energy and electron.
- Electrons Quantum Numbers (the Quantum States) are determined by the positions of the spinners, the E quanta level, the interaction with the SP, the interaction with nucleus of the atoms and the interaction with the adjacent electrons. These factors are responsible for all the 4 constitutes of the quantum numbers (the quantum state of the electron).
The total E quanta level is responsible for the electron energy. This is known as the principal quantum number (n). As a discrete variable, the principal quantum number is always an integer. As n increases, the electron moves to a higher shell and spends more time farther from the nucleus. In this state the electron is less tightly bound to the nucleus.
 
The azimuthal quantum number is a quantum number which determines the electrons’ orbital angular momentum and describes the shape of the orbital. According to our thought experiments this number is determined by the 6 possible combinations and permutations of the electrons’ spinners as explained earlier. The spinners give the electron its wave functions, i.e. its up and down spin and its disappearance when the spinners are in their reset state.
 
 
The third quantum number is the magnetic quantum number which describes the electron unique quantum state. It distinguishes the orbitals available for the electron within a subshell. It is the result of the interactions between the electron’s spinners (negative charge) and those of the atom nucleus’ spinners (positive charge) with its gravitational pull. This magnetic force is mediated by the SP as we will see when we discuss electromagnetism.
 
The fourth quantum number is determined by the helicity of the electron’s energy cloud. This is the spin quantum number, which is referred to as the intrinsic angular momentum (or spin angular momentum, or simply spin) of the electron. 
 
- Electrons disappearing and then reappearing at different shells. 
Scientist have spotted a strange type of quantum movement occurring in electrons traveling between the different shells of the atoms. Instead of traveling from the top to the bottom layer through the middle, the electrons were caught disappearing from the top layer and reappearing in the bottom layer in a fraction of a second with no trace in between. According to our thought experiment, we speculate that when the spinners cluster closely together, the surrounding electron’s energy cloud gets compressed/ collapses to an unobservable level. Once the electron reaches its correct shell, the spinners resume their up and down positions and the electron reappears. This characteristic indicates the great sensitivity of the energy clouds of the subatomic particles to the distributions/ locations of the spinners at their nuclei.
 
- Electrons Scattering
Our thought experiments offer possible explanations to the question: Why particles of similar charge repulse each other and those of different charge attract each other?
As we have shown above, all observed particles are nothing but a manifestation of localized quantum energy field vibrations resulting from the interaction of the spinners of the specific fermion particles with those of the space particles. Those of the same charge create similar distortion in the geometry of the fabric of space. This means that each of them need its own space to manifest itself, hence they appear to repulse each other. While particles with different charges create complementary geometry leading them to get attracted to each other without occupying the same micro space. This is why according to the Pauli Exclusion principle, no two Fermion particles could occupy the same space. According to our terminology, as each subatomic particle is nothing but a manifestation of the state of excitement of the relevant quantum field in the space vector, then no two subatomic particles will occupy the same Space Field.
 
 Repulsive geometry in the fabric of space explains electron scattering
 
- Why excited electrons move to higher shells? Explaining Absorption and emission of  photons by electrons.
As electrons acquire more energy, they need more space in which to perform their orbital spin, hence their movement to higher shells. As they emit the acquired energy in the form of photons, they return to their normal shells. The emitted photons have quanta of both helicities, while the electron has the left handed helicity quanta, this means that the right handed helicity quanta comes from the excited nuclei (up quarks) of the relevant atoms. This split of the photon energy is a fundamental principle in the design of the universe. Without it the universe will not function as we know it.
As atoms of each element absorbs only photons with specific frequency, then we theorize that the electrons of that element must have its own number of energy packets. As the electron moves to a higher shell, it will need photons with the same number of energy packets. By creating energy packets from the basic energy strings, the universe offers a process of converting the very tiny strings, in stages (modular approach), to a more complex structures. If more than more energy is absorbed by an electron it will jump more than one shell. 
 
-The Study of Chemistry 
The Space Particles (fabric of space) roles in creating the various atoms nuclei and their orbiting electrons determine their locality, mass, gravitational fields, specific geometry, solidity and many other characteristics of matters. The study of chemistry is in effect the study these relationships. Now we have new tools in the form of the Space Particles, the spinners and E quanta for a better understanding of all aspects governing the laws of chemistry
 
 
In summary, the electrons are key to the laws governing chemistry, electromagnetism, dominance of matters over anti-matters and many other aspects related to the functioning of the Universe.
 
B) The positron (Anti-Electron)
It is a charged lepton particle with +1 charge.
Each positron has 6 singularities, but they are spinning clockwise, hence its positive charge. It has R-L helicity. It’s annihilation with any electron leads to the creation of Ve+ and Ve- or other subatomic particles like up quark and its anti up quark or down quark and its anti-down quark. Such activities take place within the confinements of the protons and the Neutrons and termed by physicists as flavor changes. It has a lower propensity to resume its waves function. This explains the reason for the dominance of matters over antimatters.
 
C) Neutrinos (Ve-) and AntiNeutrinos (Ve+)
 
They are lepton particles with neutral charge and (½) spin. Each neutrino and antineutrino has 3 singularities spinning clockwise and 3 spinning anti-clockwise, hence they display a neutral charge.  The only difference between Neutrino and Antineutrino is their opposite helicity, ie the different spin of their Energy quantua. In the former it is L-R (as in the electrons), while in the latter it is R-L (as in the positrons). The neutrinos and antineutrinos play fundamental mediating roles in many of the confinements subatomic activities. The Ve- and Ve+ have collapsed wave functions and therefore don’t spin “up/ down” as in the  case of the e-and e+. Their spinners clusters in proximity at their nuclei leading to the collapse of the wave function, hence their lack of interaction with the SP and the difficulties in observing them.
According to the standard model, neutrinos are massless particles. However, neutrino oscillation experiments have shown that neutrinos do have mass. Mass terms of the neutrinos can be added to the standard model by hand, but these lead to new theoretical problems. For example, the mass terms need to be extraordinarily small and it is not clear if the neutrino masses would arise in the same way that the masses of other fundamental particles do in the Standard Model.
 
According to our thought experiments, the collapsed wave function render them to have no interactions with the SP therefore they don’t participate in the bending of the fabric of space, hence have no gravitational pull. The only mass they would have is that calculated by the law M= E/C2. It is different from the mass associated with the creation of locality, volume, quantum fields and gravity.
 
In support of our thought experiments of the key roles of the neutrinos and antineutrinos play in flavor changes within the confinements of the protons and neutrons is the recent experiments in Japan (T2K) which has shown that the neutrinos are more likely to switch to other flavors as compared to the anti-neutrinos. The latter experience relatively less resistance in the fabric of space. Evidence mounts that neutrinos are the key to the universe's existence as we have speculated.
Quote from the recent publications in this regard: “New experimental results show a difference in the way neutrinos and antineutrinos behave. Neutrinos and antineutrinos are one of the last matter-antimatter pairs to be investigated since they are difficult to produce and measure, but their strange behaviors hints that they could be the key to the mystery of the universe existence.
Neutrinos (and antineutrinos) come in three 'flavors' of tau, muon and electron, each of which can spontaneously change into the other as the neutrinos travel over long distances.”
According to our thought experiments this must mean that some sort of interaction between the three flavors and the space particles is taking place leading to acquiring spinners and energy clouds or losing them to the SP.
 
We speculate that the reason why the electrons resume their wave functions quicker than the positrons is due the L-R spins of the former create more energetic interaction with the SP relative to the R-L spins of the positrons. Probably this absence of complete symmetry is behind the observation above and the dominance of matters over anti matters. This enhanced interaction makes the electrons and their derivatives the Muon, Tau to have more energetic interactions with the SP than the Positrons and their derivatives. 
 
D) Up Quark (u)
Each up Quark has 5 singularities spinning clockwise and 1 anti-clockwise hence it displays 2/3 positive charge (5/6-1/6= +2/3). It has R-L helicity. The quarks cannot be found on their own and they come in a group of 3. The process involving their flavor changes within the confinement of the strong force is shown under the heading (Proton).
 
E) Down Quark (d)
Each has ACW spinners and 2 CW spinners giving it -1/3 negative charge (2/6-4/6=-1/3). It has L-R helicity likes that of the electron.
 
F) Proton
Is a composite particle made of u, u, d (i.e. a total of 12 positive and 6 negative spinners. This makes the proton has a +1 charge). The continuous changes of the spinners locations and combinations within the 3 Quarks and their interactions with the Space Particles lead to their boomerang like localized spins. This in turn leads to the creation of the 6 additional spatial  micro dimensions which forms the confinement. The three quarks get involved in continuous flavor changes.
From the exhibition below we note 3 flavor changes involve two quarks and 3 other flavor changes involve a lepton and a quark:
 
u & d interact and turn into e+ & u-, 
u & d interact and turn into d- & Ve-,
d & d interact and turn into u & u-, 
 
u & Ve- interact and turn into e+ & d
u- & e+ interact and turn to u & d
d & Ve- interact and turn into u & d
 
These are very fast and continuous flavor changes. At all times, at least two quarks are present to keep the boomerang spin.
 
 
G) Hydrogen Atoms
A Hydrogen atom is made of only one Proton and one orbiting electron. It is the first step in creating atoms from subatomic particles. It has a total of 24 spinners, 12 of each type of spin.
Let us see how the current literature explains the process:
“When an electron and positron collide at high energy, they get annihilated to produce Quark and antiQuark bound together by strong interaction.
1: The electron and positron zoom towards their certain doom
2: They collide and annihilate, releasing tremendous amounts of energy.
3: The electron and positron have annihilated into a photon, or a Z particle, both of which may be virtual force carrier particles.
4: A charm quark and a charm antiquark emerge from the virtual force carrier particle.
5: They begin moving apart, stretching the color force field (gluon field) between them.
6: The quarks move apart, further spreading their force field.
7: The energy in the force field increases with the separation between the quarks. When there is sufficient energy in the force field, the energy is converted into a quark and an antiquark.
8: The quarks separate into distinct, color neutral particles: the D+(a charm and anti-down quark) and D- (an anti-charm and down quark) mesons. The intermediate stages of this process occur in about a billionth of a billionth of a billionth of a second, and are not observable.”
 
According to the proposed Singularities and Space Particles Theory tools, there is a simplified explanation of how this is done as indicated in the table below. In effect the basic energy particles making up any hydrogen atom is equivalent to the energy of two Space particles. Each SP is equivalent to any particle and its anti.
The exhibit below shows how 2 Ve- and 2 Ve+ create the hydrogen atom. Every (Ve- and Ve+) could convert to (e-, e+) or (u, u_) or (d, d_). Below are the rules which govern the continuous flavor changing activities within the confinements of the protons and neutrons:
Only Subatomic Particles with different helicity interact to create a flavor change. A flavor change involve the exchange of singularities. This in turn leads to a change of the wave function.
Helicity and charge (spinners) are conserved.
All first generation fermions must have six singularities.
Any generation one Subatomic particle with its anti could interact to turn into another pair.
In case of an electron flavor, it it is associated with a weakened pressure, its wave function is resumed. This leads to the sweeping of energy from the adjacent SP. The additional energy acts as W- Gauge Boson force carrier which ejects the electron outside the neutron confinement.
 The exhibition below shows how two space particles or two pairs of neutrinos and antineutrinos, or two electrons and positrons could combine to create a hydrogen atom.
 
 
The exhibit below shows the following sequence in creating the hydrogen atom.
One set of Ve- & Ve+ collide (exchange Spinners) to form u, u_.
Another set turns into e-, e+.
Then u_ (from the first set) and e+ (from the second set) collide and exchange spinners to create u, d.
The result is u, u, d (a proton) plus e- = hydrogen atom.
The energized e- manifests itself as W- gauge Boson and get ejected out of the formed confinement with the drop of the pressure.
Some strings of energy of both helicity (Gluons) get trapped in the formed confinement and act as the driving force in the continuous flavor changes within the proton.
The exhibit below shows some of the flavor changing activities under great pressure and energy.
 
The anti-hydrogen atoms are not dominant in the universe due to the lack of stability of the antiproton. The two “anti up quarks” and “anti down quark” leads to the frequent creation of the electron flavors. In the absence of great pressure, the electrons resume their wave function and escape the confinement leading to the breakup of the antiproton. 
 
H) Neutron/ Antineutron
 
Quotes from current literature: “In particle physics, neutral particle oscillation is the transmutation of a particle with zero electric charge into another neutral particle due to a change of a non-zero internal quantum number via an interaction that does not conserve that quantum number. For example, a neutron cannot transmute into an antineutron as that would violate the conservation of baryon number.”
“Neutron is a perfect laboratory for the search of physics beyond the Standard Model. Ettore Majorana first conjectured in 1937 that the neutron might be its own antiparticle. Although neutron and antineutron are well known to be different particles interacting differently with matter, the spontaneous transformation of neutron to antineutron or matter to antimatter remains an intriguing possibility in particle and nuclear physics. Such transformation, leading to the appearance of antineutron from neutron, would violate baryon number by two units and thus might serve as one of the three components of Sakharov’s conditions required for the explanation of baryon asymmetry of the universe.”
“The conservation of baryon number, they pointed out, would prevent the neutron–antineutron analog of neutral?kaon oscillation. But nowadays, with grand unified theories of the elementary particles very much in favor, all bets based on baryon?number conservation are off.”
 
 
 
From the above it is clear that physicists are leaning to the confirmation of Neutron-Antineutron oscillation. Our work offer the necessary support at the basic energy particles level of how this is being achieved. Let us start with the exhibit below which shows the various flavor changes within the Neutron and Antineutron. 
 
 
 
Neutron is made up of: u, d, d,Ve+
Antineutron is made up of: u_,d_,d_,Ve-
As the neutron and antineutron are made of the same Basic Energy Particles, (i.e. the same number of spinners and quanta, with the same charges and helicities), they oscillate between both states, ie between being a Neutron and an antiNeutron as part of the flavor changes. So it is safe to conclude that a Neutron is its own antiNeutron, just like a photon is its own antiphoton.
 
There are 7 flavors changing in the neuton, hence the 7 additional special dimension predicted by the String theory. Three flavors involve quark/quark and 4 involves quark/ leptons. 
This is in effect a way of combining the strong force and the weak force into one theory. The weak force is generated only when the electron flavor is produced. If the applied pressure is weak, then the electron resumes it waves function, leading to its conversion to W- gauge boson and acts as a force carrier. This leads to the split of the Neutron to a proton and an electron as in beta decay and in nuclear fission.
From the above exhibit, the Neutron and the antineutron have the same BEP. Each has a total of 12 positive spinners and 12 negative spinners as in the case of a hydrogen atom. 
At great pressure as in a supernova, some hydrogen atoms ultimately collapse into neutrons while others convert to huge amount of released energy plus neutrinos and antineutrinos. The neutrons get compacted as if they are one atom nucleus to form a Neutron star of massive gravity and spin. Very large size Neutron stars collapse into Dark Matters or black holes. Smaller neutrons clusters may have played key roles in collecting the cosmic dust to form the stars.
 
I) Second and third generation Fermions plus the Exotic Particles
For the sake of completion in this area of physics, let us speculate about the structures of the second and third generations Fermions Particles as shown in the Standard model.
Using the Spinners and E Quanta, the first generation Subatomic Particles are 8 in number (each has a nucleus made of six spinners). 
The second generation subatomic particles are made of nuclei with 12 spinners. Eight of them represent the second generations fermions and 4 are termed as exotic subatomic particles. 
Using the same logic, then the third generation subatomic particles will include eight fermions as in the standard model and 10 as exotic subatomic particles. 
The greater the spinners the greater the energy cloud orbiting them and therefore the greater the mass.
The table below shows the 3 generations Fermions in term of the number of the spinners and the helicity of their quanta.
 
If the above analysis is valid, then we must predict that the third generations subatomic particles to be less stable than the second and the latter less stable than the first.
To conclude:
The Basic Energy Particles of 1 Space particle generate any pair of the first generation Subatomic particles.
The Basic Energy Particles of 2 Space particles generate any pair of the second generation Subatomic particles.
The Basic Energy Particles of 3 Space particles generate any pair of the third generation Subatomic particles.
 
9) Explaining Fusion and Fission using the proposed tools.
To understand these two atomic activities we need to highlight the main principles according to our thought experiments which are relevant to the flavor changes within Subatomic Particles.
- Most subatomic particles were created from Fusing the Basic Energy Particles during the very microseconds after the Big Bounce. This is the most fundamental fusion process, which required huge amount of energy. It took place just seconds after the Big Bounce/ Big Bang. All the basic subatomic particles were first released as a result of the Big Bang. Various Subatomic particles were formed. Then every 2 up quarks and 1 down Quark, due to their boomerang orbital momentum joined together to form the stable proton (P). In this process a great amount of energy was stored in the protons confinements as Gluons. They are responsible for the creation of the strong force which drives the flavor changing activities of the quarks within the confinements of the protons and neutrons.
- The processes which involve particles decay and atomic fission leads to the conversion of composite particles like heavy atoms  
into lighter ones plus great amount of released energy.
- Due to the law of spinners’ conservation, the annihilation of the heavier fermion particles get converted to lighter ones with lower levels of clouds energy plus photons.
 Let us examine these two processes  in light of current literature and apply our own proposed tools to explain them.
 
A) Fusion
The most common fusion process in our Sun is where hydrogen atoms are forced together to form heavier particles. This process starts with the the creation of the Neutrons to create the heavier atoms like the helium. It is important to understand how it is produced in order to understand the process of Beta decay associated with the weak force. The Standard model diagram below represents the current explanation of the process.
 
 
According to our thought experiments, and in compliance with the proposed law of spinners conservation, when a hydrogen atom is subjected to great energy and pressure, the electron’s wave function collapses and get squeezed into the confinement of the proton. Once it is there it starts to participate in the orgy of the flavor changes mediated by the strong force. This involves the exchange of spinners between Subatomic particles with different helicity. This is recognized by physicists as flavor changes. This leads to the creation of the Neutron which is made of u, d, d and  the antineutrino (Ve+). The presence of Ve+ is supported by the above explanation in standard model which shows that the decay of the neutron to a Proton(P) plus an electron(e-) needs the presence of an antineutron (Ve+). 
Fusing the Neutrons with the hydrogen atoms creat heavier atoms and this ends up with the creation of the very stable helium nucleus which is made of two protons and two neutrons. 
 
 
The continuous hydrogen atoms’ fusion processes lead to the conversion of some of them to great amount of energy plus neutrinos and antineutrinos, to ensure a full compliance with the law of spinners conservation. This explains why we don’t only get great amount of energy from the sun but also billions of neutrinos per square inch of space.
 
As part of the flavor changes activities within the Neutron confinement, once the electron appear in a low pressure situation, its wave function resumes. This resumption of the wave function gathers energy from the adjacent Space Particles which are involved in the creation of the additional 7th micro dimension. This additional energy lead to the appearance f the electron as the energized W- gauge boson which acts as a force carrier responsible for its ejection outside the neutron confinement.This is similar to collecting and pressurizing air to sneeze out any particles in the wind pipes.  The acquired additional energy which came from the Space Particles returns back to what is regarded as the condensate under the Higgs Mechanism.
We speculate that the appearance of W+ and both types of Z gauge bosons in addition to W- could only be reported if the decay of some neutrons are also associated with the complete annihilation of some protons to Lepton particles plus energy.
 In the table below we show our expected input and output of subatomic particles associated with the conversion of a proton plus electron to a neutron provided that an appropriate energy level is exercised. This type of fusion does not require more energy than that found in our Sun, since the strong force already exists as a part of the proton.  
According to our model of the universe, a “proton + electron + energy”, creates a neutron made of u, d, d, Ve+. This takes place as the e- & u get engaged in a flavor changing activity turning them to d & Ve+. This is done by swapping spinners between them. The electron loses 2 ACW spinners and gains 2 CW ones in return. This action turns e- to d. At the same time u gains 2 ACW spinners turning it to Ve+.
 In the core of the Sun hydrogen atoms get converted into helium. This is called nuclear fusion. It takes four hydrogen atoms to fuse into each helium atom. During the process some of the mass is converted into energy.
Mass of 4 H atoms: 4.03130 AMU
Mass of 1 He atom: 4.00268 AMU
1 Atomic Mass Unit (AMU) equals 1.67x10-27kgs
 
Mass: 1.989x1030 kg
 
Radius: 695,000 km (equator)
 
 
Mean Density: 1.410 gm/cm3
 
 
Rotation Period: 25 - 36 days
 
 
Escape Velocity: 618.02 km/sec
 
 
Luminosity: 3.839 x 1026 watts
 
 
Magnitude (Vo): -26.8
 
 
Surface Temp: 5,780 K (mean)
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
In the exhibit below, 6 hydrogen atoms are consumed to creating one He atom plus Neutrinos and energy.
 
We speculate that the number of hydrogen atoms required to produce one helium atom differs from one nuclear reaction to another depending on the energy exercised to get the fusion process to happen.
 
The production of other heavier atoms.
Similar fusion processes apply to create all other know atoms. The heavier the elements created the greater the energy required to get them fused. Most of the elements on earth must have been created at some other stars than our Sun and delivered to Earth through some heavenly collisions due to the great energy required to fuse such atoms.
 
B Fission
 Fission is another word for splitting composite particles. The process of splitting a nucleus is called nuclear fission. It is the reversal of the fusion process.
B1) The simplest and most common type of fission is the conversion of a neutron to a proton and electron under a process known as beta decay.
We speculate that the neutron is composed of up, down, down quarks and antineutrino which turns into up, up and down quarks, plus electron mediated by W- gauge boson. This is slightly different from the reported literature on the subject which states that the Neutron is made up, down, down quarks and decays into up, up, down quarks plus Electron and antineutrino mediated by W- gauge boson.
 
B2) The well-known fission process involves uranium or plutonium isotopes which are normally used as the fuel in nuclear reactors, because their atoms have relatively large nuclei that are easy to split, especially when hit by neutrons.
 
 
Once sufficient energy is used to break up the heavy atoms, a split happens due to the release of neutrons. Free neutrons quickly decay, a process called beta decay. The chain reaction leads to more energy is being released from the stored weak force energy. It can be argued that the weak-force energy is equivalent to the mass of the Neutron less the mass of the proton and the electron combined. This is the stored energy gained at the time of creating the Neutron. The cumulative energy generated from the initial Neutron decay quickly becomes sufficient to break up few protons leading to the release of more energy acting as the strong force. The breakup of heavy elements end up ultimately as lighter elements, plus neutrinos and antineutrinos, plus huge amount of energy. This must lead us to speculate that around nuclear reactors we must observe relatively higher number of neutrinos and antineutrons which are released due to the fission process (beta decay) and some related Subatomic particles annihilations. 
 
10) Dominance of Matters over Anti Matters in the Universe?
Quotes from current literature:
“This is one of the key conundrum in physics today. Quantum Field Theory (QFT) requires for consistency reasons that every charged particle has its antiparticle with the same characteristics from the point of view of space-time with the opposite charges.
The law of Charge-Parity (C-P) symmetry requires the universe to have an equal amount of matters and anti-matters, unless that law is broken. We know in order to create more matter than antimatter in the universe, you need a process that violates C-P symmetry. If all types of matters and antimatters behave the same way, they should have obliterated each other shortly after the Big Bang. So far, when scientists have looked at matter-antimatter pairs of particles, no differences have been large enough to explain why the universe is made up of matters -and exists- rather than being annihilated by antimatter.”
 
Let us examine some possible reasons as to why there is more matters than anti matters in the universe. It is true that if the law of C-P symmetry cannot be violated in all aspects, at both the Fermion and the Space particles then we should have equal amount of matters and anti-matters. However, we have argued that in case of reduced pressure the electron is more ready to resume its wave function in comparison to the positron. 
Let us discuss this speculation in more details.
A) Subatomic Particles don’t annihilate their respective antimatters completely. We have argued that the law of spinners conservation always leads to the creation of other subatomic particles like Ve-and Ve+ ( which are difficult to observe). This will explain why subatomic particles must always exist in some format.  
B) The law of C-P symmetry stands as far as the interactions between Fermion particles. However, when it comes to their interaction with the SP, the electrons with their left handed helicity resume their wave function activities under weakened pressure, as they interact with the SP. The positrons don’t exhibit mirror-like image behaviours in this respect, hence the breakup of the complete C-P symmetry. This unique lack of C-P symmetry between e- and e+ is sufficient to explain the dominance of matters over anti matters.
The quote from a current research supports this thought experiment: “Only left-handed fermions and right-handed anti-fermions interact with the weak interaction . In most circumstances, two left-handed fermions interact more strongly than right-handed or opposite-handed fermions, implying that the universe has a preference for left-handed chirality, which violates a symmetry of the other forces of nature. Experiments have shown that the way the spin of a fermion is oriented with respect to its motion, gives different interaction cross sections; for example, Ve- nucleon scattering versus Ve+ nucleon scattering.”
 
A) According to our thought experiment, the left-handed electron is quicker to regain its wave function than the positron under similar pressure. Only when the electron’s wave function is in a state of collapse, i.e. when the spinners are clustered in the middle, it behaves in a mirror image of the positron.
Another recent CERN LEP collider experiment supporting the lack of symmetry came from the electron, positron Annihilations. They found the Z-boson (which is an energized Ve+ in a state of transformation) to be heavier than Z-electron (which is an energized Ve- in a state of transformation)
B) The antiprotons are unstable due the frequent appearance of the electron flavor. This leads to its disintegration. However when a positron is added to an antiproton, antineutron is created. We have argued earlier that Neutrons and antiNeutrons are made of the same combinations of basic elementary particles, therefore no difference exist between them.
C) According to quantum chromodynamics there could be a violation of CP symmetry in the strong interactions. This violation occurs as the flavor changes involves the creation and annihilation of the Lepton particles. As we have speculated, the electron interaction with the SP is not a mirror image of the positron interaction with the SP.
 
11) The geometry of the space particles (SP) and the creation of the gravitational force.
How do we explain Gravity at the micro and macro levels?
 
The search for an explanation to the meaning of gravity is still ongoing. Newton described it as a gravitational pull between two objects in direct relations to their mass and in reverse relationship to the square distance between them. This gravitational pull is measured in terms of the weight of the objects. An astronaut in space will be weightless while his mass is the same as on earth. Einstein on the other hand defined gravity as a result of the distortion in the curvature of fabric of space-time according to his general theory of relativity. Still more recent theories of gravity explain the phenomenon in terms of particles and waves. String theory states that particles called “gravitons” (have never been observed) causes objects to be attracted to one another similar to the role played by virtual photons. Other theories speak of the existence of gravitational waves generated when an object is accelerated by an external force. They are in fact ripples in the curvature of spacetime generated due to certain gravitational interactions and propagate as waves outward from their source at the speed of light. 
The Loop quantum gravity theory merges quantum mechanics and general relativity. It is a theory of discrete quantized units of space time because, according to general relativity, gravity is a manifestation of the geometry of spacetime. It is the leading competitor to string theory. The main output of the theory is a physical picture of granular space. The granularity is a direct consequence of quantization. Here, it is space itself that is discrete. In other words, there is a minimum distance possible to travel through it. More precisely, space can be viewed as an extremely fine fabric or network "woven" of finite loops. These networks of loops are called spin networks. The evolution of a spin network over time is called a spin foam. The predicted size of this structure is the Planck length, which is approximately 10?35 meters. According to the theory, there is no meaning to distance at scales smaller than the Planck scale. Therefore, the Singularities and Space Particles (SP) Theory predicts that not just matter, but space itself, has an atomic structure..
 
So, it is safe to say that our thought experiments regarding the existence of SP are in line with many aspects of the Loop Quantum Gravity. Referring to the above literature, we can speculate that Gravity at the micro level is nothing but the bending and twisting of the space particles as they interact with the Fermion Particles, in particular the Quarks due to their non-integer charges. As each Quark has a total of six spinners made of positive and negative charges, their 6 different combinations and permutations (within the nucleus of each Quark) are responsible for the creation of the strong force confinement. The creation of the confinements provide the answer to the theoretical 6 dimensions predicted by the String (M) theory. As these micro dimensions are created, the resulting shrinkage and distortion in the hexagonal geometry of the space particles manifest themselves as micro gravity.
 
 
 
Using this line of thinking, we can conclude that Gravity at the macro level is nothing but the cumulative shrinkage and distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space affected by the total atoms which make up the mass of the object in question. This what makes gravity between two objects proportional to their mass and in reverse relationship with the square distance between them.
We have seen that all matters are nothing but a manifestation of the total excitation of the energy fields that permeate throughout spacetime generated by the interactions of the Fermion particles making up the objects with the relevant SP. These energy field excitations are responsible for the creation of mass and also responsible for the curvature of space. This curvature/ distortion is referred to as the mass gravitational field. So, gravitational attractions between two object exist whenever their gravitational fields interact with each other. This interaction leads some of the energy making up the excitation fields of the relevant masses to flow between them. This flowing energy quanta is termed as gravitons. It is responsible for the gravitational attractions between objects in the same way as virtual photons are responsible for the magnetic attractions. 
 
As to the creation of Gravitational waves, the movement of massive objects at a very high speed lead to measurable disturbances in the fabric of space, as some SP go back to their Hexagon geometry while others assume the excited state required for the continuous manifestation of the moving mass. We speculate that gravity is the weaker of the 4 forces due to the absences of any role played by the spinners.
 
If Gravity is associated with the very existence of atoms, i.e. the creation of the observable mass and volume, then it is unthinkable to neutralize gravity. Without gravity, the cosmic dust would have not gathered to form stars and planets. However, one question remains valid. If gravity is the result of the shrinkage/ distortion in the fabric of space, and if gravitational attraction is the flow of gravitons then is it possible to create some mechanism to block the movement of the gravitons or to neutralize the distortions in the curvature of the fabric of space?
 
12) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the creation of the Strong Force.
 
According to the current literature: “The strong force is approximately 137 times as strong as electromagnetism, a million times as strong as the weak interaction and 1038 times as strong as gravitation. The strong nuclear force holds most ordinary matter together because it confines quarks into hadron particles such as the proton and neutron. In addition, the strong force binds neutrons and protons to create atomic nuclei. Most of the mass of a common proton or neutron is the result of the strong force field energy; the individual quarks provide only about 1% of the mass of a proton.
The strong interaction is observable at two ranges: on a larger scale,  it is the force that binds protons and neutrons (nucleons) together to form the nucleus of an atom. On the smaller scale, it is the force (carried by gluons) that holds quarks together to form protons, neutrons, and other hadron particles. In the latter context, it is often known as the color force.  The strong force inherently has such a high strength that hadrons bound by the strong force can produce new massive particles. Thus, if hadrons are struck by high-energy particles, they give rise to new hadrons instead of emitting freely moving radiation (gluons). This property of the strong force is called color confinement, and it prevents the free "emission" of the strong force: instead, in practice, jets of massive particles are produced.”
Now let us use the Singularities and Space Particles Theory tools (the SP, the spinners, the E Quanta and the proposed key roles of the lepton particles) to explain the virtual Gluons responsible for all the color activities generating the strong force.
 
According to the Singularities and Space Particles Theory, the Gluons are in reality a high energy photons (in rotational momentum) trapped within a six dimensional energy field generated by the change in the geometry of the SP. The six dimensions are formed by folding and twisting 6 SP due to the non-integer charge of the quarks. The Strong Force is the main factor in explaining the mass generation mechanism. This explains the primary role of mass which is to mediate gravitational interaction between bodies. This also explains the appearance of the 3 dimensional volume.
The non integer and uneven charge of the quarks generate 6 possible combinations and permutations of their spinners. This leads to the boomerang spin of their energy clouds. This in turn twists and folds the SP quantum field, hence the six dimensions. This leads to the formation of the confined quantum field essential for trapping the Gluons to generate localized whirling Activities. With the presence of this huge localized and trapped kinetic energy, the 3 quarks get into a process of continuous change from one flavor to another. These changes in the flavors are achieved by converting “two quarks with different helicity” or a “quark and a lepton with different helicity” to other types of quarks and leptons particle. The various combinations of these activities are recognized as the 6 flavors of the quarks.
In the table below the two subatomic particles involved in the flavor changes process are marked with the symbol “????”. The symbol “????” denotes that the changeover could be in either direction. The great kinetic energy of the Gluons within the confinement are what make flavors’ changes possible.
 
The rules observed in the flavors’ changes are shown in the table below.
The 3 quarks energized by the Gluons are continuously in a state of flavor changes. It could be visualized as starting by changing (u, d) flavor to (e+, u_) or to (d_,Ve-). Then each of these two combinations could change to different flavors as shown in the exhibit above, leading to the creating the 6 flavors. Three flavors involve quark/ quark exchange of spinners, namely: (u????u_), (d????d_) and (u????d, / u_????d_), and three flavors involve quarks/ leptons exchange of spinners namely: (e+ with u_ or d) , (Ve- with u or d_) or (Ve+ with u_ or d).
In case of the antiproton, the process relies on 3 anti-quarks combination (u_, u_, d_) which have 2 L-R spins out of the 3 and create the slow interacting electron leading to the proton instability according to rule 4 of the interactions between the 3 quarks. The antiproton table below shows the dominance of the electron in the process which leads to its decay. This explains the absence of anti-matters due the lack of symmetry of the interaction of the e-and e+ with the SP as argued earlier.
 
 
13) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the creation of the weak force.
The weak force, according to the current literature, is carried out by Bosonic particles known as the W+/- and Z Bosons. As force carrier, they are virtual particles. The weak force leads to Neutron beta decay. 
“In the Standard Model of particle physics, the Higgs mechanism is essential to explain the generation mechanism of the property "mass" for gauge bosons. Without the Higgs mechanism, all bosons (type of fundamental particles) would be massless, but measurements show that the W+, W?, and Z bosons actually have relatively large masses of around 80 GeV/c2. The Higgs field resolves this conundrum. The simplest description of the mechanism adds a quantum field (the Higgs field) that permeates all space, to the Standard Model. Below some extremely high temperature, the field causes spontaneous symmetry breaking during interactions. The breaking of symmetry triggers the bosons to interact with the Higgs fields, causing them to have mass. In the Standard Model, the phrase "Higgs mechanism" refers specifically to the generation of masses for the W±, and Z weak gauge bosons through electroweak symmetry breaking.”
Now let us turn to the tools proposed in the Singularities and Space Particles Theory to explain the weak force.
To understand this force let us start  by referring to the table below which shows the process of creating the neutrons by forcing the electron to enter the confinement of the proton due the application of great energy as in case of the fusion activities in our Sun. The applied pressure on the electron leads to the collapse of its waves’ function. This facilitates it’s entry into the proton confinement. Once it is there it starts to interact with one of the two up quarks, hence they get converted to down quark and anti-neutrino in compliance with the conservation of Singularity law. The exhibit below shows this flavor change as indicated.
 
So, we can say that the weak force is in effect an additional energy stored in the confinement during this process. This explains why the Neutron mass is slightly greater than that of the proton and the electron combined. Beta decays takes place in a free Neutron when one of the flavor changes within its confinement generate an electron flavor. With the absence of the required pressure, the electron regains its wave function and gather some energy from the space field to eject itself out of the confinement. This energized electron is in reality the observed W- Higgs Boson.
 
Therefore we can say that beta decay is due to the electron regaining its wave function. This leads us to redefine the term “electroweak” to mean the appearance in the Neutron confinement of the “electron weak” participant in the orgy of flavors changing within the Neutron confinement. This weak interaction materialize as soon as the electron regains its wave function.
A neutron outside the nucleus , ie being free from the residual strong force, will decay with a half-life of about 10.3 minutes. This is rather a long time in the subatomic world. However, it is a necessary time to allow the free Neutrons sufficient time to join other nucleus before they decay again.
The combined strong and weak forces generate (in addition to the proton’s 6 flavors) a seventh flavor mediated by the energized anti neutrino (Ve+) leading to the creation and annihilation of e- and e+. The processes of annihilations/ creations associated with the 4 Lepton subatomic particles give rise to the observed heavy virtual particles known as gauge bosons (W+, W-, Z- and Z+). They are in fact nothing but the heavily energized electron/ positron, neutrino and antineutrino as the Neutron gets completely annihilated.
The acquisition of this additional energy can only materialize just as the Neutron decays or gets completely annihilated. If this is not the case then the Neutron’s mass must reflect it, which is not the case.
Below is a quote from one of the CERN experiments which confirms that annihilation of highly energized e- & e+ leads to the observation of the created virtual gauge bosons before they decay to other subatomic particles after they lose their acquired energy.
 
“When the particles are accelerated to maximum energy an electron and a positron collide, and they annihilate to a virtual particle, either a photon or a Z boson. The virtual particle almost immediately decays into other elementary particles, which are then detected by huge particle detectors. The detector determined the mass of the W- boson and Z-boson to within one part in a thousand.”
So, we could say that:
W- boson is a reference to the energized electron with borrowed energy, 
W+ boson is a reference to the energized positron. 
Z- boson is a reference to the energized Neutrino 
Z+ boson is a reference to the energized antineutrino. 
According to the previously proposed subatomic particles flavor changing rules.
-The energized electron and positron (W- & W+) change to one of the following pairs of subatomic particles: (u & u_) or (d & d_) or (Ve- & Ve+).
-The energized pair of Neutrino and Antineutrino (Z- & Z+) change to one of the following pairs of subatomic particles: (u & u_) or (d & d_) or (e- & e+).
From the above analysis of Gravity, the Strong force and the Weak forces, we conclude that they are all linked to the activities involved in generating the confinement, the 6 additional dimensions and the continuous flavor changes within the confinement.
 
14) The Roles of the Space Particles (SP) in the Creation of the Electromagnetic force.
According to magnetism classical theory, magnetic fields are clouds of energy around magnetic particles that pull in or push away other magnetic objects. According to quantum mechanics, electrons emit undetectable virtual particles that tell other objects to move away or come closer. Although these two theories help scientists to understand how magnets behave in almost every circumstance, two important aspects of magnetism remain unexplained: why magnets always have a north and south pole , and why particles emit magnetic fields in the first place. We just observe that when you make a charged particle move, it creates a magnetic field and two poles. We don't really know why. It's just a feature of the universe, and the mathematical explanations are just attempts of getting through the 'homework assignment' of nature and getting the answers.
 
Due to the high importance of electromagnetism in our modern life we will discuss this subject in some details. Our thoughts experiments focused on the roles of the space particles and the existence of the spinners in explaining the working of the universe, including electromagnetism. We hope to offer some possible answers to the questions above. For example, potential energy is stored when kinetic energy is used to pack extra charged particles ( like the electrons) in a wire. This potential energy changes the geometry of the quantum fields of the subatomic particles making up the atoms of the charged wire. This is in reality a change in the geometry of the adjacent SP, which are observed as the electric field. The changes in the geometry of the SP are due to the rearranged distribution of their spinners as they reflect with the additional charged particles in the wire. The existence of insulating materials can easily interrupt this distortion in the geometry of the SP.
 
Magnetism
On the other hand, a Magnetic field is the region in the neighborhood of a magnet or a moving electric field. In both cases the moving charged particles cause the polarized movement of the spinners within the adjacent SP. This leads to the conversion of the SP into micro magnets.
For example, a move in the electric field due to a moving electric current, or the presence of a magnet (due to the unpaired electrons being organized to spin in tandem) lead to the spinners of the SP not just to get arranged in a way to reflect the presence of the charged particles (as in the case of electric field), but also to spin in tandem. Therefore, the magnetic field is a manifestation of the various positions of the SP acting as subatomic magnets.
 
Magnetic Force
Now let us discuss the source of energy in a magnet used to attract iron shavings. The original energy used to magnetize an iron bar becomes a potential energy. This potential energy keeps the unpaired electrons of the atoms making the iron bar to spin in tandem. The adjacent space particles spinners get polarized and spin in tandem in response, hence converting them to micro magnets. The strength of these miniature magnets are in direct proportion to the strength of the magnetized source and in reverse proportion to the square distance from it. As the iron shavings approaches the magnetic field, they in turn convert to little magnets by making their unpaired electrons to spin in tandem. The magnetic field of the original magnet and that of the iron filings start to interact with each other’s mediated by the magnetized SP. It is these synchronized actions leads to the stored E Quanta in the original magnet to circulate as virtual photons. This is how we can explain the role of the virtual photons in the attraction and repulsion force of a magnet. As the iron shavings are pulled away from the magnet, the pulling kinetic energy used is converted back to potential energy and re-stored in the magnet. It is the mediation of the space particles which allows the conversion of the potential energy to kinetic energy (and vise versa).
 
The vector lines observed around a magnet when we apply irons files are the manifestation of the way the magnetised space particles are being organised.
 
 
Why we have North South Poles?
As the world is dominated by matters, and the electrons play the key role in electromagnetism, so the anti-clockwise of the 6 spinners of each electron determine the magnetic polarization, hence the north south poles.
 
Why magnetic force much stronger than gravity?
The conversion of the SP to miniature magnets involving the spinners as per our thought experiment, and the flow of the virtual photons between the magnetic fields of two objects, offers a possible explanation as to why the electromagnetic force is much greater than the gravitational force. The former relies on the spinners and the circulating energy quanta (virtual photons) in the system, while the gravitational force relies only on the cumulative changes in the geometry of the space particles caused mainly by the strong force.
 
Electromagnetic waves
According to the current standard explanations, Electromagnetic waves are the combination of electric and magnetic field waves produced by oscillation or acceleration of charged particles. The magnetic and electrical waves oscillate in perpendicular planes with respect to each other, due to the oscillating electric and magnetic fields. Once in motion, the electric and magnetic fields become self-perpetuating and time-dependent.
According to our simplified approach, the kinetic energy accelerating/ oscillating the charged particles is converted to virtual photons and passed to the SP responsible for creating the relevant electrical and magnetic fields. This energy then emitted by the SP as electromagnetic radiations. The emitted waves are a form of energy and made of multiple energy quantum, i.e. E=h*f where E is the energy, h is planck constant (the single string of elementary energy) and f is the total number of the elementary energy strings joined together to form the photons.
Just as the transmission of electrons to lower shells emits photons, the oscillation in the geometry of SP lead to the absorption of virtual photons and the emission of the electromagnetic waves. The frequencies of the photons emitted by the space particles are determined by the presence and strength of the appropriate fields and the level of the accelerating/ oscillating energy exercised to generate those fields.
 
15) The Proposed Fifth Force of Nature: The Spinning Loop Force.
According to our thought experiment this is the fifth and the strongest force essential for building the fabric of space. It is the Space Particles weaving force. We have already spoken at some length that the fabric of space is made of Space Particles. For these subatomic Particles to form the powerful fabric of space, there must be a huge force to hold them together. We speculate that this force must be the result of the spinners of adjacent Space particles working together to create the joining loop force. Just as you can’t punch a hole in any liquid, you cannot break the fabric of space due to the flexibility of their geometry.
 
16. Dark Matters, Dark Energy, Expanding Universe, Neutron Stars
 
16.1 What is Dark Matters?
According to the current scientific speculations, Dark Energy makes up roughly 68% of the universe and Dark Matters makes up 27%. This leaves only 5% for the rest which we know as stars, planets and energy. This implies that Dark Energy is almost equivalent to 3 times the Dark Matters and the latter is almost five times the normal matters.
Physicists have not yet reached definite conclusion as to what Dark Matters are made of? However based on our thought experiments and assuming that simplicity is behind everything that exist in the universe, we propose that Dark matters are made of very condensed singularities (spinners) and Strings of energy which are the only two fundamental particles responsible for all that exist in the universe as explained earlier. 
 
The majority of the calculated Dark Matters in the universe is the remnants (unexploded or more correctly unfolded) parts of the original stuff that got the universe starting. Dark Matters are also growing in mass continuously by acting as cosmic vacuum absorbing part of the fabric of space and other subatomic particles due to their great gravitational pull.
Small fractions of the Dark Matters (and/ or  probably meaningful cluster of condensed neutrons) may have played key roles in providing the necessary gravitational pull for collecting the cosmic dust to form the various stars. The bigger this core of dense matters (up to a certain level) the bigger the formed stars. Beyond a given level, the formed stars would collapse and turns into Neutron stars or black holes.
Bigger fractions of the Dark Matters are in effect the black holes at the centre of all the galaxies. The masses of these black holes over time become proportional to the size of their respective galaxies, otherwise those galaxies would not be stable. A relatively small black hole at the centre of a galaxy would lead to the distant heavenly bodies to leave its orbit due to any slight disturbance to their gravitational field. A relatively massive black hole will keep trapping loose space debris within its field of gravity and the galaxy would get bigger.
So we can say that without the black holes/ Dark matters there would have been no stable galaxies, no stars, no planets and no continuous renewal of the universe
The distortion in the fabric of space in the proximity of the Dark Matters lead to the bending of the photons due to this distortion. It also leads to time dilation as the more condensed the fabric of space the longer the time required for light to travel a given distance.
 At the Dark Matters level, the known laws of physics don’t work 
as all distances are reduced to Planck length. New laws of physics are 
required to accommodate the working of the two fundamental energy 
particles at such distances.
Great amount of energy is needed to compress the two elementary energy particles to solid clusters with no spaces in between the . This compressing force is a type of Dark Energy. The escaping energy is known as Hawking Radiation. If the loss of energy is at a rate greater than the absorption of additional energy, then the Dark Matter will ultimately become unstable and would blow up leading to the creation of additional fabric of space and galaxies. The greater the mass of the Dark Matters the lower the escaping Hawking radiations and vice versa. 
 
16.2 Is the Universe Expanding?
Quotes from current literature.
Since the time of Hubble, Astronomers have observed millions of galaxies with better equipment and verified his results. With the exception of a small handful of galaxies close to us, every galaxy is moving away from us. And in fact, the farther away a galaxy is the faster it is moving away from us. This fits in very well with Einstein's predictions. The galaxies seem to be receding from us because the entire universe is getting larger. The space in between the galaxies is stretching. And the farther away a galaxy is the more space there is to stretch so the faster the galaxy appears to move away from us.
You could conceivably do an experiment to prove this to yourself: if you know that a 60 watt lightbulb gives off a certain amount of energy, and then measure the energy received from a 60 watt lightbulb across the room from you, you could calculate the distance to that lightbulb.
Astronomers can take advantage of standard candles to determine the distance of objects like galaxies. Using a specific type of supernova, astronomers determined both the distance of the galaxy and the redshift of the galaxy. "Redshift" basically told them how much the Universe had expanded since the light left the supernova. The astronomers could then compare distance to expansion, and create a kind of 'expansion history' of the Universe.
It turned out that these results showed that the rate of the Universe's expansion was increasing. 
Why does this lead us to the idea of 'dark energy'? Well, the increased rate of expansion means that the Universe is getting bigger and bigger due the stretching of the fabric of space. Since gravity is an attractive force, you would instead expect the Universe to want to get smaller. Gravity should 'pull' the Universe back together again. If the Universe continues to expand, faster and faster, some force or pressure must be 'pushing' it back out.
 
According to some reported measurements of the redshift phenomena, space is expanding in some places at a greater speed than speed of light. This contradiction of fundamental law of nature makes it easier for us look somewhere else for an explanation of the redshift measurements. 
 
To challenge the widely accepted beliefs of continuously expanding universe (due the uniform stretching of the fabric of space) let us propose an alternative explanations of the redshift observation, since this is what has led scientists to conclude that the universe is expanding.
If the fabric of space is stretching uniformly then we should observe such expansion within our own galaxy. To date there is no measurement, no matter how tiny, to confirm that our Earth is getting further away from the Sun or other planets within our galaxy. The advocates of an expanding universe argue that the increase in the distance between the Earth and the Sun is too small to measure due to their relative proximity. Such rational seems a convenient way to avoid the search for another explanation for the Redshift measurement. Since Galaxies are controlled by black holes at their centers, then there is no reason why different galaxies are not moving at different speeds in multiple directions and away from their originating Big Bangs. The direction and the speed at which galaxies move may vary by the gravitational force that may exist in their paths and the ejecting force responsible for their creation.
We have proposed that the Fabric of Space is finite in size and could be visualized as interwoven bubble-like energy cloud forming hexagon shaped boundaries at their rest state. This flexible cloud of energy shrinks and stretches in different directions as it interacts with the Subatomic energy particles.
As Dark Matters act as cosmic vacuum collectors of energy particles. They also compact adjacent space particles leading to the stretching the adjacent fabric of space. This is similar to pulling an elastic bands at one end leading to its expansion in the adjacent area where the force is being exercised. Dark matters at some stage may also release the compacted space particles leading to the expansion of space and the creation of new galaxies.
The speedy move of the quantum fields responsible for the manifestation of the subatomic particles lead to the temporary stretching of fabric of space. We speculate that this temporary stretching in the fabric of space is due the high speed move of the galaxies.
We have proposed earlier that a large number of energy strings are joined together to form the photons with various frequencies. For a given amount of energy strings, the geometry of the fabric of space where the photons get created affect the wavelength of the resulting photons. It is like a mould in which you inject cotton strings. If the mould is elongated and you inject the same amount of cotton in it, then you will have longer Structure. So we can say that if the fabric of space in which the distant supernovae exist is temporarily stretched then the formed photons with the same energy level would exhibit longer wavelength, hence the observed redshift phenomenon. 
To remain open minded to the possibility that the fabric of space is expanding uniformly, we may speculate that the Space particles are continuously absorbing the energy strings making up the background/ Cosmic radiations found in space. The increase in the energy cloud of the of Space Particles lead to their expansion, hence the speculated uniform expansion of space. If this is correct then the amount of background radiation must be decreasing overtime. This would imply that the conversion of one type of dark energy, namely background radiation to another type of dark energy, namely the space particles. Another possible explanation of the redshift is that photons over long distances lose, very gradually, some of their energy strings, hence the proportionately greater redshift associated with distance. 
Based on the above, we suggest further studies are conducted to find the true reasons behind the redshift measurements.
 
16.3 What is Dark Energy?
Let us start with the current literature regarding Dark Energy.
More is unknown than is known. We know how much dark energy there is because we know how it affects the universe's expansion. Other than that, it is a complete mystery. But it is an important mystery. It turns out that roughly 68% of the universe is dark energy.
 
One explanation for dark energy is that it is a property of space. Albert Einstein was the first person to realize that empty space is not nothing. Space has amazing properties, many of which are just beginning to be understood. The first property that Einstein discovered is that it is possible for more space to come into existence. Then one version of Einstein's gravity theory, the version that contains a cosmological constant, makes a second prediction: "empty space" can possess its own energy. Because this energy is a property of space itself, it would not be diluted as space expands. As more space comes into existence, more of this energy-of-space would appear. As a result, this form of energy would cause the universe to expand faster and faster. Unfortunately, no one understands why the cosmological constant should even be there, much less why it would have exactly the right value to cause the observed acceleration of the universe.
 
Another explanation for how space acquires energy comes from the quantum theory of matter. In this theory, "empty space" is actually full of temporary ("virtual") particles that continually form and then disappear. But when physicists tried to calculate how much energy this would give empty space, the answer came out wrong - wrong by a lot. The number came as 1 with 120 zeros after it.This is known as the "catastrophic" calculation.
A last possibility is that Einstein's theory of gravity is not correct. That would not only affect the expansion of the universe, but it would also affect the way that normal matter in galaxies and clusters of galaxies behaved. This fact would provide a way to decide if the solution to the dark energy problem is a new gravity theory or not: we could observe how galaxies come together in clusters. But if it does turn out that a new theory of gravity is needed, what kind of theory would it be? How could it correctly describe the motion of the bodies in the Solar System, as Einstein's theory is known to do, and still give us the different prediction for the universe that we need? There are candidate theories, but none are compelling. So the mystery continues.
 
 
According to our thoughts experiment, the sources of Dark Energy could be one or all the followings:
The potential energy used to compress the elementary energy particles into Dark Matters. Associated with the Big Bang/ Big Bounce, this energy was released as some sort of cosmic energy. This type of energy was discovered in the 20th century as cosmic background radiation. It is also made of strings of energy with both helicity. This energy is also responsible for propelling all the galaxies in different directions and speed.
The energy responsible for the formation of the fabric of space. We have argued throughout this work that each Space Particles has the elementary energy particles to form any of the widely familiar Subatomic particles and its associated antiparticle. 
 
16.4 What are Neutron Stars?
Stars which are million of times the size of our Sun, explodes as a supernova leaving behind Neutron stars. Scientists estimate 99% of the energy of the exploding supernova is in fact released as neutrinos and antineutrinos. This support our postulation regarding the preservation of spinners and the important roles of these lepton Subatomic Particles. 
We also speculate that the huge gravitational pull of the dense clusters of Neutrons may have played key roles in the collection of the cosmic dust to form the stars. The exhibit below shows that under extreme pressures the Neutrons may turn to anti neutrons and vice versa as both are made of the same combinations of spinners and energy strings with similar helicity. The associated flavor changes within the neutrons are stable unless the pressure falls to a level which allows the free neutrons to decay. Large Neutron stars collapse into Dark Matters. 
 
To create a neutron you need a proton made of 2 up quarks and down quark plus electron. These get converted to 2 down quarks and up quark plus anti neutrino due to the law of spinners conservation. Then through flavor changes these Subatomic particles change to anti proton plus positron which in turn becomes antineutron. This process continues as a part of different flavor changes within the confinement of the neutron.
 
16.5 Does the Universe have an edge, beyond which there is nothing?
Current literature: Galaxies extend as far as we can detect... with no sign of diminishing.There is no evidence that the universe has an edge. The part of the universe we can observe from Earth is filled more or less uniformly with galaxies extending in every direction as far as we can see - more than 10 billion light-years, or about 6 billion trillion miles. We know that the galaxies must extend much further than we can see, but we do not know whether the universe is infinite or not. When astronomers sometimes refer (carelessly!) to galaxies "near the edge of the universe," they are referring only to the edge of the OBSERVABLE universe - i.e., the part we can see.
According to our model of the universe, the fabric of space is a finite cloud of interwoven space particles. The total geometry of the cloud may be in a state of continuous change due to the role played by the Dark Matters. However, the universe has no edges as photons travel only within the fabric of space. This give all observers, anywhere in the universe, the feeling of being at its center. The geometry of the space is not bubble like as some mistakenly believe. Galaxies are found in all directions with similar density. The curvature of space could not be observed due to its size.
 
16.6 Why can't we see the whole universe?
We can see just about as far as photons had the time to reach us and the current technology permits. The universe is evolving with time. Stars and galaxies are continuously being created from secondary big bangs/ big bounces. Therefore light from many galaxies in the universe has not yet had time to reach us including those moving away at high speed away from us. The changing geometry of the cloud of energy forming the fabric of space will not stop us from observing the entire universe since photons bend to stay within its fabric. The cloud of energy is made of interwoven Space Particles.
Although the age of the universe is estimated to be 13.7 billion years, the light emanated from the original Big Bang could keep going indefinitely within the fabric of space. This could give the impression that the universe is much older than it’s true age.
 
17)  What is Time and  What is Time Dilation? 
 
What is meant by Time?
Let us start with a quote from the current literature regarding the different concepts of Time according to physicists.
“Physics is the only science that explicitly studies time, but even physicists agree that time is one of the most difficult properties of our universe to understand.
In science generally, time is usually defined by its measurement: it is simply what a clock reads. Physics in particular often requires extreme levels of precision in time measurement, which has led to the requirement that time be considered as almost infinitely divisible linear continuum.
Several different conceptions and applications of time have been explored over the centuries in different areas of physics, and we will look at some of these in this section.
In non-relativistic or classical physics, the concept of time generally used is that of absolute time (also called Newtonian time after its most famous proponent), time which is independent of any perceiver, progresses at a consistent pace for everyone everywhere throughout the universe, and is essentially imperceptible and mathematical in nature. This accords with most people’s everyday experience of how time flows.
 
However, since the advent of relativity in the early 20th Century, relativistic time has become the norm within physics. This takes into account phenomena such as time dilation for fast-moving objects, gravitational time dilation for objects caught in extreme gravitational fields, and the important idea that time is really just one element of four-dimensional space-time.
 
Most physicists agree that time had a beginning, and that it is measured from, and indeed came into being with, The Big Bang some 13.8 billion years ago. Whether, how and when time might end in the future is a more open question, depending on different notions of the ultimate fate of the universe and other mind-bending concepts like the multiverse.”
 
Now let us now turn to our thoughts experiment and speculate about the nature of time. We have argued that all Subatomic and Space Particles which form matters and the fabric of space have nuclei made of spinning Singularities at the speed of light. Each spin of  the singularities is equivalent to a Planck time and forms a cosmic unit of measuring time. This means that time is quantised and made of the continuous flow of these cosmic seconds. This definition of time is independent of the observers or the objects being observed. It doesn’t dilate or change since it relies on the constant speed of light and the fixed Planck length radii of the singularities. 
 
Using this definition of time we suggest that the time dimension is the constant flow of the “Now Time” snapshots of the positions and activities of the two fundamental energy particles which make up the entire universe. They are independent of the observers.
 
Acceleration and time dilation.
However, relativistic time as proposed by Einstein depends on the number of the observed snapshots of a given event. Therefore time is not independent of the speeds and motions between the observer and the observed events. Therefore from the point of views of two different observers, time depends on the number of the “now-time snapshots” received by each of them. A person accelerating at a very high speed away from Earth, while the other is working in his Lab, would receive different number of the cosmic now-time snapshots, hence the difference in time measurements. Since the speed of the photons carrying the images is equal to the constant speed of light, then we must allow for time dilation to explain this difference. Using this terminology we can say that time dilation means fewer now-time  snapshots are being received.
 
 
 
The sequence snapshots of the horse are in effect the time dimension associated with the space occupied by the horse. 
According to the exhibition below, from the local frame of reference of the blue clock, while the red clock is in high speed motion, it is perceived as ticking slower, i.e. the observer standing in proximity of the blue clock receive fewer snapshots from the red clock relative to the blue one.
 
 
 
Gravity also leads to time dilation according to the Relativistic definition of time.
As we have seen, gravity is a compaction/ distortion in the geometry of the fabric of space. For example, at a black hole level, i.e. Beyond the event horizon, the compaction in the space particles is so great that no photon can escape it gravity and ultimately gets sucked into the black hole mass. So the more compacted the fabric of space the greater the relative gravity and the slower the apparent speed of the photon. Since the real speed of the photon is the constant speed of light, then this slowness is due to time dilation. This must mean that the observer is receiving fewer or no “nor-time snapshots” from that location depending on the level of gravity . As no light can reach us from any area beyond the event horizon, physicists say, “time stops at the black hole level”. In reality, the spinners are still spinning at the speed of light within the black hole and the cosmic time has not stopped. What is stopped is our ability to observe it.
 
18 Quantum Cosmic Information and the Holographic Universe
 
Space particle code:OOOOOO-111111-O1 (12 spinners with both helicity)
 
 
Are we living in a hologram?
Let’s us start with an extract from the current literature:
“The idea that we live in a holographic universe that uses a form of quantum "computer code" to create the physical reality is not a new idea. In the 1940s, some physicists suggested that we live in a "computer generated" universe.
In the book titled Staradigm (published in 2011), this idea was roughly explained how it worked. It is great to finally hear that physicists of today are finding evidence that the Universe is a giant hologram. 
Here is an excerpt from the book that explains how reality works at the fundamental levels: 
When we paint a picture or model a three dimensional object using computer software, all the instructions are processed by the CPU and its counterparts before they are projected onto the screen. This process happens almost instantaneously, and it shows that instructions are processed by the CPU before they are used to create the computer generated object. In a sense, our picture or three dimensional model is nothing more than a perception of the CPU. 
If we look at the computer from the outside, our artwork looks solid. If we take apart the outside layers of the computer and watch in slow motion how its hardware works beyond the microscopic level, we will see that it is made of vast streams of electrical currents. Electrical currents are another form of energy. 
At this level, our artwork will look like flashes of electrical currents. This analogy of how a computer works is similar to how our minds and consciousness create our illusionary external reality. ... 
The core structures of reality work similar to how a computer works. A computer communicates and operates through the use of binary codes, which are codes that consist of ones (on) and zeros (off). Binary codes are very simple but with the right combinations they can help computers create magnificent things. 
 
 
The simple process of using binary codes to create things within the hardware of computers is very similar to how Creation creates our external reality or material world. The material world works very similar to a virtual reality. At its core, the material world is made of only light (energy) that flashes on and off to create energy codes.
The idea that we live in a holographic universe is very real. With the invention of quantum computers, physicists should soon be able to prove this beyond a reasonable doubt. So, what does it mean that we live in a holographic universe generated by some kind of quantum computer? It means that the Universe was created by an intelligent creator, and therefore it was not created by accident. In other words, the Prime Creator exists!
Working on a branch of physics called supersymmetry, Dr. James Gates Jr., discovered what he describes as the presence of what appear to resemble a form of computer code, called error correcting codes, embedded within, or resulting from, the equations of supersymmetry that describe fundamental particles. 
Gates explains, "This unsuspected connection suggests that these codes may be ubiquitous in nature, and could even be embedded in the essence of reality. If this is the case, we might have something in common with the Matrix science-fiction films, which depict a world where everything human being's experience is the product of a virtual-reality-generating computer network."
 
To digest such drastic thinking regarding the working of the universe let apply our suggested features of the Basic Energy Particles to this concept.
Information is what we obtain or receive  in the forms of bits, figures or other facts which could be described as things, objects, events or working systems. For example, to predict what happens as we add hot water in a bath, we need to know the full facts about the quantum nature of the water Molecules in the bath plus those of its surroundings and the relevant laws of physics. Since everything in the universe are made of the proposed two basic elementary particles, then understanding the laws that govern their behaviours individually and as they interact with each other will allow us to predict the outcome of any physical system.
 
What information are recorded in the now-time snapshots?
We have argued that each basic energy particle, be it a spinner or a string of energy, carries a binary bit of information. Let us first speculate how these bits of information could be formed, collected and recorded to present the spacetime frames and ultimately our perceived reality.
Each spinner has CW (0) or ACW (1) spin. Similarly each String of energy has left-handed spin(1) or right-handed spin(0). These zeros and ones are the key building blocks of the universe information system. Each Photon is made of billions of strings of energy of both helicity arranged in a packets of information to offer a modular approach to the data gathering. These joined packets of information ( which are made of a collection of zeros and ones) are the key means by which the information is transmitted at the speed of light.
The Space Particles get interwoven to form the pixelated three dimensional space matrix which we call the fabric of space. The three dimensional numerical values allows each space particle to have a unique location code (Quantum Space Code) within the space matrix. This would include the very condensed space particles making up the Dark Matters/ Black holes.This postulation is similar to the structure of the GLobal Positioning System which is used in satellite communications. 
Each cosmic snapshot has a unique time of creation in terms of the Cosmic seconds passed since the start of the original Big Bang. A Cosmic Seconds ( which make up the cosmic Time) is the equivalent of a Plank Time. This is equivalent to a one spin of a singularity. It has a constant value since all the spinners have a fixed Planck Length radii and they spin at the constant speed of light. A Cosmic Second Code (CSC) is generated by the cosmic clock just as our clock define time in term of seconds. The first Cosmic Second started  with the Big Bounce. It is continuously moving forward and responsible for the arrow of time. 
Spacetime Code: It is made of the Quantum Space Code plus the cosmic second code (CSC). Each time Subatomic Particles are created or interact with each other, they are given the same spacetime code. This code becomes the index for their associated quantum state information. It is this shared index which make the particles entangled. Once they are entangled, the laws governing  the working of the universe (the universe operating software) ensures that they stay in a state of harmony or self correction as the data get recorded in the quantum cosmic computer (or the Cosmic Horizon). The entangled state remains in place until one of the entangled pair acquires a new spacetime Index due to a new interaction. This cause the state of entanglement to be erased and the other particle resets its wave function.
Subatomic Particles Cosmic Records (SPCR): Each Subatomic Particle generates a cosmic record made of: (i) The unique index represented by the Spacetime code associated with its creation/ last interaction, and (ii) The information representing the rest of the record which contains:
1) the spacetime index of the Subatomic particles participated in their creation/ interaction. This information is essential for the tracing all the cosmic activities and also essential for the conservation of information, 
2) The Subatomic particle type codes which are made of the  its associated with the number and types of the spinners plus the helicity of their energy strings. For example the photons type code is “-01”, the electrons type code is “111111-1”, the electron neutrons type code is (000111-1) and the positron neutrons type code is (000111-0) and so on.
3) The Particles’ quantum state information are created by the zeros and ones of the basic energy particles responsible for their quantum states. 
E) Now-Time Snapshots (NTS): At each cosmic second, the information are collected from all the Subatomic particles to create a snapshot of the universe activities. Each NTS is allocated a unique cosmic second number. The continuous sequence of these snapshots represent the time dimension.
F) Cosmic Information: It is the total records of the collected and stored “Now-Time” snapshots of the entire universe. Hence Information are recorded and conserved in a Cosmic Computer ( may be at the original black hole horizon). The gathering of the cosmic information must be governed by the laws of physics, laws of chemistry and the laws governing the living entities. These laws represent the cosmic computer operating systems.  
 
Cosmological Horizon: It is possible to speculate that this horizon acts as the Cosmic Computer. This is in line with the Holographic Principle theory which suggests that the entire universe can be seen as two-dimensional information on the cosmological horizon, the event horizon where information may still be gathered and stored. The Pixelated Fabric of Space acts as the cosmic display unit similar to the pixelated computer screen.
 
From the above analysis we can speculate that each Cosmic Snapshot will be made of the relevant binary information represented by the Basic Energy Particles within each bixel of space at every cosmic second. This will include the bixels containing the dark matters, hence the preservation of information within the black holes/ dark matters. 
 
Laws Governing the Living Entities. 
All biological units are made of molecules and ultimately of the Basic Energy Particles (BEP). The way the zeros and ones of the particles are sequenced must be governed by very specific biological laws just as the working of the universe is governed by the laws of physics. The role of information in managing the existence of life is clear from the way the DNA is structured and it can be read as a barcode. The four letters of the DNA are nothing but a packets or a collection of the BEP specially arranged. This indicates the presence of a modular approach in writing the biological software. This is already being harnessed through the revolutionary technique of Gene Editing. We speculate that the evolutionary process and the survival for the fittest mainly follows an impeded deep learning process within the genetic codes. This relies on the principle of monitoring the level and frequency of using specific tissues within any living entity. The statistical information is then passed through the sperms or otherwise to the future generations to redesign itself for a better performance. This is a very advanced type of deep learning similar to the attempts to create advanced Artificial Intelligence. 
If we are living in an interactive Holographic universe, then we can only assume that our biological software has been designed to receive and analyze this information from the nowtime templates. This reasoning is based on the explanation we have given to the well documented observations that the act of observations leads to the collapse of the wave function in the double slit experiment. 
 
It could be argued that we are created to become interactive players in this holographic universe, just as we are creating deep learning machines to interact with with our perceived localized reality. The purpose could be to advance knowledge and try to communicate with other alien civilization and probably with the ultimate designer. This is similar to designing Deep learning AI which will end up with consciousness and ultimately contributing to our total knowledge. It is even conceivable to conclude that we are designed to ultimately evolve from being biologically based intelligence to being machine based intelligence with more chances of survival as our planet environment changes. To protect our biological existence we suggest that our created AI machines need to have impeded in their deep learning logarithm ethical values with sufficient checks and balances to achieve this objective. Or we may resort to planting an independent self destruct system within the artificially intelligent machines to protect us against any potential unacceptable action.
 
Conservation of information.
As the working of the universe is governed by very strict rules, then there is no difficulty in arguing the case for the conservation of information. This includes the information relevant to the Basic Energy Particles (BEP) absorbed by the Dark Matters. This is due to the continuous recording of the activities during their journey from the second of their release from the original Dark Matter/ Black hole. 
 
The lifetime of the universe
According to some current literature, the two opposing theories are: the Big Crunch and the Big Rib. Neither of these outcomes support the existence of a universe in a state of a continuous renewal.
The Big Crunch is the opposite of the Big Rip – all of the pieces of matter in the universe will stop accelerating away from each other and start accelerating toward each other. A boiling collision of all of the matter in the universe ensues.
The Big Rip is where all of the pieces of matter in the universe continue to accelerate away from each other, faster and faster until eventually space-time moves so fast that it rips atoms apart.
These two possibilities, according to current scientific wisdom, are the only two possible outcomes for the universe.  
 
The perpetual universe
However, we argue that due to the proposed finite size of the fabric of space, galaxies move away from each other in a nonlinear fashion, leading to some getting closer to others and ultimately colliding. Dark matters in the universe would recycle the debris made of Photons and other subatomic particles. This must imply that the universe, at some stage, will reach a state of equilibrium involving a continuing  state of upheaval followed by regeneration and then condensation through the gravitational pull of the Dark Matters, which act as cosmic vacuum cleaner. This would mean that parts of the Space could be in a state of contractions while other parts are in states of expansion as Dark Matters bounce out.
 
 
 
 


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