TERROR ATTACKS: RING AROUND THE EXISTENCE THREATENS OF OVER A BILLION PEOPLE OF THE WORLD

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Summary This article is dedicated to the one of the most significant questions in the domain of terrorism prevention. This scientific paper is based on the detailed analysis of the concept of
terrorism and terrorist groups all over the world. There have been clarified some crucial controversies provoked by these legislative disadvantages which create reasonable obstacles in the
elaboration of the defensive measures against terrorist attacks. Key-words: terrorism; genocide; terrorist attacks; fatal attacks; ethnic terrorism; terrorism trends; terrorist groups; prevention
and struggle with terrorist attacks.

Submitted: January 07, 2018

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Submitted: January 07, 2018

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Terror attacks:

Ring around the Existence threatens of over a billion people of the world

 

 

Dr.Jacob RUB

 

Summary

This article is dedicated to the one of the most significant questions in the domain of terrorism prevention. This scientific paper is based on the detailed analysis of the concept of terrorism and terrorist groups all over the world. There have been clarified some crucial controversies provoked by these legislative disadvantages which create reasonable obstacles in the elaboration of the defensive measures against terrorist attacks.

Key-words: terrorism; genocide; terrorist attacks; fatal attacks; ethnic terrorism; terrorism trends; terrorist groups; prevention and struggle with terrorist attacks.

***

Terrorism has been around as a major nuisance to governments as long as recorded history. The Bible advocates terror, assassination, and annihilation in several places (see the book of Numbers and book of Joshua). Regicide, or the killing of kings by rivals, and the brutal suppression of loyalists afterwards, has been an established pattern of political ascent since Julius Caesar (44 B.C.). The Zealots in Israel (100 A.D.) fought Roman occupation with hit-and-run tactics in public places. The Assassins in Iraq (1100 A.D.) fought the Christian Crusaders with suicide tactics.  The Thuggish in India kidnapped travelers for sacrifice to their Goddess of Terror, Kali. The Spanish Inquisition (1469-1600) dealt with Heretics by systematized torture, and the whole medieval era was based on terrorizing a countryside.  The Luddites (1811-1816) destroyed machinery and any symbol of modern technology. A Serb terrorist (1914) started World War I. Hitler's rise to power (1932) involved plans for genocide. Nations like Ireland, Cyprus, Algeria, Tunisia, and Israel probably would have never become republics if not for revolutionary terrorism, and more than a few people would say the United States was founded on terrorism. However defined, it is clear that terrorism has helped shape world history in a variety of ways, and it has long meant different things to different people.

There is no one, good definition of terrorism. In fact, it might be impossible to define because it is intangible and fluctuates according to historical and geographical contexts.  Some forms of it are indistinguishable from crime, revolution, and war. Other forms of it are easily distinguishable. Each and every person knows that they would in some way, someday, under some back-against-the-wall condition, support some form of terrorism (as a tactic of last resort) in the name of some deeply cherished cause or value. You may already be a supporter of terrorism, or you may live under a government that practices terrorism, and not know it. There is no universally accepted definition of terrorism (Long 1990, The Anatomy of Terrorism).

USA State Department definition, Title 22 of the U.S. Code, Chapter 38, Section 2656f(d): premeditated, politically motivated violence perpetrated against noncombatant targets by subnational groups or clandestine agents, usually intended to influence an audience. FBI definition: the unlawful use of force or violence against persons or property to intimidate or coerce a government, the civilian population, or any segment thereof, in furtherance of political or social objectives. Defense Department definition:  the calculated use, or threatened use, of force or violence against individuals or property to coerce or intimidate governments or societies, often to achieve political, religious, or ideological objectives. United Nations definition: any act intended to cause death or serious bodily injury to a civilian, or to any other person not taking an active part in the hostilities in a situation of armed conflict, when the purpose of such act, by its nature or context, is to intimidate a population, or to compel a government or an international organization to do or to abstain from doing any act. Article 2(b) of International Convention for the Suppression of the Financing of Terrorism, May 5, 2004. [1]

Terrorist activity has been especially more frequent in the Middle East and Asia this decade .Countries emerging as “terrorist hotspots” are not necessarily the countries at risk of instability. According worldwide Terrorist Attacks 1970-2007 we can see the  increasing from the end of the 20 century till today, of terrorist attacks by comparison of the fatal attacks,  and 10 fatalities attacks. So from the year 2005 we can see a big jumping of the frequency of all kinds of the global terrorism attacks:

 

 

 

 

 

 

According the Emerging Terrorist Hotspots we can learn that most of them in Asia (8) one in Africa and one in the Middle east: Afghanistan, Bangladesh, Indonesia, Iraq, Nepal , Kashmir, Rwanda ,Thailand ,West Bank/Gaza [2]

It was found that the Ethnic Terrorism is the main reason of Global Conflict and Terrorism Trends :

  • There are more than 5,000 ethnic groups globally.
  • Two-thirds of the world’s countries have at least one minority that is 10% or more of its population.
  • The Minorities at Risk project (MAR) has identified nearly 2,000 socially significant ethnic groups that comprise at least 100,000 people or 1% of a country’s population.
  • The MAR estimation is  that nearly 1 in 7 people in the world face some sort of discrimination based on ethnic identity.
  • 7of the 10 deadliest organizations have ethnically based ideology or membership, in full or in part (1998-2005 data(.

It was found that Organizations professing a democratic ideology are significantly less likely engages in terrorism, and Organizations with the following characteristics are more likely to engage in terrorism: Separatism Rhetoric justifying violence Foreign Support State Repression. An interesting subject was found about the fact that organizations that do not have a democratic ideology and have all the factors above, have an 89% likelihood of engaging in terrorism.[ 3 ]

The type of rhetoric that is often used to calm the public when the national threat level  is increased  is: You are more likely to be struck by lightning than killed or injured in a terrorist attack. Although the days of the color-coded ranking system from the Department of Homeland Security are long gone, the U.S. government is still quick to warn the public when there are credible reports of an upcoming terrorist plot against Americans. Public concerns over terrorism have certainly declined precipitously since September 11, 2001 and have remained far behind the economy, job creation and political polarization on the list of voters’ worries. Yet it only takes one mass casualty attack or a single, publicized beheading of an American citizen to regain the attention of the American public. The fact that 71 percent of American voters in the 2014 midterms were worried about a terrorist attack on the U.S. homeland is an indication that violent groups like Al Qaeda, the Islamic State and Al Qaeda in the Arabian Peninsula are still hovering in the minds of many Americans. [4]

Like it or not, terrorism will continue to be a problem for the United States, its allies and the rest of the international community. Like narcotics or petty crime, terrorism cannot be eliminated—it can only be degraded and managed to a point that allows everyone to live their lives in relative peace Deadliest terrorist groups that are operating today, and those they are no doubt at the top of Washington’s radar. Here is an example of two:

  • The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant: It takes a special kind of terrorist organization to force the world’s most powerful and professional military into action halfway around the globe. The Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant (ISIL, ISIS or simply the Islamic State) is exactly this type of organization: strong enough to rout several divisions of a national army, and rich enough to sustain their operations at an impressive pace. Estimated by the Central Intelligence Agency to have a size of 31,000 fighters, ISIL has single-handedly swept across an area of the Middle East roughly the size of Belgium. The swift and easy capture of Iraq’s second-largest city, Mosul, by several thousand ISIL fighters in June 2014 had the effect of not only embarrassing the Iraqi government in the eyes of its people, but revealing how poorly led and pathetic the Iraqi security forces had become. Absent President Barack Obama’s decision to authorize targeted airstrikes against ISIL positions in early August, there was a very real possibility that several more divisions of the Iraqi army could have collapsed. A major difference between ISIL and the litany of other Islamist terrorist organizations competing for fundraising and recruits is that the former is succeeding in a task that not even Al Qaeda could accomplish: capturing territory, holding that territory and declaring an Islamic caliphate in the very heart of the Arab world. And ISIL is doing it in the most brutal way imaginable: rounding up and executing anyone who shows the slightest bit of resistance to its domination. At least four cases of mass killings by ISIL terrorists have been documented, including the execution of 250 Syrian troops in August after the group captured the Al-Tabqa air base. Several weeks ago, over 200 Iraqi tribesmen were massacred west of Ramadi in what can only be described as an attempt by ISIL to extinguish any competitor, however passive, who dares to rise up and challenge its authority. Combined with a Treasury Department study that assesses ISIL’s crude oil revenue at a value of $1 million per day, it’s safe to say that the United States and the coalition it has assembled have a lot of work ahead of them.
  • Boko Haram: The jihadist group in northeastern Nigeria catapulted to the world’s attention when a boarding school in the Nigerian border town of Chibok was raided in the middle of the night. Around 300 Nigerian schoolgirls were taken captive by Boko Haram militants and threatened with forced marriage and forced conversion.Yet Boko Haram has been menacing Nigeria’s northern communities for years. Public reports state that the organization was founded in 2002, but it’s activities only reached global spotlight in 2009, when Boko Haram’s new leader, Abubakr Shekau, launched what can only be described as an insurgency against the Nigerian government using nothing but terrorist tactics.  Boko Haram has razed entire villages to the ground, its inhabitants often killed with bullets to the head or burned alive. The Council on Foreign Relations estimates that at least 6,742 people have been killed as a result of Boko Haram’s violence since May 2011 – although the murky nature of violence in Nigeria and multiple claims of responsibility guarantee that this is an incredibly conservative figure. No target is off limits for Boko Haram either; last Monday, over fifty schoolchildren were killed in a suicide bombing that many speculate was a Boko Haram member. This wouldn’t be all that surprising, given the group’s history of destroying schools and burning students alive in their dormitories.[5]

In our opinion, Creating awareness of the phenomenon of terrorism requires knowledge of the biggest terror groups. We should stress the fact that 10 Terror Groups Alone Threaten the Existence of over a Billion People of the World as follows: carrying out severity and adverse psychological impact, terrorist groups are the biggest threat to civilization itself. Their unparalleled barbarism aided by their contorted understanding of religion and politics puts nearly all of them high on the most wanted list by governments across the world.

These 10 Terror Groups Alone Threaten The Existence Of Over A Billion People Of The World [6]:

  1. Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia. This Marxist-Leninist terrorist group of Colombia is better known by its acronym – FARC and is considered as the kingpin of illegal drug trade across the world and terrorist activities in the Latin American country. This organization was established in 1964 and currently it constitutes approximately 12 thousand combatants with thousands of supporters from the rural areas. The obtained extortion money from multinational corporations and wealthier classes is invested for the betterment of poor peoples.
  2. Kurdistan Worker’s Party (PKK). Known by its Kurdish initials, PKK, this group was established on November 27, 1978 in Turkey and has since been fighting for the sake of an independent Kurdish state. Officially designated as an international terror group, PKK’s working region constitutes Turkey, Iran, Syria and Iraq. The PKK is currently the biggest belligerent in the world’s battle against the Islamic State, and is being hailed even by Western powers for the same. This, however, does not reduce its official status, at least not in the eyes of the Turkish government.
  3. Hamas. Acronym for “Harakat Al-Muqawama Al-Islamia”, Hamas is a socio-political terrorist group of Palestine, which was founded in 1987 as an offshoot of the Muslim Brotherhood. This organization was established with the aim of carrying out Jihad against Israel, and to secure the freedom of Palestine from Israeli ‘occupation’. Known for its suicide bombers, this terrorist group is significantly supported by Hezbollah in its operations against Israeli government and civilians. A top EU court has recently ruled that Hamas be removed from terror group lists of EU countries.
  4. Hezbollah. Backed up by Iran and Syria, this Lebanese terror group emerged from the Lebanese civil war of 1982, and is considered the biggest foe of Israel and Sunni Arab countries. According to a CIA report, this organization boasts of support from 41 percent of Lebanese population and is involved in multiple humanitarian and social activities within the country.
  5. Al-Nusra Front. Al-Nusra Front, or Jabhat al-Nusra, which means “The Support Front for the People of Al-Sham” in Arabic, is a branch of al-Qaeda operating in Syria and Lebanon. Headed by Abu Mohammad al-Julani, the significance of this terror group lies in it being the strongest supporter of Syrian rebels fighting the regime of Bashar al-Assad in the Syrian Civil War. Although hailed by experts as “one of the most effective rebel forces” in Syria, the group has been designated as a terrorist organization by the UN, Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Saudi Arabia, the United Kingdom, the United States, and Turkey. One of its main opponents is, however, the Islamic State.
  6. Boko Haram. This Nigerian terror group was notorious for its acts of barbarism but it became a very serious threat after the abduction of over 250 Nigerian schoolgirls, which led the most powerful of world leaders take notice of its brutality. Boko Haram, which translates to ‘Western education is sin’ in English, continues to operate without much resistance because of the failure of Nigerian government in tackling socio-economic issues in the region of its operation.
  7. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan. Located in the federally administered tribal areas along the Pakistan-Afghan border, this terrorist organization comprises several Islamist militant groups. Tehrik-i-Taliban Pakistan (also called the Pakistani Taliban), was established in December 2007 by Baitullah Mehsud, a notorious Pakistani militant who died on August 23, 2009. Pakistani Taliban, however, targets elements of Pakistani state, but according to several intelligence agencies, top cities of the United States are conceived as its main target. It rewrote a chapter on cowardice by attacking a school in Peshawar, killing children as young as nine.
  8. Taliban. Derived from the Pashto word for “students”, Taliban is well-known for being one of the few militant organizations to have been in charge of a country – Afghanistan from 1996 to 2001. Founded by Mullah Mohammed Omar, the Taliban took Afghanistan back into the middle ages with their strict imposition of Sharia and Islamic laws. It received active support of the Al-Qaeda, and was overthrown in the US-led invasion of Afghanistan.
  9. Al-Qaeda. The biggest “brand name” among all terrorist groups in the world, this extremist Islamic group was established in 1989 by Osama Bin Laden. Under his leadership, the Al-Qaeda carried out the 9/11 attacks on US, which led to the Afghan war culminating with the death of bin Laden in May 2012. Now headed by Ayman al-Zawahiri, the Al-Qaeda is notorious for its integrated network and powerful strategies. Al-Qaeda constitutes thousands of individuals who have accomplished proper military training.
  10. Islamic State. Al Qaeda is a brand name, but Islamic State is the devil itself. Officially known as ISIL or ISIS (Islamic State of Iraq and the Levant/Syria), the Islamic State controls northern parts of Iraq and the Western parts of Syria, within which it has formed its own government. Founded by Abu Bakr al-Baghdadi, the Islamic State has carried out acts of barbarism so brutal that even the Al Qaeda had to condemn it. The IS constitutes of fighters from all over the world, with British Muslims the highest from any Western nation. The group is known for organizing slave markets, where they trade off captured women of their enemies, particularly of the Yazidi sect, and killing of children.

Since the events of 11 September 2001, terrorism has been the subject of intense media interest, political dialogue and public scrutiny. Through well publicized discussions about its constitution and consequences, the ‘new terrorism’ has been open to heavy institutional construction.

Yet, criminological incursion into the debate about new terrorism has so far been relatively limited. This lacuna by employing two distinct theoretical perspectives on risk and demonstrating how each can aid our understanding of the manufacture of the terrorist threat. The risk-society thesis is employed to examine the novel features of ‘new  terrorism’, including the deployment of hi-tech weaponry, the reproduction of catastrophic effects and the changing geography of danger. Through the Foucauldian looking glass of govern mentality, there is a need to inspect the means through which risk is rendered thinkable, the discursive construction of terrorism and the intensification of a wider culture of surveillance and control.

There is a need to explore the possibility of setting a concerns about the management of ‘new terrorism' [7] which  codified by law of terrorism: AIRCRAFT & MOTOR VEHICLE SAFETY, BIOLOGICAL WEAPONS, CHEMICAL WEAPONS, CIVIL DISORDERS, DISASTER RELIEF, EMERGENCY POWERS, FOREIGN INTELLIGENCE SURVEILLANCE,  IMMIGRATION, INTERNATIONAL TERRORISM, QUARANTINE & INSPECTION, REWARDS FOR ESPIONAGE,SABOTAGE, SEDITION, WAR POWERS, WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION.

Bibliography:

  1. O'CONNOR, Tom. One group willing to throw their life away is enough to terrorize millions: THE CRIMINOLOGY OF TERRORISM: HISTORY, LAW, DEFINITIONS, TYPOLOGIES Program Manager of Criminal Justice and Homeland Security, North Carolina Wesleyan College.
  2. National Press Club, September 14, 2009. Peace and Conflict Ledger and Conflict Trends, CIDCM, University of Maryland.
  3. HEWITT, Joseph. Global Conflict & Terrorism Trends, National Press Club, September 14, 2009. Peace and Conflict Ledger and Conflict Trends, CIDCM, University of Maryland.
  4. Russian analytical digests, RUSSIA’S NEW COUNTER-TERRORISM LAW, 20/6/06 , pp.7-10. http://www.css.ethz.ch/publications/pdfs/RAD-2.pdf (Date of visit:14/5/2015), ISSN 1863-0421 © 2006 by Forschungsstelle Osteuropa, Bremen and Center for Security Studies, Zürich.
  5. DEPRTRIS , Daniel R. The 5 Deadliest Terrorist Groups on the Planet ,Like it or not, terrorism will continue to be a problem for the United States, its allies, and the rest of the international community. " November 16, 2014. http://nationalinterest.org/feature/washington-watching-the-5-deadliest-terrorist-groups- the - 11687 ( Date of visit:14/04/2015)
  6. SINGH Digvijaya . These are 10 Terror Groups Alone Threaten The Existence Of Over A Billion  People Of The World , http://topyaps.com/top-10-terrorist-groups-in-the-world (Date of visit:14/04/2015)
  7. MYTHEN Gabe, WALKLATE, Sandra. Criminology and Terrorism Which Thesis? Risk Society or Governmentality ? In: The British Journal of Criminology,http://bjc.oxfordjournals.org/content/46/3/379.short ( Date of visit:14/04/2015)

 


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