The Cognitive Revolution

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Status: Finished  |  Genre: Non-Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic


13.5 Billion years ago, matter, energy, time and space came together to form the Big Bang, this is called physics. About 300,000 years after they appeared matter and energy started to form complex
structures, called atoms which then combined with molecules. About 3.8 billion years ago certain molecules combined to form larger structures called organisms. About 70,000 years ago, organisms
belonging to the species Homo sapiens started to form even more structures called cultures and this lead to the development of human cultures called history.


Part 1

13.5 Billion years ago, matter, energy, time and space came together to form the Big Bang, this is called physics. About 300,000 years after they appeared matter and energy started to form complex structures, called atoms which then combined with molecules. About 3.8 billion years ago certain molecules combined to form larger structures called organisms. About 70,000 years ago, organisms belonging to the species Homo sapiens started to form even more structures called cultures and this lead to the development of human cultures called history.

The three main revolutions that shaped history are:

  • The cognitive Revolution about 70,000 years ago
  • The Agricultural Revolution about 12,000 years ago
  • The Scientific Revolution about 500 years ago

There were human’s long before there was history. Animals much like modern humans appeared about 2.5 million years ago, the most important thing we know about prehistoric humans is they were insignificant animals with no more impact on their environment then monkeys or even fish.

25 million years ago, Homo Sapiens too belongs to a family. This is a fact used to be one of history’s most closely guarded secrets. Homo sapiens long preferred to view itself as set apart from animals but that’s not the case, we are all members of a large and particularly strange family called the Great Apes. Our closest living relatives include:

  • Chimpanzees
  • Gorillas
  • Orang-utans

With the chimpanzees begin the closest. Just 6 million years ago a single female ape had two daughters, one became the ancestor of all chimpanzees and the other became our own grandmother, the skeleton in our Closet. Homo sapiens has kept this hidden, not only do we possess an abundance of uncivilized cousins but once a long time ago we were all brother and sisters. We thought our self’s to think that we are the only humans because for the last 10,000 years, our species has been the only humans around. Despite the word human is “an animal belonging to the genus Homo” and there used to be many other species of the Genus.

Humans first evolved in the East Africa about 2.5 million years ago from an earlier genus of apes and about 2 million years ago, some of these men and women left their homeland and journeyed thought the vast areas of North Africa, Europe and Asia. Since the environment plays a big role of the survival of a species this resulted is several distinct species to which scientist have assigned a Latin name.

  • Homo rudolfensis
  • Homo erectus
  • Homo Neanderthal

Humans in Europe and western Asia evolved into Homo Neanderthal bulkier and more muscular than Sapiens and were well adapted to the cold climate of the Ice Age. The more Eastern regions of Asia were populated by Homo erectus who survived for close to 2 million years, making them the most adaptive human species ever. On an Island in Indonesian a species underwent a process of dwarfing this species, Homo floresiensis which height was only 1 meter and weighed only about 25 kgs. They weren’t stupid, they produced stone tools and even managed to hunt down the animals on the island. Later while exciting a Cave in Siberia they discovered a fossilized finger bone which belonged to a unknown human species, they named this find Homo denisova. While theses humans were evolving in Europe and Asia, evolution in East Africa did not stop. The Cradle of Humanity continued into numerous species such as Homo rudolfensis and eventually making of our species. From around 2 million years until around 10,000 years ago the world was home to several human species not just one that kept on evolving.

The earliest brain size in men and women, 2.5 million years ago was 600 cubic centimeters with Modern Sapiens having a brain 1,200 – 1,400 cubic centimeters while Neanderthals brains were much bigger. In Homo sapiens the brain accounts for about 2-3 per cent of the total body weight and consumes 25 per cent of the body’s energy when the body is at rest. Unlike apes that only require 8 per cent at resting time. Why this firstly apes spend more time searching for food and secondly their muscles are atrophied.

The human trait is that we can walk upright on two legs and arms and hands with the increasing concentration of nerves and finally turned muscles in the palms and fingers which lets us perform very complex tasks with our hands. The first evidence of tools is about 2.5 million years ago.

Yet there is a downside in our skeleton while other creatures what walked on all fours and had a small head, adjusting to an upright position became a challenge our skeleton had to be supported with an extra-large cranium so we paid a price to walk upright by backaches and neck pains. Females paid a little more than man and need narrower hips for child birth, death in childbirth became a hazard for early females, when giving birth the infants head and brain were still small and soft and need great care, compared to other animal’s humans are born a little prematurely with many of their vital systems still under development.

So rising a child required constant help form another member, that’s how strong social ties grew. Since humans are born underdeveloped and need to be educated and socialized to a far greater extent than most animals. Just like a new computer they need to be thought to do certain things or they will not know that to do.

One of the most common used of tools were to crack open bones to get to the marrow, this is one of the keys to understand our history and psychology. Genus Homos position in the food chain was solidly in the middle. For millions of years’ humans hunted smaller animals and gathered what they could form the ground trying to avoid some of the larger game and staying out of sight from larger predators that will eat them, it was only in the last 100,000 years that man jumped to the top of the food chain.

This leap had some consequence as other animals already sat at the top such as the lion which had evolved into his opposition over time, this had the ecosystem doing its own checks and balances making sure animals all had an equal place on the food chain. Mankind had ascended to this option to quickly to give the ecosystem time to adjust,  made them cruel and dangerous thinking that other animals would come and take there position away.

Some early humans may have used fire as early as 800,000 years ago and by 300,000 years Homo erectus, Neanderthals and some other Homo sapiens were using fire on a daily basis, by having the fire they had a source of light and warmth and even a weapon against some animals, one of the main use were to cook food, cooking killed of germs and made the food taste good. This let humans eat more kinds of food with their smaller teeth then chimpanzees. By having fire man moved apart from animals which most needed stronger bodies to fight against the elements of mother nature. Some why should we be hairy of all we need is a fire if we are cold. Also humans could choose when and where to make a fire.

We don’t know for sure where and when animals that are classified as Homo sapiens first evolved from some earlier type of human but most scientists agree that by 150,000 years ago, East Africa was populated by Sapiens that looked very much like us, also 70,000 years ago Sapiens from East Africa spread into the Arabian Peninsula and from there moved to the Eurasian landmass. Then they moved to those different landmasses most were already populate by other humans, there are two theories two what may have happened.

  • There were a lot of Interbreeding, as the African humans spread around the world they bred with other humans and people today are the outcome of this interbreeding.
  • The replacement Theory, according to this Sapiens and other human had different anatomies and were likely different acting habits, with all having different body odors, that they found attractive.

If the Replacement Theory is correct then all living humans have the same genetic and racial distinctions among them but is we go with the Interbreeding Theory then there will be a genetic difference between Africans, Europeans and Asians that will go back thousands of years.

But one of the main mystery is why did the Neanderthals and other Human species die out? one possible reason is that has the new humans moved and began to hunt were the Neanderthals lived, Sapiens been more proficient hunters and gatherers were able to use the social skills and tool making to hunt better so Neanderthals soon found their numbers slowly declining so that how they died out.

End of Part 1

More on my Blog

http://ancientxtheorist.com


Submitted: January 19, 2018

© Copyright 2021 Cyrax. All rights reserved.

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Cyrax

thnx for the comment, i will look into this.
Will do some more research.

Fri, January 19th, 2018 8:17pm

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