Sir Isaac Newton

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Sir Isaac Newton is acknowledged globally as the most prominent scientist and polymath. He was an Alchemist, Astronomer, Mathematician, Natural philosopher, Physicist, as well as a Theologian. The
present-day technical advancements we are witnessing could not have been possible without the scientist’s mechanical and scientific contributions. As such, his discoveries are seen as exquisite
gift to humanity. His exemplary level of ingenuity enabled him to expand every physical and mathematical constructs. He discovered gravitational fall, heliocentricity of the universe, and classical
calculus. He also contributed a lot to optics. By using mechanical system and atomicity theories, he was able to conceptualize light as material corpuscles constantly in motion.

Submitted: May 16, 2018

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Submitted: May 16, 2018

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Abstract

Sir Isaac Newton is acknowledged globally as the most prominent scientist and polymath.

He was an Alchemist, Astronomer, Mathematician, Natural philosopher, Physicist, as well as a Theologian. The present-day technical advancements we are witnessing could not have been possible without the scientist’s mechanical and scientific contributions. As such, his discoveries are seen as exquisite gift to humanity.  His exemplary level of ingenuity enabled him to expand every physical and mathematical constructs. He discovered gravitational fall, heliocentricity of the universe, and classical calculus. He also contributed a lot to optics. By using mechanical system and atomicity theories, he was able to conceptualize light as material corpuscles constantly in motion.

 

Key words: Sir Isaac Newton, Law of Gravity, Classical Calculus, Alchemist, Astronomer, Mathematician and Natural philosopher

 

 

 

 

 

Isaac Newton

Sir Isaac Newton was born in 1642 in Woolsthorpe Lincolnshire. According the calendar that was adopted by then, her birthday coincided with 1642 Christmas day (Isaac Newton, 2017). He was born to a humble background. His father was an established farmer. Historical records indicate that his father died three months before Isaac could be born.  Since he was raised in a family of farmers, all newton could inherit was a cattle range initially owned by his father; a fact that made him affluent. His father, though, was illiterate and could not even draft a will, a fact that later on compromised property inherited by Isaac (Isaac Newton, 2017).  At the age of two, Newton’s mother (Hannah Ayschough) remarried Barnabas Smith; the then church minister based at North Witham. She left Isaac under the care of his grandmother. At the age of 11, Isaac joined Free Grammar School that was situated at Grantham (Isaac Newton, 2017). However, he performed poorly all the times because he struggled with emotional challenges after his mother deserted him while he was just 2 year (Isaac Newton, 2017).He had an ambition of becoming a lawyer but things changed when he joined Trinity College Cambridge. His interest in mathematics started showing off in the year 1663 after he acquired an astrology text book. She graduated from Cambridge in the year 1665 with bachelor’s degree (Isaac Newton, 2017).  Cambridge was formally closed during summer that year over a contagious disease outbreak.  He was a natural philosopher who formulated among many other formulas; the gravitational law. However, he specialized in mathematics (Isaac Newton, 2017).

Isaac’s scientific influence

Upon arrival at Cambridge, scientific revolution had already started and it was running well at the institution. As such, most basic scientific works had already begun under different scholars. Ancient astronomers line Kleper and Copernicus has already published their works in relation to heliocentricity (Sir Isaac Newton, 2017).  Another famous astronomer, Galileo, had started laying down foundation that will form the basis of modern mechanics using the principle of inertia. These earlier discoveries together with other works developed by scholars in other fields, yielded Aristotelianism view which later established the universal  heliocentricity (Sir Isaac Newton, 2017).

Following the footsteps of these scientists and particularly, Aristotle, Newton was able to accomplish major discoveries. Although Cambridge, by then, did not offer any philosophy course, Newton accidentally came across Rene Descartes’ work. Rene was a famous French philosopher known for his works that sought to establish that, phenomenon occurring naturally owes existence to particulate nature of light (Sir Isaac Newton, 2017).

At that time, the term ‘Quaestiones Quaedam Philosophicae’ was very common. This term repealed dogma that initially prevented any form of opposition or repudiation of a scientist’s previous work. As a result, Newton was hard “Plato is my friend, Aristotle is my friend, but my best friend is truth” (Isaac Newton, 2017). He just could not simply agree with these scientists over few discoveries.  Quaestiones was a major breakthrough. It established the foundation of top level scientific revolution because Newton ha just discovered a unique natural phenomena.  Basically relying on Descartes’s and Pierre Gassendi’s discoveries, Newton revived both mechanical system and atomism respectively. His was deeply interested in mechanical system as a countermeasure to Cartesian philosophy (Sir Isaac Newton, 2017). Newton’s mechanical system refuted indivisibility of particles; a claim that Cartesian philosophy was founded on.  Robert Boyle was the only chemists who inspired Newton’s discoveries in relations to mechanical systems (Newton, & Hall, 2008).

Although he did made least mathematical breakthroughs, Newton continued with La Géometrie discoveries. Descartes is credited as the founding father in relation to earlier La Géometrie works. While Descartes did presented his works as a general field, Newton delved further into La Géometrie (NEWTON, 1945). He developed modern application of Descartes’s discovery in analysis and geometry. He further laid foundation for classical geometry.  In what could be termed as his greatest mathematical discovery, Newton, while using analytical derivatives, yields binomial theorem (Newton, & Hall, 2008). As it is known, binomial theorem is the mother of all calculus. As such, Newton was able to derive a formula that relied on infinitesimal derivation to calculate curves or slopes and area enclosed under curved surfaces.

Within four years after leaving collage, Newton has made significant discoveries. He published his diary in the year 1669 title ‘De Analysi per Aequationes Numeri Terminorum Infinitas’ (NEWTON, 1945) that basically summarized all his works. His diary circulated in major newspapers and other scientific journal for the time making even more famous.  He was forced to change the name of the diary to become more exclusive to the dedication of classic calculus. Therefore, he adopted a new name ‘De Analysi per Aequationes Numeri Terminorum Infinitas’ (NEWTON, 1945), which basically denotes the inception of calculus. Despite major discoveries, few savants acknowledged the scientist.  He was the greatest mathematician in the entire classical Europe.

Career

For a full year beginning 1604, Kepler advanced Paralipomena as the framework for scientific revolution (Newton, & Hall, 2008). Descartes’s sine law in relation to refraction processes added another contention to optics. Unlike Kepler, Descartes trusted that light was central to all mechanical philosophies, particles as proposed by Kepler and others (Newton, & Hall, 2008).   Newton buys into Descartes ideas in relation to light’s mechanical nature.  He argues that light is in motion and it can be transmitted through medium. Newton also supported his arguments by borrowing ideas from atomicity. By relying on mechanical, system and atomistic, Newton was able to conceptualize light as material corpuscles that are constantly in motion (Newton, & Hall, 2008).  Therefore, Newton was a renowned optician at Cambridge Royal Collage. He was polymath too. He had several titles including mathematician, alchemist, theologian, physicist, natural philosopher, and astronomer.

Conclusion

As a theologian, he was a zealous man who never wanted at any time to be in conflict with divine powers.  He was unorthodox Christian with deep religious principles that always showed that him as a respectful man.His life was characterized by full acknowledgment of absolute truth that define nature, as well as a myriad of negative feelings coupled with fear. As such, it is indicated that he refused to marry simply because he hated women after what had occurred to him, while he was only 2 years. Therefore, as a creative genius, versatile scientist, strict administrator, sensitive person and meditative Christian; his life long journey begun with a gloomy and deserted infancy but he still emerged as a prominent scientist of all times

 

 

 

 

 

References

Isaac Newton. (2017). Biography.com. Retrieved 13 May 2017, from http://www.biography.com/people/isaac-newton-9422656

NEWTON, I. (1945). A Hitherto Unpublished Letter of Isaac Newton. Nature156(3955), 193-194. http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/156193a0

Newton, I., & Hall, A. (2008). The correspondence of Isaac Newton (1st ed.). Cambridge [u.a.]: Univ. Press.

Sir Isaac Newton. (2017). Starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov. Retrieved 13 May 2017, from https://starchild.gsfc.nasa.gov/docs/StarChild/whos_who_level2/newton.html

 

 


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