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short stories and an afsa essay

Submitted: May 30, 2018

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Submitted: May 30, 2018




A Formal Discourse on the Integrated Approaches Utilized by the U.S to resolve Foreign Conflict

Maintaining global hegemony today, the United States created a unipolar sphere of worldwide existence in which it alone acts as a international police to maintain global order. This international policing coined the term “Pax Americana” which was defined as the notion of relative world peace achieved by the preponderance of influence attained by the U.S. Bradley Thayer, distinguished associate professor at the Missouri State department of Defense and Strategic studies, qualifies the overarching effects of Pax Americana by stating that it “reduce[s] war’ s likelihood, particularly war’s worst form: great power wars”. The U.S’s sphere of influence created a universal order analyzed by Professor Zhang and Shi of Colombia University’s International Peace Program in 2011. They explained that a majority of the countries in the world have “all joined the US, creating a status quo that has tended to mute great power conflicts”.  Furthermore, former U.S Ambassador for the UN, Zahlmay Khalilzad, interprets the impact of this global sphere of U.S influence as a security blanket that prevents the “possibility of arms races, miscalculation, or other crises spiraling into all-out conflict”. Without American security, regional or hostile powers could rearm to balance against emerging threats or powers. However, the prerequisite to this Hegemony, is American soft power. Coined by Joseph S. Nye, soft power is the “capacity of attraction to ensure your will” ( Yilmaz 15). Soft power may be synonymous with the methodology of diplomacy due to it using integrated approaches to effectively yield the possibility of desired results. Myers continues the impact of Soft power by stating that it “ serves as a means to enhance their[United States] influence in the world system”. With diplomacy efforts acting as the forefront of conflict resolution, the methodology in which the United States Foreign Service deploys to resolve hostility comes into review. To defend its foreign policy and national security interests around the world, the U.S pursued an integrated approach to build peace in a conflict-affected country. A definite case that corroborates the effective use of an integrated approach of peacebuilding diplomacy can be during post World War II. Nazi Germany’s suicidal attempt to destroy western civilization had been crushed with an immense cost. The burden fell onto the United States to effectively resolve the conflict and damage occured in Europe. With over sixteen countries meeting in Paris to dispute over aid and reconstruction , the Marshall Plan acted as a international political bandage that revitalized Western Europe through the deployment of financial aid of approximately $13 billion. Bradford de Long of Harvard University explains that “inflation and financial chaos eroded Western Europe’s ability to reconstruct”. This inability would have led to the economic collapse of Western Europe which was contrary to the United States National interests due to them not being able to receive sufficient returns of their investments nor would it grow their international economy. To realign their foreign position in their own national interests and resolve the economic conflict evident within Europe, the U.S implemented the Marshall Plan. De Long furthers that the Marshall Plan “ allowed countries to import from the United States. It eliminated bottlenecks that had obstructed economic growth”.  The Foreign Service led by Secretary of State George Marshall proposed the Marshall Plan, which was approved by Congress, to use an integrated approach of pinpointing specific areas of financial assistance to revitalize the European Economy. The majority of the fund was directed to alleviate European demand for consumer goods thus resulting in the purchase of U.S manufactured goods. This in turn created an effective system in which the European countries relied on American Manufacturing to alleviate their own problems. This created an effective economic loop that created demand for American goods which resulting in the growth of not only the European Economy but also America’s. Through the implementation by the United State’s executive branch and formative through the legislative, the Marshall Plan effectively combated the economic downtown of Europe. According to the Constitutional Rights Foundation, “industrial production in Western Europe had risen 40 percent above the prewar level ”. Furthermore, “politically, communist parties lost influence everywhere. After Czechoslovakia, no European nation fell to communism”, which strongly indicates that the Marshall plan also politically achieved success through the stabilization of democratic ideals throughout parts of Europe. By investing in the future of Europe, the United States cut the cycle of wars that had plagued the continent for centuries. Members of the Foreign Service brought two tools peacebuilding tools to the international table: financial aid and democratic ideals. Their strength of using the status and position of the United States to effectively combat this conflict ultimately yielded in European economic revitalization and ceasement of the expansion of communism in the majority of Europe. The situation was specifically relevant to the United States national security interests because as Barry Eichengreen, of the UC Berkeley,explains that the Marshall plan upheld “ U.S. government policy to build up Western Europe politically, economically, and militarily”. Furthermore, by increasing market circulation for goods and increasing the foothold of Democracy within Europe, the United States positively acted in accordance with national security interests. With the decrease of communism, the security of U.S ideals grew stronger. With the pursuit of U.S foreign policy abroad, the lesson of maintaining democratic ideals and effectively acting towards the nation’s economic interests is primarily drawn. Although the United States primarily had successful integrations of diplomatic measures to combat conflict, unsuccessful ones can be found. Arguably to an extent, the US intervention in Libya can be deemed as a unsuccessful attempt in developing peace and resolving conflict. During 2011, the United States decided to take action against the inhumane dictator, Muammar Gaddafi. Through NATO agreements and the funding of anti-government rebels, the United States utilized their soft power to hopefully attain humanitarian peace within Libya. Dominic Tierney, a journalist for TheAtlantic, quantifies the cost incurred by the United States of the Libyan conflict of being approximately $1.1 billion. He furthers stating that the U.S “toppled regimes and then failed to plan for a new government or construct effective local forces”. This indicates that through the U.S approach of using international alliances and financial backing to resolve the atrocities being committed by the Gaddafi regime, they ultimately failed in the long term perspective due to them ineffectively establishing a proper framework for the “new” Libya to function. Shifting to the modern day we see that, according to FOX that reported in 2017,  islamic extremist group Isis is “capitalizing on the chaos of Libya”. This corroborates the argument that the integrated approach utilized by the United States was unsuccessful. Members of the Foreign Service utilized U.S strengths of foreign agreements and financial resources to try and use them as peacebuilding tools. This ultimately failed due to the lack of coordination of what steps should be implemented post-Gaddafi and the lack of proper establishment of means of effective government in Libya. This is relevant to the United States national Security Interests because the security of the citizens of the U.S were affected through multiple terrorist attacks perpetrated by Islamic Extremists. A major lesson is the need for proper implementation of U.S steps within foreign nations and the proper oversight of its consequences. Overall it is clearly demonstrated through multiple cases that the United States pursued an integrated approach to build peace and resolve conflict.

Story 1:

Transitioning into a an era more consumed with modern technology and coporatism, darkness has permeated at all levels of society.The essence of every human being has a spark of darkness within them that slowly swallows them whole.

Ravi was a young boy at the time, a time filled with innocence and ignorance. He was born into a poor family in India, where his parents slogged tirelessly to provide an education for him. He attended school and understood the power of education at a young age. He has seen the effects of it. The cars, lamp posts, anything his eyes laid eyes on was a figment created by an academic, but on the top of it all was the corporations that ran society. He too wanted to become like them because no one could oppose him.

Graduating from IIT, he soon started a pharmaceutical company that helped people with orphan diseases. Decisions rose on whether it was profitable to help orphan disease due to their small profit ratio to research costs. Knowing that the only possible way for his treatment to be profitable was to spread the disease, he sold hospitals across the country syringes infected with a gene mutation that mutated when inserted into newborns. This mutation would form into the orphan disease occurring without a hereditary history of diseases needed. Soon widespread fear was inserted into every parent in the country.

The darkness has spread. The darkness played with the fears of parents by playing with the lives of children. The darkness spread and consumed Ravi as his immoral ways fueled his greed for wealth And so on, the darkness spreads. Corporations utilize the fears of others to prosper themselves. This is the darkness that has consumed the world.


Story 2:

Once upon a time, there was a king  who calls for a show with his people. The show was a entertainment event with interesting events or surprises. One thing that impressed the King was the following event:


A person came with a cat and milk; showing that his cat runs away when showed milk Surprised at this reaction, the King gave him the award.  Then the King was curious to know why the cat runs away from milk. The cat owner told the King that once he offered a hot milk to the cat, and since then the cat stopped drinking the milk, and runs away.

The theme of the story is that that an animal or humans do not repeat a bad event or experience but to avoid them. As a consequence of the bad experience by cat of burning tongue with hot milk, the cat started avoiding the milk once for all.


Story 3:

A father tells his 13-year-old son to go into the forest and a remove a tree stump. The boy, eager to show his dad how he can master this manly task, runs out and begins pushing on the stump with all his might. After about twenty minutes of huffing and puffing, the stump hasn’t budged. The boy turns to realize his dad has been outside watching him this whole time. Embarrassed, he tells him, “I’m sorry Dad, I can’t do it. His Dad just smiles and says, “Son, give it everything you’ve got! ”Now the boy, more determined than ever, kicks, pulls, takes running starts, and pushes and pushes and pushes until his arms are limp. Collapsing with exhaustion, the boy tells his father, between heavy breaths, “I can’t do it.” His father looks at him and says, “Give it everything you’ve got!”The boy picks himself up and decides to give it one last try but after 30 more minutes of grueling, the stump is no looser than when he started. Now he is entirely spent. He sits on the stump and looks up at his dad.” I’m sorry Dad. I gave it everything. I really did. It just wasn’t enough.”The father looks at the son, smiles and says, “You didn’t give it everything you have, son. Because you never once asked me for help.”


Story 4:

Once there was a king who received a gift of two magnificent falcons. They were peregrine falcons, the most beautiful birds he had ever seen. He gave the precious birds to his head falconer to be trained. Months passed, and one day the head falconer informed the king that though one of the falcons was flying majestically, soaring high in the sky, the other bird had not moved from its branch since the day it had arrived. The king summoned healers and sorcerers from all the land to tend to the falcon, but no one could make the bird fly. He presented the task to the member of his court, but the next day, the king saw through the palace window that the bird had still not moved from its perch. Having tried everything else, the king thought to himself, “Maybe I need someone more familiar with the countryside to understand the nature of this problem.” So he cried out to his court, “Go and get a farmer. “In the morning, the king was thrilled to see the falcon soaring high above the palace gardens. He said to his court, “Bring me the doer of this miracle. “The court quickly located the farmer, who came and stood before the king. The king asked him, “How did you make the falcon fly? “With his head bowed, the farmer said to the king, “It was very easy, your highness. I simply cut the branch where the bird was sitting.”


Story 5:

Long time ago, there was a boy, called Ram living in a jungle with his parents. Ram was told by his parents that to be careful while playing jungle that there are lions in the jungle that may injure or kill humans. They also told him to call or scream for help when he happened to see any dangerous animal like lion.

One day, while Ram playing in jungle alone screamed for help, then his dad rushed to his rescue and asked Ram what happened, and did he see any lion? Ram started laughing and said, dad, I was just kidding.

After couple of days, Ram called for help while playing alone in the jungle. Then his dad and his friends rushed to the spot where Ram was playing and did not find any dangerous animal, but Ram smiling and with a happy face saying “ I am just kidding”.

The following day, similar screaming for help from Ram was ignored by his parents with an assumption that Ram was kidding, and he is not serious about scary situation. No one went to heed Ram’s call as a result of lions attacking Ram, Ram got injured, and escaped the attack while running home with a bleeding arm. The theme of the story is to never joke on serious matters.


Story 6:

Long time ago, there was a prince living within castle but never went out to see the life of common man’s life  outside the castle. Inside the castle, the prince was treated like a ‘Prince’ with nothing to do;The quality of life, the richness of care and food available within the castle was not appreciated or realized by the prices as he does not know life outside the castle.

One day, the prince happened to peek through the main gate the life of people outside the castle. What the prince saw was the poverty, and old people with wrinkled skin walking barefoot on the road. The prince also saw a dead person being carried by people.  All these witnesses made the prince realize that the life in castle is different from outside normal life. This self-realization within prince made him as great ‘Buddha’.


Story 7:

In South Africa, travelling in a train Gandhi lost one of his foot sandals while getting into the train. Then, after getting into the train, Gandhi immediately threw another sandal that he has on other foot through window. People travelling with Gandhi did not understand the situation and reason for Gandhi to throw another sandal after losing one.

One of the team members travelling with Gandhi asked him why he threw another sandal threw out the window?  Then, Gandhi explained that “ the person who finds my lost sandal can’t use it until he finds another sandal or pair,  so , I threw my other sandal so that the person can use the pair without any problem.” At the same time, Gandhi said “ I can’t use only one sandal that I was left with, but rather give it to somebody for use in need.”


Story 8:

One day two cats found a piece of bread. Both the cats wanted the bread, and they started fighting. A monkey was watching the fighting, and cleverly volunteered to help them. Monkey approach the cats, and said “I will help you in cutting the bread piece in half, so that you can share equally. The monkey tore the bread into 2 pieces; one big and other one as small. Monkey kept the big piece with him, and tore the small pieces into two equal parts, and gave them to cats.

The cats were happily that they got equal parts of bread, but did not realize that the a bigger piece was stolen by monkey. The moral of the story is that “when two people fight the third person tries to get benefit while taking advantage of the situation.


Story 9:

A monkey has been trying to cross the river with a deep water but the Monkey can’t swim and doesn’t want to drown in the water while crossing. So, the monkey came up with a smart plan.

The monkey saw a crocodile in the river, and wanted to make friendship so that crocodile can give a ride on his back to cross the river. First, monkey climbed up a coconut tree nearby, and dropped the coconut and offered the same to crocodile. The crocodile was happy to receive the coconut from monkey, and offered to help monkey in moving the monkey from one side to other side of the river.  The moral of the story is that you can solve the problems with a help of friend. Help a friend, and a friend will help when in need.

Story 11:

Once upon a time, a farmer had a big hen that has been giving him an egg every day. The farmer has been selling the eggs for money so that he can use the money for his own expenses living. The farmer became selfish, and decided to become rich overnight rather than waiting for an egg on daily basis.

With his greediness,  the farmer decided to kill the hen hoping that he can get a golden egg. His greediness surpassed his common sense, and killed the hen that evening. The farmer cut the hen’s stomach and found no golden egg, but instead a broken egg. Now, the farmer not only lost the last egg, but he will not be getting any more eggs.

The moral of the story is that greediness makes people not to think logically with common sense.


Story 12:


In a farmland, there are lot of mice living happily and eating the nuts grown in the farming area.  After seeing this, the farmer bought a big cat to scare the mice.

The cat as expected by the farmer, scared and killed the mice to protect the farmer’s crop. One day all the mice had an emergency meeting and decided to get rid of the big cat, and solve the problem of attacks. A smart mouse suggested that tying a bell to cat, so that cat movements can be traced and heard. Then all the mice agreed to this idea of tying a bell to cat.

Then, one mouse curiously asked other mice - "Who would tie the bell to Cat?".  There was no answer from the mice; because all of them get scared of cat. Eventually, no one tied the bell to cat, even though it was their only idea.

The moral of the story is that a solution to solve a problem should practical ; otherwise it is not worthy of thought.


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