The Cruise Ship Industry & the Environment

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I am from France, however, I am a University student studying International Hotel Management in Bangkok, Thailand. I am graduating really soon, I was really interested in the cruise ship industry which brought me to write this really interesting research paper. it is divided into three main points.

Submitted: June 05, 2019

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Submitted: June 05, 2019

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Research Paper

 

The Cruise Ship Industry & the Environment

 

 

Sarah GOURLEZ

International Hotel Management

Stamford International University

Bangkok, Thailand

Thursday 06 June 2019

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Abstract

 

This research paper is about the cruise ship industry's willingness to reduce its footprint on the environment. This paper is aiming to investigate the cruise ship industry’s impact on the environment. The research will focus on the industry pollution on the environment, on what the industry does to reduce their footprint on the environment and about the industry greenwashing. The most important results obtained in this research are the health risks that people are exposed to while being on a ship or at ports welcoming cruise ships. The most important findings are also the cases of greenwashing, some cruise liners try to become greener and invest in it, however, a large part of the industry polishes their image with green talk and transparency filled with greenwashed data. The industry has a long way to go until being truly able to claim itself being "green", hopefully, regulations, laws, awareness will help the cruise industry to evolve.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Introduction & Background

 

 

Walking on the deck of a cruise ship is similar to walking in one of the most polluted cities in the world (J.Ellsmoor, on  26/04/2019). The cruise ship industry is the fastest growing tourist industry in the past century and 2019 is the biggest year for the cruise ship industry which releases 24 new ships, the first of the twenty-four ships which will be delivered is the Mein Schiff 2 from TUI Cruises (January 02, 2019). This paper is aiming to investigate the cruise ship industry's impact on the environment. The research will focus on the industry pollution on the environment, on what the industry does to reduce their footprint on the environment and about the industry greenwashing. Firstly, we research the cruise ship industry itself to understand the importance of it, secondly, we look at the impacts of this industry on the environment, the biodiversity, thirdly, we look at what the industry claims to be doing to reduce its footprint on the environment, then we look at the real picture and the industry's green-washing.

 

Indeed the cruise ship industry exists since over two-hundred years, in 1815 the Wilcox and Anderson, which is today's P&O, which became the Peninsular and Oriental Steam Navigation Company in 1822 (M.Bryde, on June 26, 2014). In 1833 the Francesco 1 was sailing for three months to eleven countries boarded with nobles, authorities, and royals, cruises were limited to European aristocrats. It is in 1840 that Wilcox and Anderson understood that they could do much more than their trade of travels, exports and emails, when a new contract with the Egyptian port of Alexandria and four years later in 1844 they introduced "leisure excursions" which allowed passengers to travel from Southampton to the Iberian Peninsula and the Mediterranean (M.Bryde, on June 26, 2014). The first cruise from New-York to Europe was in 1867 by the ship “Quaker City” and the first cruise ship that was built with a 100% steel superstructure was in 1880 by P&O and was not the Titanic like most of the people might think (M.Bryde, on June 26, 2014). The cruise ship industry has incredibly grown since its beginnings, unfortunately, this amazing growth doesn't come without paybacks. In 2018 the industry welcomed over 26 million guests and in 2017 the industry was worth $117 billion (J.Ellsmoor, on  26/04/2019). Often named as "floating cities, the article shares that they might be even more polluting than one same-sized city, the article also mentions that a person would triple their carbon footprint when becoming a cruise ship passenger and that health issues are also a problem faced by everybody surrounding the cruise ship industry (J.Ellsmoor, on  26/04/2019). The cruise ship industry pollutes in many ways and despite the urge of decreasing their negative impacts on the earth and the increasing technological availability that the industry has in order to improve their ships, not so much seems to be done by the industry despite their claims about becoming greener (J.Ellsmoor, on April 26 2019).

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

The cruise ship industry footprint of the environment

 

 

Air pollution

 

The air quality on cruise ships might be much worse than anyone can think of, indeed many recent studies suggest that the health of passengers, staffs and harbor communities might be at great risks. The measurement of air pollution is PM (particulate matter) which are solid, liquid micro-drops suspended in the air. Particles that are less than 10 micrometers are dangerous when inhaled, some can cause damages to the heart and lungs. Indeed, even smaller particles exist, measuring less than 100 nanometers those particles can cause the inflammation of airways, immunological reactions in the lungs which can travel to other organs through the bloodstream. Unfortunately, cruise ships using diesel fuels and heavy fuel oil have a PM composed of particles measuring from few nanometers to less than one micron, composed of metals, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. It is known that cruise ship exhaust systems pollute the air in arbors and maritime cities, however, there is little known about the air pollution on cruise ships which is indeed really important as millions of guests are welcomed onboard each year as well as the million employees worldwide. (R.D. Kennedy, 24/01/209). This article expresses the threats that pollution from a cruise ship is dangerous and can cause health problems to passengers, staff being onboard of those giant ships. 

 

 Recent studies demonstrated that UFPs (Ultrafine Particles) can cause cardiovascular and respiratory system damages even from being exposed to traffic exhaust, unfortunately, there is no international standard upon safe human exposure. The study focuses on four different cruise ships which are the carnival Liberty traveling in the Bahamas in 2017, the Carnival Freedom traveling in the West Caribbean in 2018, the Holland America MS Amsterdam traveling along the North American West Coast in 2018 and the Emerald princess traveling to Mexico from the US in 2018. The measurements were taken at the fore of smokestacks and in two other spots at the aft of smokestacks, acknowledging that some of those areas are used for sports and exercises such as basketball, tennis courts and others. Unfortunately, the results from the three different open areas over a period of 3 to 38 minutes were distressing and alarming as it is comparable to some of the most polluted cities in the world such as Santiago, Beijing. (S. Scutti, 26/01/2019) Studies have been made on four different cruise ships traveling in four different locations in the world and during two different years, results are quite alarming and compare the pollution level to those of the world's most polluted cities.

 

Harbor communities are being directly impacted by the pollution emitted by cruise ships, while those sea giant has hankered, the whole floating city is still working, restaurants, bars, pools, entertainment areas, air-conditioning, etc. The pollution is directly going into the surrounding environment and so to communities (BBC News, 14/10/2018). It might increase the local business, however, some ports and communities go against cruise ship stopping at their location. It is the case in London in the Thames as a new cruise ship terminal was planned to welcome 55 giant cruise ship each year when in November 2018 the plan was stopped for good after the Greenwich Council stopped backing up the project directed by Morgan Stanley upon environmental concerns and the pressure of many organizations, individuals and even the mayor of London (M. Taylor, 26/09/2018). This article suggests that not only passengers and staffs are affected by the cruise pollution, so are the communities living near arbors that welcome cruise ships, but they are also being affected immensely as cruise ships keep on coming to set foot on pears in order to dump their wastes, reload with fresh products.

 

Can the cruise ship industry be directly blamed to pollute the air because of the use of dirty fuels in International Waters, while it is mentioned that they can? The cruise ship industry produces quite a lot of pollution, unfortunately, it does not only stop in the air, but it also affects other important aspects of life such as oceans.

 

Sea pollution

 

Unfortunately, cruise ship pollution does not stop in the air, oceans, and seas are also being highly polluted by the industry, human wastes are dumped directly in the sea which pollutes incredibly the marine biodiversity around the world as cruise ships now go all around the world. A 2017 study made by the Friends of the Earth estimated that cruise ships dumped about one billion gallons of sewage in the oceans worldwide in 2017. Unfortunately, a large part of those sewages are poorly treated or even not at all. Older ships which are still in use have not been updated for most and still use waste matter handling systems that treat human wastes with chemical or biological agents but still contain dangerous fecal matters, serious metals, and bacterium which are released into oceans. The single rule for waste dumping was that ships had to be at least three nautical miles away from shorelines, it has been pointed out that even this obligation was not followed by some ships, like in 2014 when a cruise ship dumped its sewage/black water near Brazil coasts and beaches had to be closed as swimmers who got into contact with the pollution felt ill. Therefore, sewages are a threat to human health as it has been demonstrated in Brazil in 2014, we can also suggest that seafood, marine biodiversity is also being affected by this pollution. (ABC tourism, 26/08/2018) This article is inspired by researches made by different organizations that give important information about the cruise industry pollution on many different aspects such as the sea pollution, air pollution, as well as mentioning what does the cruise ship industry does to reduce their footprint on the environment. This article will be mentioned multiple times in the essay as it gives a wide information span.

 

In order to understand how cruise ship really pollutes oceans, we need to have a closer look at what ships do. One technical aspect on a ship, either it is a cruise ship or a port container, they have to keep their stability, to do so they control their weights by filling up their ballast with sea water anywhere in the world, then those ships travel to any destinations, dumps the ballast water out in order to welcome passengers, containers which will balance the weight. The problem with ballast waters is that they contain biodiversity, micro-organisms, bacteria, that does not belong in another part of the world, this indeed causes the invasion of foreign species that kills and erase local species both on earth and in the water. Unfortunately, this causes the extinction of many mammals, insects, plants, insects, the whole biodiversity is affected. Many factors affect marine pollution such as air pollution which directly affects oceans with the water cycle. Noise pollution also affects sea pollution, as noises coming from ships affect marine mammals and animals, unfortunately, it does not even stop at the animal level (MI News Network, 20/07/2016). Now that the route to the Arctic is open, cruise ships go there, such as Crystal Cruise which stops in an Inuit village and which is badly disturbing the locals, as local marine animals, mammals go further away from the Inuit village because of cruise ships being there. However, Inuit hunts a lot in order to survive as nothing grows there, everything else is imported and cost a lot of money, unfortunately, locals have to travel furthermore in order to hunt and survive which becomes also more expensive for them (P. Kujawinski, 11/05/2017). The ocean is being polluted in many ways which are for many completely controlled and voluntary, unfortunately, those actions have incredible impacts on marine biodiversity and may cause many more problems that anyone could think about.

 

 More than just producing human wastes, cruise ships also produce grey-water, which is produced by washing dishes, doing the laundry and other water-related activities produce grey-waters which potentially contains harmful chemicals, metals and minerals can cause marine pollution, unfortunately not all ships have recycling systems and so grey-waters can be dumped in oceans. In average a ship produces around 3,30,000 to 9,60,000 million liters of grey-water per day. As if it was not already bad enough, ships also produce chemical pollution which can be due to the most common activity like producing pictures, in a way or another, chemicals will eventually go into grey or black waters and contaminate oceans. Cruise ships may also contribute to solid wastes pollution, solid wastes are usually composed of plastic, aluminum, cardboard that can create a layer on the surface of the ocean and threaten marine living creatures. It is assumed that one of the most pollutants for oceans is the oil pollution caused by the mix of oil with marine waters, it is eventually caused by faulty, leaking engines systems, low-quality repairs as well as collisions and crashes, unfortunately for the marine biodiversity, oil is heavier than water and degrades slowly which causes harms the plants, swimming and flying creatures as well as us, humans who eat seafood, as seafood comes from the sea and is potentially affected by pollution, when we eat it we also get affected by it. After all, we are what we eat (MI News Network, 20/07/2016). The pollution of our oceans is more complex than we think, many factors affect more or less the not-so-well-known deep waters of our blue planet, this article suggests that oceans are being polluted by many vectors from cruise ship, however, it is also important to say that any ship on the sea may produce the same kind of pollution, but this essay is focusing on cruise ships.

 

Can we blame an industry for its behavior while no international restrictions are being implemented to stop the industry to do those "wrong" things? Indeed, the pollution of the seas, oceans are mainly caused by the lack of waste management, sewage. Firstly, we need to understand how ships dispose of their wastes, the reasons for those of doing things and how it could be improved.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Waste management

 

Cruise ships can be easily compared to "floating cities", as they can welcome thousands of passengers and staff, but how do they dispose of their wastes while being at sea? While being on an arbor or at sea, those giant floating cities produce many different kinds of wastes, and waste than any city would produce. Some researches suggest that a single passenger creates 40 to 50 gallons of water waste, it is quite a lot, especially that there are many kinds of other wastes produced onboard. A general belief exists that those giant ships would dump their sewage when being in oceans, indeed, some ships have done and probably continues to do so. Some have been caught in the action and have been fined, such as the Carnival Princess Cruise which dumped illegally oil-contaminated waste from the ship called Caribbean Princess, it was fined £32 million by the US Justice Department (G. Guilford, 10/12/2014). This article shows that rules are important and have to be followed, Cruise ships cannot just dump their wastes at sea, it causes many damages to the environment.

 

 Social media are an easy, fast way to vehicle information, whether it is fake news or real news. In January 2019 a picture of a floating city that was apparently discharging human wastes into the sea in Punta del Este in Uruguay was shared more than 30,000 times. The post shared on social media was claiming that the cruise ship which anchored was discharging human wastes. However, later on Alejandro Mario who is Uruguay’s National Director of environment explained on Twitter that the brownish stains in the sea were produced by the ship starting its engine in order to anchor, which moved sand and mood from the sea bottom, but it was in no way human wastes (D.Evon, 1/02/2019). However, Mario explanation could be possible but such a huge sea bank shaker would affect the biodiversity of the sea. Moreover, a video posted in 2015 shows a cruise ship anchor ravaging a coral reef, which is so sensible, it was the Pullmantur Zenith which seemed to have anchored quietly near an ancient coral reef in the Cayman Islands, unfortunately, the don Fosters and Eden Rock fronts were damaged, the department of environment onboard were apparently contacted but answered that nothing could be done as the zone of Anchorage was designated and the ship have permission (Rumble Viral, 11/12/2015).  it is not quite easy to find trustworthy news, information when we are aware that much fake news is shared on social media by thousands of people and therefore, have more chances to be seen by more people and therefore believed. However, it is risky to trust a Government member who claims something without proof on his social media as he could be corrupted by the huge growing cruise industry. Therefore, it is probably best to trust what is seen, massive ships, disturbing, destroying marine biodiversity from anchoring in places that have been agreed upon, however, it does smell like power and money reasons.

 

The main thing anyone might wonder is how ships dispose of their wastes. Those floating cities produce the same kind of waste that any city on land, however, there is minimized space to process them. Many kinds of wastes are produces on a ship, water wastes, food wastes, material wastes, and others, each of those wastes are processed in different ways, with different types of machinery and this takes, time, space and money. Of course, companies do not throw all trashes to the sea, at least not anymore, they try to recycle some products such as water, filtered and then reused. In a research made by Sarah Kamitz, she interviewed three parties related to the cruise ship which were passengers, then the cruise ship companies/representatives and then the employees. Sarah found out that passengers put mainly in priority their own wellness before questioning the environmental impacts, companies claimed that the waste management subject was a daily focus and said it was unworthy to discuss about it, as for the employees, they were for most influenced by companies, it seems that they do not mind about it as long as it does not impact their working process (S. Kamitz, 27/05/2014). This research paper focused on the waste management in cruise ships, the results of the research were that passengers mainly do not consider the environment as one important factor for their holidays, employees seem to care little about it and gave minor suggestions when the question about improvement was asked. However, the companies themselves seemed to care much more about their impact on the environment and gave plausible improvement ideas, unfortunately, it turned out that the industry does not really care about the environment but mainly do efforts or claims to do so in order to gain more money and have a better reputation.  However international laws and regulations may be enforced in order for the industry to become more responsible.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Steps were taken to reduce the environmental damages caused by the industry.

 

Governmental regulations

 

The cruise ship industry is one of the fastest growing industries worldwide, as ships cruise through national and international waters, laws and regulations have to be established in order to keep control over unethical companies. The cruise ship industry is apparently one of the most regulated industries in the world. Cruise ships have dozens of safety, security inspections each year which requires a lot of man-hours and many requirements to follow for health, security, standards of safety, crewmember protections and environmental performances from many different international regulators which are IMO (International Maritime Organization), ILO (International Labor Organization), WHO (World Health Organization) as well as agencies such as the CDC (U.S Coast Center for Disease Control and Prevention) and the EPA (Environmental Protection Agencies) those authorities have full power on regulations on ships entering and departing the United States. (CLIA)  By the CLIA (the international Cruise Line Association) the cruise ship industry represents less than 1% of the maritime community and that the cruise ship industry is leading the technological development to improve responsible environmental practices. The CLIA says that $ 1 billion is invested in new technologies, cleaner fuels, also designed an exhaust cleaning system (EGCS) which reduces sulfur oxide emissions by apparently 98%. Also, new ships coming this year 2019 should be built with engines powered by LNG (liquefied natural gas), ships might also implement ‘energy management plans" while planning the route and the maintenance in order to reduce consumptions of fuel and emissions. CLIA also says that the industry is pursuing to reduce its energy consumption by implementing energy efficient engines, hull coating to prevent frictions and so to save fuel. Ships apparently use recycle hot water to heat passengers' cabins, as well as using LED lights, thermic window coating. The CLIA also mentions the transparency of cruise ships, each ship should have dozens of inspections each year, from different ports visited and are made by independent agencies. For the waste management on ships, CLIA claims that some ships could repurpose 100% of wastes generated onboard. (CLIA)

 

Regulations in international waters are different when a ship is 22.2 kilometers away from the national coast, then the ship is in the international waters. However, many cruise operators do not register their ships in international waters but in national waters as it reduces expenses and allows them to be under different regulations allowing them more profit and fewer moral headaches. Those advantageous national waters are called "flag of convenience" or FOC, Panama is one of the FOC where cruise ships can be registered and avoid taxes and enjoy many other benefits. Unfortunately, companies doing this also face perks which finances and legal issues. This article reveals the "fiscal paradise' for the maritime world and seems to be bigger than anyone could think about (R. Boutland, 2/02/2018).

 

The shipping industry represents 3% of the world's CO2 emissions. The IMO (International Maritime Organization) is a special agent from the UN (United Nations) which is responsible for the regulations of maritime affairs as well as oceanic shipping, however, the organization is not alone to decide and regulate laws, NGOs (Non-Governmental Organizations), IGOs (Inter-Governmental Organization) operating at local or regional levels support the work of IMO. Oceans and seas can be easily compared to "highways" by the IMO which has to organize and control this maritime highway. The organization is nonbias, working as a neutral, honest broker which can deal with administrative and legal matters. The IMO put up many conventions which aim to protect coastlines from any oil spills, waste dumping into the oceans, as well as protocols from the 20th and 21st Centuries. Indeed, the main concern that the IMO is truly concerned about is the oceans' acidification which contributes dramatically to global warming. In order to reduce gas emissions, the IMO proposed a new amendment at the end of 2008 to the MARPOL Annex VI regulations which took place on July 1, 2010. In 2015 the IMO participated in the Paris UN climate change conference, however, it became clear to the IMO that further changes have to be done when the shipping industry was excluded from the Paris Agreement. Particular Sensitive Sea Areas (PSSA) are areas in the world that are easily and dramatically affected by maritime shipping, more than fifteen PSSAs have been recognized, thus includes coral reef regions, polar regions (A.A. Satkalmi, 09/16). This research paper documents us on the IMO and the surrounding organizations supporting their work, the IMO keeps on implementing new regulations and laws in order to protect the environment and communities against an ever-growing industry. It is an ongoing work which requires a lot of researches, data, test, time, … The organization is not alone to take decisions and change regulations; therefore, the organization has to double their efforts in order to have a real impact on the industry. Many claims are being made while not a lot seems to change, it seems to be hard to believe the claim of organizations supporting directly the industry.

 

Companies willingness to become greener

 

It would be a big mistake to think that all cruise ships are bad, indeed some cruise ships might be trying really hard to become more responsible towards the environment. Although some industry members do not respect regulations, they exist as the United National Agency International Maritime Organization based in London process the international maritime laws. Any cruise ship should have its own environmental officers, each crew member should care for their own recycling. Some Organizations such as CLIA claim that a crew member onboard of a cruise ship would have their wastes recycled must more than on land, apparently. The Express.co.uk even interviewed one of their spokesperson who said that waste management and recycling practices are being closely followed by cruise ship; that 100% of the waste generated onboard were being repurposed by reusing, reducing, recycling, donating and converting it into energy, all this due to highly trained waste managers; also claimed that 80 000 tonnes of plastic, paper, glass, and aluminum were recycled each year by cruise lines. As well as another concurrent, Carnival UK which shared their willingness to remove single plastic use from the hotel sections by the end of 2022 (H. Mallinson, 12/01/2019). This article shares the willingness of some cruise companies to manage their waste in order for them to have a reduced impact on the oceans. Indeed, it points out the well managed environmental programs by some companies in the industry.

 

According to NABU, a cruise ship would emit the same pollution as 5 million cars traveling the same distance. The Guardian reported that some cruise companies are already taking action to update their ships in advance of the 2020 International Maritime Organization rules that will push ships to reduce their emissions. Apparently Royal Caribbean Cruises, Carnival Group started to invest in LNG powered ships, in 2022 Royal Caribbean Cruises will possibly launch its first fleet of LNG powered ships, the company is also retrofitting 19 ships with AEP systems (advanced emission purification). Another cruise company Hurtigruten prefers to invest in electricity and invest in hybrid powered ships, as well as another company Color Line which invested in a plug-in hybrid. A company in Finland Viking Line made a partnership with Horsepower, an electric company, to produce a rotor sail system on an LNG ship. Many ports in the US took actions to reduce emissions from ships by powering docked ships by electricity, this includes the ports of Los Angeles, San Francisco, Long Beach and San Diego (J.L. Hardcastle, 9/03/2017). Some cruise companies do care about the environment and their impact on it, this article site companies and what they are doing to improve their ships, some companies prefer to invest in natural fuels while others perform on electricity.

 

The cruise ship industry announced that a new carbon emission program has been settled in order to reduce the carbon emission by 40% in 2030. The Global CLIA Chairman and president, Mr. A. Donald said that the industry aspires to reach a carbon-free maritime industry by the end of the century. This decrease of 40% arise from the collaboration among cruise lines leadership, the organization wants to report annually the progress toward the commitment, which is calculated by combining the industry fleet's total carbon emission, total distance traveled and total ship berths. This commitment is planned to be reached by introducing innovative technologies for energy efficiency in the design of ships and in their propulsion systems, also by introducing more LNG powered ships, such as the AIDAnova ship in the AIDA Cruises delivered in December 2018 in Germany, the industry is looking forward to launching 25 other LNG powered vessels in 2025(CLIA). The CLIA shares that the industry is ongoing changes and investing in many new innovative technologies which could reduce the industry’s carbon emissions by 40% in 2030.

 

However, there might be other effective ways to reduce the cruise ship industry's impact on the environment. The cruise ship industry seems to try quite a lot to reduce their footprint on the environment, however, the industry's previous carbon emission commitment due in 2020 seems uncertain to be reached, therefore having a clear look at what the industry really have been doing rather than what they claim to do. 

 

Other ways to improve the industry

 

It is a possibility that other effective ways to reduce the footprint of the industry on the environment exist, some specific reasons might be the cause why the industry does not want to use those alternatives and maybe more efficient ways. There are three main things that the industry should do in order to improve their environmental footprint. Firstly fuels quality should be improved, too often low-quality fuels are used in the international waters and it affects dramatically the marine biodiversity as is contributes highly to the acidification of oceans which increase faster the global warming. Ships should be equipped with exhaust scrubbers which would reduce the carbon emission of ships and therefore reduce air pollution. Something that should be taken seriously by the industry is to reduce their energy consumption, a single ship consumes enormous amounts of energy, reducing its use by using LED bulbs, sensor lights, key cards in rooms to control lightings and air conditioning, solar panels, manage the air conditioning. Indeed there are many small things that can be easily done by the staff and guests themselves in order to reduce the cruise industry environmental impact (M. Doblin 11/04/2017). These articles suggest ways that the cruise liners could easily apply in order too reduce their impact on the environment and uncontrollably contributing to its destruction. 

 

Indeed, not only energy should be saved, water, wastes, and other materials onboard that could harm the environment. Water can be saved by installing low-flow showers, low-flow toilet flush, reusing water for plants, cooling systems, flushing toilets, this can be easily done with filtration systems, ballast and bilge waters need to be treated with non-toxic products in order to reduce bacteria, unwanted biologic life that could be a threat to a bio-diversities. Recycling plans should be on every ship and guests should take part in it, in order to raise awareness, to involve more people into recycling wastes and make it easier, more efficient. As a ship can be on the sea for weeks, it has to recycle the maximum of wastes it can, plastic, paper, glass, aluminum, food, water, … many recycling systems exist for each waste, requiring some investment and willingness to change, of course, it also becomes much easier to recycle water when environmental friendly cleaning supplies are used by the staff onboard. As more and more ports equip themselves with electric power, ships can "plug-in" when being docked in some ports and it allows them to reduce their carbon emissions dramatically while being on an arbor which benefits the local communities as the pollution from ships decrease. Without forgetting about the food sourcing, as thousands of passengers enjoy themselves in the multiples restaurants onboard of each ship, foods should be sourced sustainably in order to contribute even further in the environment protection (J. KITT, 30/12/2016). A ship can internally do many things in order to save, reuse, recycle many things, this article mentions many alternatives that are for some easy to implement on existing ships with some investment.

 

It would be a mistake to think that ways of doing things cannot be changed, indeed it can, of course, investments have to be made, efforts have to be put together in order to shake things up. Before talking about recycling wastes and discharging them, the industry should firstly reduce the production of wastes onboard. When it comes to food wastes, every single restaurant on a ship should follow standard recipes which should be designed to waste the least amount of raw foods, such as fruit peelings that can be reused, recycled as compost for all the patios and gardens onboard. Food leftovers that are kept in the cold chain and are good to be consumed should be given to employees while ships are cruising on seas and why not donating the leftover to associations for people in needs while ships are on ports, this would help local communities with malnutrition and reduce wastes from ships. The reduction of the use of plastic should be taken seriously and all the plastic, glass, batteries, medical wastes, sludge, oily rags, waste oil and all those wastes that are hardly recyclable onboard should be given to shore reception facilities that would handle those waste by themselves, while ensuring that those facilities/organizations handle wastes ethically while sustaining the environment. Rise guests awareness of their own impact on the environment while being on a cruise ship, pushing them to reuse their towels, bed sheets, bathrobes, in order to lower the use of chemicals and water, even while being on holidays, guests should care about sustainability and not wasting too much foods for example, eat what you can eat but do not waste. Of course, this might have some impacts on guests "beliefs" about leisure, holidays and what it involves (B. Singh, 4 \/01/2017). All the possible changes that could be easily implemented do not require so many investments, for most. Actually many things could be implemented and would highly contribute to the safeguard of the environment, however, we saw earlier in this research paper that employees did not appreciate when their working process was being "disturbed' by environmental practices. Therefore, the implementation of low-investment practices might be rejected by employees themselves, or the management that might believe those practices to be time-consuming and not effective. However, some decisions must be taken without the opinion of some parties whether they are involved or not.

 

Maybe the major pollution problem comes from the industries, however, consumers are the key to change. Companies do what they do today because anyway, they attract consumers if tomorrow those consumers stopped going to some industries because they do not like what those industries do, then industries have to change. Unfortunately, today most consumers are fine with what industries do. It starts to become clearer that the problem laying behind all those problems are due to the system we live in. Travelers behavior should change in order for industries to become greener, more focused on the environment.

 

 

 

Greenwashing in the industry

 

What has been really done?

 

Since many decades, the cruise industry claims to improve their ships, to invest in renewable energies and innovative ways to reduce their environmental footprint, however, it is important to take a closer look at what the industry really has been doing for so many years.  During the end of 2018 Carnival Corporation launched the world's first cruise ship which is fully powered by LNG (Liquefied Natural Gas) while being at sea and in ports, this ship called "AIDAnova” joined the AIDA Cruises, the German leader in the cruise industry. This ship has been constructed by Meyer Werft, its four 100% LNG powered engines were furnished by Caterpillar and are the largest cruise ship ever built in Germany, measuring 183,000 GRT. With this new launch, Carnival Corporation finally proves its claim to be the leader in the industry for the development of new, sustainable technologies. The Corporation also claimed that they implemented on 71 of their 100 ships their new technological innovation which is the AAQS (Advanced air Quality Systems) in order to maintain a safe, healthy air quality throughout ships. The Carnival Corp also said that 40% of their ships were equipped with cold ironing while allows those ships to "plug-in" in ports equipped with plug-in energy, which allows ships to reduce their gas emissions while being on an arbor. The AIDA brand ordered tow new LNG fully powered ships which should be delivered at the end of 2021 and 2023, actually, six other ships are ordered at Meyer Werft and Costa Cruises, P&O Cruises, Carnival Cruise Line and Princess Cruises ordered fully LNG powered ships. The Carnival Corp has around 20 new ships ordered which includes 10 LNG ships which should be delivered before 2025 (M. Schuler, 12/12/2018). It is noticeable that cruise companies do efforts in order to become more sustainable, a lot of investments are ongoing and many new technologies are being developed, however, companies might not do as much as they could, out of 20 brand new ships that Carnival Corporation will receive before 2025, only 10 will be powered by LNG, why not all? If it was a question of investments and not so much about profit, the corporation would have ordered 15 LNG powered ships rather than 20 halves. The industry does things to improve itself, however, it seems like much more could be done.

 

 The CEO of NABU, Mr. Leif Miller, pronounce himself on the lack of action and the green-washing done AIDA, he said that the lack of actions to clean the operations from Royal Caribbean, Costa and MSC were directly putting under danger their customers, staff, port residents and the global environment, he said that they have failed their promises to implement particulate filters for the entire fleets. The head of transport policy at NABU, Mr. Dietmar Oeliger also said that cruise companies have a lousy attitude towards transparency and their environmental performances, during the previous year companies claimed that 23 ships would be equipped with soot filters but today, none of it is done (NABU). An arising problem in the cruise industry is the transparency and the green-washing affecting a big part of the industry, of course, there are environmental problems, companies have to become more responsible for their actions, their impacts on the earth which affect communities, environment, and biodiversity. NABU (Nature and Biodiversity Conservation Union) fights against those giant potential liars. 

 

It is quite heartbreaking but not so surprising to find that the companies in the cruise line industry put a lot of effort, time, money in green-washing rather than spending it in becoming green. NABU made a ship ranking which focuses on the most important impact of the industry which is its gas emissions which directly affects the environment and the health of all communities surrounding the industry. NABU's results show that most of the ships are still burning heavy fuels, most of the ships cruising to Europe has no emission control systems or for the best, they meet legal requirements, which includes the use of an exhaust scrubber which helps to reduce the emissions of sulfur. A ridiculous eleven ships meet the minimum requirements with the best performance for AIDAprima, then Hapag-Lloyd's (Europe2) and Mein Schiff 3,4 and 5 from TUI Cruises. Since many years companies of the cruise industry claimed to become greener, however, not a lot of changes have been noticed other than polished PR texts, videos claiming to be investing and searching for new technologies,… Unfortunately, the truth is the complete opposite, companies do not miss any opportunities to save cost when it comes to being more responsible, however, companies will not stop spoiling their guests with luxurious foods and delicateness (NABU, 29/08/2016). Sometimes the truth is harder to hear than what we really wish to hear, it is what green-washing is about, claiming to be doing great things to improve your company's impact on the environment and the health of communities surrounding your actions, when actually those are only words to clean a company's dirty imagine, when nothing or so little is being really changed. Maybe companies have good reasons to do such irresponsible things, which impact the whole world. Indeed, companies have their own reasons to be doing green-washing, it is hardly believable that an industry which pollutes quite a lot, actually enjoys polluting and practice green-washing just to save money.

 

The industry’s green-washing

 

The truth is always known one day or another. The cruise ship industry will not go throw this saying, what they do, people will know, green-washing, people find out one day or another, it is just a question of time. Indeed, NABU found out through researches, tests that many companies in the industry practice green-washing.  Green-washing takes place in all companies in the industry but on different levels. Companies transparency is directly related to green-washing, although companies are transparent in their efforts towards environmental protection, certainly to go against criticism. Some companies use different channels to spread their data such as AIDA, while other companies use fewer channels such as MSC and TUI. Moreover, environmental performances and disclosure can differ directly cause by green-washed data. Companies use generalizations, exaggerations in order to gain legitimacy and those claims can be hard to prove whether they are true or not (M. Lamers, 19/08/2016). It is an industrial move, there is no exception in cruise companies, they all improve their impact on the environment, however they claim to do much more than what they are actually doing, therefore, there is no other term to be used, but “Green-washing”. The Serenity Cruises

 

Another great example of green-washing would be for the biggest existing cruise ship called "Oasis of the Seas" which can welcome 6,300 passengers claims to burn 30% less fuel per person than any other ships, indeed, the ship does use an innovative diesel-electric system, however the claim is purely greenwashing as passengers are packed in a way that energy is saved (L. Alter, 7/12/2009). The Oasis of the seas is indeed one of the biggest cruise ships in the world, however, this happened in 2009, now day, the biggest cruise ship is the Harmony of the Seas. The Royal Caribbean company apparently has on each of its 25 ships a specialized environmental officer who manages the program called ‘Save the Wave", the company claims that every waste is being recovered or recycled onboard of several ships as they have a zero waste to landfills policy. The company is also apparently really happy to join WWF as to protect oceans, the partnerships are aiming in 2020 to reduce emissions, source products sustainably and a contribution of $5 million to support WWF's global ocean conservation efforts (Royal Caribbean, 06/06/18).  It seems clear that what is being claimed on the company's website can easily be decrypted as green-washing, especially when it comes to enormous amounts of money being donated to an organization protecting wildlife worldwide and being well known. 2020 is not to come, there are doubts that the industry will reach its goals by then, indeed green-washing is the cause of this upcoming industrial environmental fail.

 

Earlier the Carnival corporation has been mentioned as they had to pay a fine of $ 32 million to the US Justice Department because the Caribbean Princess ship dumped illegally oil-contaminated waste (G. Guilford, 10/12/2014). This is indeed the biggest fine of the history for the industry, the same company pleaded guilty for seven other felonies (V. Tjolle, 25//07/2018). Even when going through their environmental management plan, there is no number provided in how many ships will be equipped with new technologies such as exhaust scrubbers, no details about how and how much it will reduce the pollution from ships, there is a generalization done on their claims, therefore, there is no real claim being done by this corporation, only deadlines followed by things such as "carbon emission will be reduced on ships by 2020", there is a clear exaggeration on what is being done and what is being claimed (Carnival Corporation, 19/04/19).  "There is no smoke without fire." Indeed, there must be reasons of those actions from the cruise industry, if they generalize, exaggerate, there might be truly valuable reasons for this, in order to go in depth and understand the pushing factors, there are more chances to produce valuable suggestions to improve the situation.

 

Go against greenwashing

 

Now that the awareness of greenwashing is being raised, solutions against companies greenwashing should be developed. Governments, organizations and the industry itself should go against lies, manipulation of cruise line companies. It is also interesting and important to understand why companies do a greenwash. Indeed, there are three levels of drivers: individual, organizational and external. External drivers are, for example, the pressure from NGOs and regulators, consumers, competitors, investors. Unfortunately, governments' regulations are often uncertain and give a lower chance for companies to be punished for greenwash (T. P. Lyon & A. W. Montgomery, 2015). Companies are probably using the unsure government regulations in order to reduce costs while wishing to have a good image, therefore, they claim to become green while nothing is really happening.

 

There are many ways to go against greenwashing, some people say that "number is power" indeed, it is quite true, many pieces of research find that strong environmental group, organizations could change greenwash, it could be changed by doing public activities such as "naming and shaming". The rise of social media might also help greenwash awareness and therefore help to reduce it, information technology might also help, however, social media and the whole internet should take action against fake news in order for the internet to be helpful against greenwashing. Greenwash regulations should also be increased, by testing the air quality on ships in different areas, times, by testing their fuels and their recycling systems. Laws and regulations should be increased as they are today quiet unsure in many countries around the world, it might push companies to really innovate in better technologies, to really equip all their ships with the actual innovative technologies, to go along with regulations rather than crossing them in order to save cost (T. P. Lyon & A. W. Montgomery, 2015). If ships were most tested while being in port, regulations would have more chances to be followed and trespassers of the law would be fined for it. However, people, in general, need to be aware of "who do I actually give my money to?" to a company that is lying to you while putting your health at risks, unfortunately fake news can influence people and their decisions, therefore, fake news need to be detected by the internet and deleted, in order for people to be aware of what is really happening.

 

Since the end of last year (2018), a U.S cruise captain, Mr. Evans Hoyt, the giant Carnival Corporation and their P&O Cruises, the captain was working on the ship “Azura", are on trial in France for polluting heavily the port of Marseille and French waters as the cruise liner was burning bunker fuel, as previously mentioned, this fuel contains high amount of sulfur. By using this kind of fuel, the captain broke European air emission laws, Carnival Corp is facing from $100,000 to $200,000 and up to one year in jail for the captain (H. Samuel, 8/10/2018). The captain is being directly pointed at for being the decision maker, for breaking the law. Apparently, when the ship anchored in Barcelona, Spain, the captain authorized the loading of 900 tons of low-cost high-sulfur fuel. However, Carnival Corp is trying to fight the law suite, as they trespassed the EU's sulfur limitation from 1.5%, claiming that this limitation applies to "passenger ships which provide regular services to or from destinations of the European Union". Carnival Corp argues that the "Azura" is not a ferry but is a cruise liner that offers "regular services to European destinations" and so the ship is exempted from the 1.5% limit but has the follow the 3.5% limitation applying for cargo ships. This seems to be a game of words that the Carnival Corporation is trying to play. Indeed, it is surprising that a port state sues a cruise ship captain in order to directly deal with the ongoing air pollution problem. On a cruise ship, before fuel is being pumped onboard, it is previously tested in order to meet the environmental laws of the present and future destinations, therefore, Master Hoyt knew that the fuel which was going to power the ship's engines from Barcelona, Spain to Marseille, France was a low-quality fuel which is not legal in the European Union, the captain apparently knew all information (J. Walker, 9/10/2018). Indeed, this "new" way of dealing with trespassing laws can work in favor of environmental protection. A ship captain has the highest authority on his/her ship, almost nothing can happen without his/her approval (S. Haddock, 5/01/2014). It also seems legitimate that the captain is being blamed for something he has authority upon, indeed the company for which the captain is working for is also in tort as the company has a certain authority on the captain it employs. However, this might push captains cruising to France, Europe and hopefully, why not worldwide, to stop using bunker fuels in order for their employers to reduce their costs. Indeed, captains will think about the personal impact it can have on them, therefore while refilling their ships, they will use their authority in the right way, for laws to be followed.

 

The cruise ship industry has a lot of progress to do with its impact on the environment, with its transparency, with its relationship with greenwashing and with many other things. However it is still an industry that is trying to improve, indeed, with the perseverance of all organizations, companies, individuals, and governments, the cruise line industry might change greatly after a certain time. It is an industry that makes people dreams, wonder, discover and enjoy their vacations, however, it has to do it sustainably in order for the next generations to enjoy the same even better kind of pleasure and leisure.

 

Discussion:

 

This research paper is focusing on the cruise ship industry and is investigating the impacts on the environment. To gather information, the internet was used and many articles, research papers, documents, researches were found in order to write this research paper. Quickly, important information was found, while investigating the air pollution emitted by a cruise ship, researches show that the PM onboard of many cruise ships is composed of nano-particles which can cause great damages to the health of any living creature (R.D. Kennedy, 24/01/2019). This information is believable because those results have been found after testing the air in different location of many ships and the highly used bunker fuel and the lack of scrubbers, allows those nano-particles to be present in the air. A surprising fact was found in research made my Sarah Kamitz, in her investigation, it was found that companies care more about their environmental impact than employees and guests (S. Kamitz, 27/05/2014). I do believe what is being brought is Kamitz’s study as she interviewed three different parties about environmental, sustainability questions and she was quite surprised with the results, guests care more about the leisure than the impact they have on the environment, while employees are more or less about the environment as long as it does not change the working processes and companies seems to care much more in order to polish their image and to keep on nourishing a coming important point which is "green-wash". Moreover, the existence of a "flag of convenience" was found as well, marine FOCs allowing some non-scrupulous ships to escape from international regulations, which also can put their passengers at risk (R. Boutland, 2/02/2018). The disappointing finding was the ongoing green-washing in the industry, even ships that promote to be energy efficient are not so efficient like they promote to be. Many companies use "being green" as a marketing tool and in order to give their brand a better image (NABU). However, positive findings were gathered, during the end of 2018, the cruise ship AIDAnova 100% powered by LNG at all time was released, other fully LNG powered ships will be released in the coming years (M. Schuler, 12/12/2018). Some companies such as Carnival Corporation is investing in LNG powered ships and few are planned to be introduced in the coming years, however they still invest in ships that are less sustainable and will be introduced as well in the upcoming years, therefore this brings us to think that companies seem to not do the maximum as they could be doing in order to reduce their environmental footprint. Unfortunately, much fake news is available online due to green-washing and the run for "buzz", this can wrongly affect the research, therefore more attention needs to be given to each source and rechecked. Further researches could be made on the ways to reduce green-washing in the cruise industry as it is an actual problem which causes great damages.

 

Conclusion:

 

The shipping industry represents 3% of the world's CO2 emissions (A.A. Satkalmi, 09/16), however, it highly contributes to the acidification of oceans, seas around the world, this indeed highly affect global warming as waters are being warmed up faster, it contributes to the extinction of unknown and known species in any kind of environment, around the whole world. Indeed, if you are a fish lover, you should be worried about what you are really eating. The pollution caused by the cruise industry is a quite important problem to address, the cruise industry should stop greenwashing, however, this could be done by punishing greenwashing, by reinforcing national and especially international regulations/laws that are not clear enough for most on fuel use, waste management, zero sewages allowed. In order for this to work, actions against corruption and "fiscal paradise" should be taken in order to reduce the possibility for fraudulent companies to find "short cuts". This research paper could be useful for any kind of people, for university students studying hospitality, environment, also for individuals wondering about these subjects, as well as for cruise guests, staff. The cruise industry is slowly but surely evolving, the ongoing pollution and greenwash should be fought against in order to push the industry to change.

 

 

 

 

References:

 

Introduction & Background

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Cruise Industry trends for 2019, Cruise Industry News, on January 02, 2019

https://www.cruiseindustrynews.com/cruise-news/20124-cruise-industry-trends-for-2019.html

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The History of Cruising and Cruise Ships, Traveling with the jones, by Megan Bryde, on June 26, 2014

https://travelingwiththejones.com/2014/06/26/the-history-of-cruising-and-cruise-ships/

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Cruise Ships Pollution is Causing Serious Health and Environmental Problems, Forbes, by James Ellsmoor, on  26/04/2019

https://www.forbes.com/sites/jamesellsmoor/2019/04/26/cruise-ship-pollution-is-causing-serious-health-and-environmental-problems/#62acb01137db

 

Body:

 

Main Point 1:

Sub-point 1:

Retrieved from:

An investigation of air pollution on the decks of 4 cruise ships, Johns Hopkins University, by Ryan David Kennedy, on January 24, 2019

https://www.stand.earth/sites/default/files/2019-an-investigation-of-air-pollution-on-the-decks-of-4-cruise-ship.pdf

 

Retrieved from:

The air quality on cruise ships is so bad, it could harm your health, undercover report says, on CNN health, by Susan Scutti, on January 26, 2019

https://edition-m.cnn.com/2019/01/24/health/cruise-ship-air-quality-report/index.html?r=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.google.com%2F

 

Retrieved from:

Air pollution fears fuel fight against new London cruise ship terminal, by Matthew Taylor Environment correspondent on Wed 26 Sep 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2018/sep/26/air-pollution-fears-fuel-fight-against-huge-new-london-cruise-ship-terminal-river-thames

 

Retrieved from:

Greenwich cruise ship terminal plans withdrew, BBC News, on 14 November 2018

https://www.bbc.com/news/uk-england-london-46209399

 

Retrieved from:

“The world's largest cruise ship and its supersized pollution problem” by John Vidal on May 21st 2016 on The Guardian

https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2016/may/21/the-worlds-largest-cruise-ship-and-its-supersized-pollution-problem

 

Sub-point 2:

Retrieved from:

“Cruise Ship Pollution and Environmental Impact” on 26th of August 2018 by ABC turism

https://www.abctourism.org/cruise-ship-pollution

 

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8 ways in which cruise ships can cause marine pollution, MI News Network, on July 20th 2016

https://www.marineinsight.com/environment/8-ways-in-which-cruise-ships-can-cause-marine-pollution/

 

Retrieved from:

The complicated relationship between cruise ships and the artic Inuit, by Peter Kujawinski, on May 11, 2017

https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-complicated-relationship-between-cruise-ships-and-the-arctic-inuit

 

Retrieved from:

“I don’t want cruise ships to kill me” Marseille fight cruise liner pollution, on the Guardian, by Angelique Chrisafis, on July 6 2018

https://www.theguardian.com/world/2018/jul/06/i-dont-want-ships-to-kill-me-marseille-fights-cruise-liner-pollution

 

Sub-point 3:

Retrieved from:

Cruise ships dump 1 billion gallons of sewage into the ocean every year, by Gwynn Guilford, on December 10 2014

https://qz.com/308970/cruise-ships-dump-1-billion-tons-of-sewage-into-the-ocean-every-year/

 

Retrieved from:

Is this picture of a cruise ship dumping human waste into the ocean? By Dan Evon, on February 1, 2019

https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/cruise-ship-dumps-waste/

 

Retrieved from:

Cruise ship anchor destroys ancient coral reef, YouTube, by Rumble Viral, on December 11, 2015

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1-64AnIgX6g

 

Retrieved from:

Waste management on cruise ships, by Sarah Kamitz from the University of Applied Sciences, on 27/05/2014

https://www.theseus.fi/bitstream/handle/10024/77996/Thesis%20Sarah%20Kamitz.pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y

 

Main point 2:

Sub-point 1:

Retrieved from:

Cruise ship regulations, by CLIA

https://cruising.org/about-the-industry/policy-priorities/cruise-industry-regulation

 

Retrieved from:

Which laws apply on a cruise ship in International Waters?, by Ryan Boutland, on February 2, 2018

https://www.yourlifechoices.com.au/travel/cruising/who-enforces-the-law-on-cruises

 

Retrieved from:

Environmental Stewardship, CLIA

https://cruising.org/about-the-industry/policy-priorities/environmental-stewardship

 

Retrieved from:

Researching International Maritime Laws, by Arundhati Ashok Satkalmi senior research librarian from the Rittenberg Law Library of St. John’s University School of Law, on September 2016.

https://www.nyulawglobal.org/globalex/International_Marine_Environmental_Law1.html

 

Sub-point 2:

Retrieved from:

Cruise secrets: Where does the waste from a cruise ship really go? by Hariette Mallinson, on January 12, 2019

https://www.express.co.uk/travel/cruise/1069810/cruises-cruise-ship-waste-disposal-rubbish-management

 

Retrieved from:

Which cruise companies are leading the charge of cutting air pollution, by Jessica Lyons Hardcastle, on March 9, 2017

https://www.environmentalleader.com/2017/03/cruise-companies-leading-charge-cutting-air-pollutants/

 

Retrieved from:

Cruise lines have a solution for a new clean fuel regulation but is it the greenest option, in Miami Herald, by Taylor Dolven and Alex Harris, on January 31 2019

https://www.miamiherald.com/news/business/tourism-cruises/article224596880.html

 

Retrieved from:

Cruise Industry Commits to Reduce the rate of Carbon Emissions Globally by 40% by 2030, CLIA

https://cruising.org/news-and-research/press-room/2018/december/clia-emissions-commitment-release

 

Sub-point 3:

Retrieved from:

Three ways to improve commercial shipping's environmental footprint on April 11, 2017 by Martina Doblin

https://phys.org/news/2017-04-ways-commercial-shipping-environmental-footprint.html

 

Retrieved from:

How human waste is handled when cruising the high seas by JEFFREY KITT on Dec 30 2016

https://www.stuff.co.nz/travel/news/87381894/how-human-waste-is-handled-when-cruising-the-high-seas

 

Retrieved from:

CRUISE TRAVEL: HOW TO MINIMISE YOUR ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT, on April 17, 2019

https://www.ontheluce.com/cruise-environmental-impact/

 

Retrieved from:

Does Carnival pollution tech signal big changes for the cruise industry?, by Bruce Waston, on January 20th 2019

https://www.theguardian.com/sustainable-business/carnival-pollution-tech-change-cruise-industry

 

Retrieved from:

Marine pollution by ships-Tips for reducing & recycling waste at sea, by Bikram Singh, on January 4 2017

https://www.marineinsight.com/environment/marine-pollution-by-ships-tips-for-reducing-recycling-waste-at-sea/

 

Main point 3:

Sub-point 1:

Retrieved from:

“NABU Cruise Ranking 2016: Industry shines above all through greenwashing” on the 29/08/2016

https://www.nabu.de/modules/presseservice/index.php?popup=true&db=presseservice&show=18242

 

Retrieved from:

“NABU finds cruise industry “still dirty”” by NABU

https://safety4sea.com/nabu-finds-cruise-industry-still-dirty/

 

Retrieved from:

World’s first fully LNG powered cruise ship delivered in Germany, gCaptain, by Mike Schuler, on December 12, 2018

https://gcaptain.com/worlds-first-fully-lng-powered-cruise-ship-delivered-in-germany/

 

Sub-point 2:

Retrieved from:

“Transparency in cruise tourism: Greenwashing cruise companies’ legitimacy?” on August 19th, 2016 by Machiel Lamers

http://edepot.wur.nl/394633

Retrieved from:

Investigation: Air quality on Carnival Corp cruise ships can be worse than some of world’s most polluted cities on JANUARY 23, 2019

https://www.stand.earth/latest/protecting-the-arctic/carnival%E2%80%99s-cruise-pollution/investigation-air-quality-carnival-corp

 

Retrieved from:

Greenwash Watch: Can a Monster Ocean Liner Be Green? Treehugger, by Lloyd Alter on December 7, 2009

https://www.treehugger.com/cars/greenwash-watch-can-a-monster-ocean-liner-be-green.html

 

Retrieved from:

Stop Cruise Ship Climate destruction, Stand. Earth

https://www.stand.earth/page/protecting-the-arctic/carnival%E2%80%99s-cruise-pollution/stop-cruise-ship-climate-destruction

 

Retrieved from:

Carnival cruises-greening or green washing? by Valere Tjolle on 25//07/2018

https://www.travelmole.com/news_feature.php?news_id=2033304

 

Retrieved from:

Environmental management, Carnival Corporation, 19/04/19

http://carnivalsustainability.com/commitment/environmental-management/

 

Retrieved from:

Protecting the environment is everyone’s business, by Royal Caribbean, 06/06/18

https://www.royalcaribbean.com/blog/protecting-the-environment-is-everyones-business-2/

 

Sub-point 3:

Retrieved from:

The means and end of greenwash, by Thomas P. Lyon and A. Wren Montgomery, 2015

file:///Users/mac/Downloads/GreenwashingReview.pdf

 

Retrieved from:

Representing Global Cruise Tourism: A Paradox of Sustainability, the University of Catania by Douglas Mark Ponton & Vincenzo Asero, on June 4, 2018

https://www.lancaster.ac.uk/fass/journals/cadaad/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/03-Ponton-Asero.pdf

 

Retrieved from:

Greenwashing: Corporate Environmental Disclosure under Threat of Audit, by Thomas P. Lyon & John W. Maxwell

http://webuser.bus.umich.edu/tplyon/PDF/Published%20Papers/Lyon%20Maxwell%20Greenwash%20JEMS.pdf

 

Retrieved from:

Will criminal charges against cruise ship captain make a difference?, by Jim Walker, on October 9, 2018

https://www.cruiselawnews.com/2018/10/articles/pollution/will-criminal-charges-cruise-ship-captain-make-difference/

 

Retrieved from:

Marseille puts American ship captain on trial over pollution as ports grapple with the impact of huge cruise liners, The Telegraph, by Henry Samuel, on October 8, 2018

https://www.telegraph.co.uk/news/2018/10/08/marseille-puts-american-ship-captain-trial-pollution-ports-grapple/

 

Retrieved from:

Maritime law: What is the legal authority of the captain of a ship? By Steven Haddock, on January 5, 2014

https://www.quora.com/Maritime-Law-What-is-the-legal-authority-of-the-captain-of-a-ship


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