Reasons for Migration

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Status: In Progress  |  Genre: Non-Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic

Reasons for Migration

How Brazil is Handling Migration



Photo byMitchel Lensink onUnsplash


The reasons for migration from a variety of countries worldwide have changed in recent years. The policies of receiving countries and internationally need to change to a more cooperative one. 


An example of positive policies is in Brazil where Venezuelan migrants, fleeing from violence, internal conflict, violation of human rights, are given refugee status if they have no criminal record as soon as proof of identity is given. This is not based on an interview, and the period of time for the process is short. 


With refugee status, they are entitled to the same rights as others. They are given permanent resident status, access to employment, education, and health care. As many travel back and forth to provide needs for family members, they are in transit and will not migrate to Brazil. A two-year renewable temporary resident permit can be accessed instead. 


Besides migration based on human rights violations and safety factors, other migrations are political in nature. An example of this was seen by the vote for Brexit. The UK voted to leave the EU because the population wanted more control over migrants in their country, and the result was that migration to the UK was reduced from 311,000 to 212,000 between 2016 and 2019. 


Countries that are part of the European Union can travel freely for work or education between its member countries. Migration from EU8 countries Czech Republic, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Poland, Slovakia, Slovenia, have decreased as well. 



Photo byJulie Ricard onUnsplash


People will keep migrating regardless of risks and costs in impoverished countries. Most of the reasons are economic. While the US is discouraging migration from Central America, Canada will be required to receive more migrants. There needs to be an inter-related migration and foreign policy which takes into account the reasons why people claim asylum. Current policies are often band-aid solutions and ineffective strategies.


Since the collapse of communism in 1990, in the poorest countries of Europe and Asia, there was migration on a vast scale. Because of the inequity of male and female wages, men can make more money abroad. Male members of a family are sent elsewhere to work and to send “remittance” income to their families. 


There are masculinized ratios of births in such countries as Azerbaijan, Georgia, Armenia, Nepal, and Albania. These babies are born into both Christian and Muslim families. A preference for sons is an economic preference more than a religious and cultural one. In the 30 years since communism ended, migration of the boys of a family is expected. The lives of women and girls are also made more difficult. In Tajikistan, in 2013, the GDP was 49% “remittance income.” 


This income provides insurance against shocks such as poor harvest, and illness of family members. Because of this high level of “remittance income,” governments are less likely to create new jobs for the people remaining. Western nations can support policies that reduce reliance on migration. Tax-financed contributions to the International Monetary Fund and the World Bank can help with new jobs. It is likely that there will be major demographic consequences of the migration of men.


With the effects of climate change, there will be more migration, and in larger numbers. With environmental factors affecting or totally destroying agriculture, fisheries, tourism, and causing more illness, resettling will increase. Water-driven migration is only one area of causation. 


With a decrease in the COVID-19 crisis,  more migrations may be imminent, for employment reasons, in my opinion.


At the Global Compact for Safe, Orderly, and Regular Migration conferences with the UN General Assembly, many countries voted to accept the refugee compact, but not the regular migration compact. They felt it was a compromise to their sovereignty, to take responsibility for the regular migration of immigrants.  It was stated though, that there was no rigidity to these responsibilities. 


The objectives for these compacts were to: 


Collect and better use data on migration

Strengthen response to smuggling and trafficking.

Eliminate discrimination

Use detention as a last resort

Save lives

Manage borders (integrated, secure, co-ordinated)

Address and reduce vulnerabilities

Strengthen international cooperation


The migration issue is very complex and will take some time to resolve itself enough to be helpful and less restrictive to migrants. 



Shirley Langton 2021


Submitted: May 03, 2021

© Copyright 2021 Shirley M. Langton. All rights reserved.

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