Betrayed

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Status: Finished  |  Genre: Non-Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic

A history of the betrayal in the UK

Betrayal

We tend to think of this word when we visualise spies, erring husbands, traitors in time of war etc. It is a word we apply to individuals rather than groups of individuals. In the context of the United Kingdom we can demonstrate that whole groups of individuals, both male and female betrayed the majority of their fellow citizens, and that this process of betrayal has been endemic in the United Kingdom for most of the 20th and 21st Centuries.

How can such rank betrayal happen in such a well ordered and democratic country? The answer is really quite simple, it is allowed to happen by our fragmented and ramshackle constitutional law. This has allowed a Governmental system to evolve that pays lip service to democracy and is in itself wide open to abuse by unelected and often unseen power groups. The formal relationship between Government and the citizen is limited to the Governments exposure to questions by parliament, either on the floor of the house or by select committees. The relationship between Government and the Head of State is limited and the formal relationship between Head of State and the people is non existent.

In the following pages you will see example after example of how these flaws and weaknesses have been exploited to undermine the UK as a whole, either as a direct policy or as a result of the side effects of policies. You will see that political manifestos rarely revealed what a given government intended to do. You will see that, with some very rare exceptions, the welfare and livelihood of the UK and its population was the last thing that was on the mind of 95% of the activity of all the power groups that sought to gain control of UK policy.

This essay aims to paint the broad-brush picture of the steady erosion of patriotism and growth of betrayal in the institutions that governed and controlled Britain. It is not a detailed blow by blow account, which would run to tens of thousands of pages and would probably be very tedious to read. We ignore events, even major events that have no bearing upon the main theme of this work. Chapter 1

1900 to 1918

In 1900 the United Kingdom was still the worlds largest trading nation. It was rich in terms of its reserves of gold and its thriving manufacturing industries were highly profitable.

The war in South Africa was drawing to its close and the control of the gold and diamond mines of that colony more than paid back the cost of acquiring them. The British pound was a rock solid currency.

Behind the scenes, the political situation was less inspiring, the perceived threat of the newly united Germany was seen to challenge British supremacy in Africa and in manufacturing exports.

Inside the UK a new middle class was emerging, clerks, civil servants, and the professions enjoyed a rise in living standards and status, the newly built suburbs of the larger cities offered them pleasant modern homes, and the rise of the railways and disposable income gave them access to leisure and travel that were unthinkable just a generation before. This class of people enjoyed all the benefits of the advances in medical science and average lifespans extended to 70 for men and 73 for women. They also enjoyed the advances in consumer goods, department stores catered for their needs, cycling and boating became favourite leisure pastimes.

The working class enjoyed none of these benefits. Their living standards remained low, living in sub-standard housing, paid poor wages, the new affluence passed them by. Their children still died of all the old diseases, typhoid, diphtheria, measles, chickenpox, Scarlett fever, mumps. Rickets was commonplace and access to medical care was rudimentary or non-existent. Average lifespan for males was 47 and for women 51. They worked long hard hours, 12 hours a day, 6 days a week was the average but in the mining, heavy steel led industries, and shipbuilding these hours were often extended. Work began at the age of 12 and ended when you died. There were no old-age pensions, no sickness benefits. The only leisure activity was the pub, drunkenness and alcoholism were rife as were crime rates. Those who fell off the ladder of life had the option of starvation or the work-house, some preferred starvation.

In Ireland the situation was even worse, old laws that kept Irish Catholics in perpetual poverty were still in place – no Irish catholic was allowed to own goods or wealth amounting to more the 5 pounds, if they acquired more than that it could be confiscated. This combined with continual lessening of the food supply brought on by potato blight had created mass starvation and death. Young people fled to the United States of America in their tens of thousands.

This then was the broad brush picture of the United Kingdom at the beginning of the 20th Century.

The politics of this era were dominated by the Conservative, Liberal, and Liberal Unionists parties. The Labour Party was founded on 27th February 1900. The first example of power groups overriding government can be seen during the period 1902 – 1910.

The Liberal government was broadly inclined to improve wages, working conditions and living standards, it was supportive of the newly formed labour party. Their manifesto proclaimed these steps as a central plank of their policy.

Equally this government was determined to modernise and re-equip the Royal Navy to ensure that it remained dominant in home waters and along the trade routes of the world. The new ‘Dreadnought’ class of battleship with its massive guns and thick armour plate was seen as the keystone of this policy, they were to be supported by a new class of battle cruiser with equally large guns but less armour. These ships along with all their supporting flotilla's represented a huge boost to the steel, coal and shipbuilding industries.

These industries, however, opposed the governments plans to set up wages boards that would set minimum wages and working conditions across a broad swathe of British industry and agriculture. They authored an argument that Britain could not afford the new navy unless the wages of workers in the steel, coal and shipbuilding industry were held down. Equally they argued that agricultural workers wages should not rise as that would increase the price of food and their workers would not be able to afford these higher prices. They formed a powerful lobby group which included the titled landowners who at that time owned 85% of the arable land in the UK and incidentally were also the major shareholders in the steel and shipbuilding industries. The Treasury and Admiralty both reported to the government in support of the lobby group and all plans for wage boards in these industries were quietly abandoned. Workers wages remained frozen, and tenant farmers had their rents increased to ensure they would not be able to increase the wages of their workers, the price of their output was regulated so they could not raise prices to compensate for the extra rents they had to pay.

Of course this lobbying entirely forgot to mention that the new found wealth in Gold now pouring into the UK could have met the cost of the new ships quite easily, what they achieved was a massive increase in their profits (and dividends) entirely at the cost of their workforce.

The Navy got some of its ships, the full programmes was eventually cut back because of the lengthy delivery times (the manufacturers refused to enlarge their shipbuilding capacity unless the government gave them a subsidy). The effect on agriculture was devastating, food production fell, many tenant farmers quit the land and as a result many landed estates spiralled into debt and bankruptcy.

In 1909 the government was forced to address the problem of food supply and established working parties to examine the entire agriculture industry with a remit to advise on how it may be improved. Meanwhile the UK began to import large quantities of food from the empire using the new created fleets of refrigerated cargo ships. A situation that was noted by the German Admiralty.

During the period 1910 to 1912 various recommendations were made to improve standards and wages, in part due to a general slow down in productivity and GDP. Few of the recommendations were followed by action. Industrialists preferred profit as did their shareholders, there was little effort made to invest in modernisation. The industrial lobby groups maintained a close relationship with the treasury and by using its civil servants as part of their campaign always managed to prevent government policies which damaged their own interests from bearing fruit.

The outbreak of war in 1914 found the UK ill prepared in every sphere of government. Emergency powers legislation brought in control of just about every aspect of British life. The War Office, under Lord Kitchener, embarked on a recruiting campaign that attracted 1.4 million British men to the Army, unfortunately it stripped bare agriculture and industry of skilled workers, worse still the Army had no facilities to arm, uniform and train such a mass of men, they languished in temporary camps for more than a year. Food and industrial production plummeted and the government was forced to encourage and later to impel woman to work on the farms and in the factories. Eventually the introduction of conscription brought some sanity to military recruitment and recognised reserved occupations that were essential to the war effort.

Germany meanwhile, taking advantage of the UK’s dependence on imported food and armaments began submarine warfare, sinking tens of thousands of tons of shipping and disrupting the vital supply lines. The net result was the introduction of food rationing and even greater governmental control of agriculture.

The 1st World War Changed the political, social and international standing of the UK forever.

In the political arena the Conservative and Liberal Unionists having merged in 1912, became the most powerful political grouping, they were united in their stand against home rule for Ireland. They had forced the Liberal Party to give way to a coalition government during the course of the war and they prevented the left of centre Liberal policies from gaining ground. The Irish Easter Rising in 1916 played into their hands and a more liberal attitude towards Ireland was dismissed out of hand.

On the International stage the new alliance with France had proved a very expensive burden, the new alliance with the United States was purchased at the cost of imperial power and imperial trade, and the empty promises made to India and China in order to persuade them to send troops to Europe cost Britain the goodwill of the major Indian political parties and united them in a campaign to remove British Rule, The Chinese Republic abandoned its relationship with the UK and favoured the USA as it’s major trade partner.. The overthrow of the Czar in Russia and the newly emerging Soviet Union was seen as a great threat by the British upper classes and nobility, this in turn led to the government strengthening the Internal and external security agencies.

The Civil Service had trebled its numbers during the war, it’s senior officers wielded direct power that could not have been imagined ten years before and it successfully manoeuvred to retain both its numbers and power as the war came to it’s end.

Socially there was a huge upheaval. Britain had lost 1 million men in the war, leaving a large number of widows behind them. The war had caused the social classes to mix and a new kind of class structure began to emerge. The non-royal nobility was ruined by the war, the loss of sons meant the lines of inheritance were broken, Government regulation had deprived them of income from land and investments during the war, and many had seen their ancestral home requisitioned by the military as hospitals and training establishments. The lesser baronets and barons fell by the wayside, their sons dead and their daughters serving as nurses or land girls.

The economics of the war had left the UK with a huge national debt, and the consequences of so many dead and severely wounded left the country with an expanding social cost which strained the exchequer. The Labour party was determined to see that the working classes received a better deal post war and were already agitating and threatening strike actions to gain improvements in wages and working conditions. The final straw was the Flu epidemic that began towards the end of 1918, there is no consensus as to how many died but the lowest estimates put it between 5 and 8 percent of the population. This worsened the already serious labour shortage created by the war casualties.

Thus despite the end of the most terrible war yet fought in Europe, the year 1918 ended in uncertainty and trepidation.

In the new ministries created by government a new breed of civil servant was emerging. Well educated, Oxbridge graduates rose quickly through the ranks to senior positions. They were often better educated than the politicians that they served and they quickly learned how to manipulate the political system. In the newly formed security services class snobbery played a huge role in recruitment, it was deemed that no-one from a good upper class family could possibly be a spy or be non-patriotic. Nepotism ruled recruitment to MI5, elitism ruled recruitment to MI6.

The Fenian outrages of the period (the IRA did not emerge until 1912) focussed the attention of all the security services on Ireland.

During the war the success of naval intelligence in intercepting German naval signals was hailed as major proof that Britain led the international intelligence game. In fact it hid the fact that the Germans had been reading British codes for most of the war, and that the poor security of communications on the western front enabled the Germans to prepare for every major offensive launched by the allies throughout the war. The Soviet Union and the USA took a hard look at all of this and used the lessons from it to mount their own attacks on the British empire after WW1.

Inside Britain the labour movement and the nascent fascist movement began to organise and train for what they saw as a grand class struggle, Feminists added to the debate in demanding full suffrage and gave a practical demonstration of what loud protest and violent action could achieve. It is interesting to note that all leading suffragettes were members of the Communist Party or its close allies.

The establishment, i.e. the Government, Military and Church were all very busy trying to cover-up the appalling mistakes they had all made during the war. A scapegoat – the war profiteer -was blamed for a lot of the errors – this fanned the flames of anti-Semitism.

In terms of betrayal it was a period when all the arch betrayers of the following decades were learning their craft and shaping society in a way that would allow them to flourish. Chapter 2.

1919 to 1930.

1919 saw some prosperity return to the UK, employment rates were high and the end of the flu epidemic saw a relaxation in the general mood of the country. Their was a general feeling of optimism helped along by new political alliances (the Liberal Party and Labour party had agreed to support one another in parliament).

The founding of the Comintern and the establishment of ARCOS (the Soviet Trade Mission) in the UK led many to see the Soviet Union as an ally rather than a threat.

Across the globe threats were emerging that would damage the British economy and create the breeding ground for betrayal.

In India the cotton goods trades were expanding rapidly and challenging the British market for finished cotton garments. A move that within a decade destroyed the British cotton goods industry.

China was modernising it industries, educational system, universities, hospitals. The UK had promised them favourable trade terms in return for sending 100,000 soldiers to Europe during the war. Britain reneged on the promise and as a result Chinese trade switched to the USA. It was worth some 2 billion pounds a year in the value of the then pound. British imports to China were subjected to savage import duties and trade between Britain and China dwindled to a level of 1.3% of its pre-war heights.

The Balfour Declaration of 1926 Which formally recognised the independent dominion status of Canada, Australia and New Zealand was exploited by the USA to replace the UK as suppliers of agricultural machinery and heavy engineering products.

Across the western world get-rich-quick schemes were beginning to suck away the wealth of the upper and upper-middle class. Share markets grew with dazzling speed and sucked more wealth from circulation, investment in industry and science fell. It is estimated (but not proven) that around 42% of all privately held wealth in the UK crossed the Atlantic to the USAand Canada between 1921 and 1928.

As early as 1921 the signs of economic depression began to appear in the UK, unemployment grew, inflation grew, and public dissatisfaction with the Government grew.

In 1922 the Irish Free State was created as a dominion, in the hope of quelling unrest in Ireland. The preceding three years had been marked by a huge upsurge in violence perpetrated by both sides, It was hoped that by granting southern Ireland dominion status the violence would stop and reduce the cost to the treasury of funding a large military and police presence in Ireland. The IRA, led by de Valera rejected the agreement and a civil war started in the free state and bombings in northern Ireland and the UK mainland continued.

In the 1922 General Election the Conservative Party won an overall majority holding 344 seats in the commons, Labour emerged as the second party with 142 seats and the Liberal party, split in half by internal dissension faded to third place. One result was interesting 1 seat was won by a communist party candidate. ARCOS, The All Russian Co-operative Society was opened in the UK in 1920. Ostensibly its purpose was to facilitate trade between the Soviet Union and Britain. In reality it was a cover organisation for Soviet Union espionage in the UK and Europe.

During 1925 the mail and telephone lines of ARCOS were monitored by the Security Service it was discovered that secret documents from the UK and France were being sent to the Arcos office for onward transmission to the Soviet Embassy.

In 1927 a ham-fisted raid by the special branch on the Arcos premises produced no new revelations about their activities, and the public announcement of the raid and its justification by the Prime Minister merely served to alert the Soviet Union that the UK was monitoring its signals system. This led the Soviet Union into modernising all of its communications systems by using one-time pads producing signals that were impossible to decipher at that time.

During this period Britain lost 60% of it export market for coal. The USA offered cheaper prices than the antiquated UK coal producers. As a result pits were threatened with closure and miners wages were cut.

In 1924 the labour party under Ramsay MacDonald formed a minority government with the support of the Liberal Party. Labour policy was clear, to support the working classes and help them increase their living standards. King George V supported these aims and had asked MacDonald to form a government when the Conservative party lost its majority in the house.

To the great surprise of his party and the political community of the day MacDonald condemned strikes, fought against wage increases, the Communist party of Great Britain and the Soviet Union. His Government lasted only 9 months and its only achievement was to introduce a bill which improved the provision of homes for working class families.

The Communist Party of Great Britain benefited from these situations it membership swelled by angry miners and heavy industry workers. It had sufficient funds (and secret subsidies paid by the Soviet Union), to print and publish its own newspaper. The closing down of Arcos and the Soviet Embassy gave it another important role, it was the key force in re-establishing Soviet agents and spies within the UK. It had attracted membership from a very wide social swathe of the UK. It allowed the formation of a secret membership of people who were in Government or public service to enable them to continue to be seen as part of the establishment. It also trained and financed selected members to take control of the Trade Union movement. It had a beguiling approach to new members “Help us work for peace”.

The USA had its own agenda in the UK. British scientific research and higher education was still highly ranked in the world. The US Embassy had a clear policy of talent spotting the brightest and best post-graduate students and offering them high salary jobs with superb living standards in the USA. 50 or 60 of our best and brightest were lost to the USA every year from 1925 onwards. In addition they recruited low key agents to keep them apprised of UK trade and foreign policy.

In October 1924, just before the general election of that year the Secret Intelligence Service produced the Zinoviev Letter, allegedly a telegram that proved that the Labour Party was helping to promote better relationships with the Soviet Government in order to promote Leninism in the UK, later this telegram was proved to be a fake, but the effect on the general election was dramatic, the Conservatives won 451 seats, Labour fell back to second place with 151 seats and the Liberal managed to hold 59 seats.

The Labour Party and the Communist party reacted to the Conservative win by increased industrial action leading to the 9 day General strike in 1926. The Pound began to tumble and a struggle ensued to try to keep the Pound on the Gold Standard. This desperate attempt led by Winston Churchill had the effect of making Britain's exports even more expensive.

Unemployment rose to 10% and stayed at that level until 1929.

In France and Germany Soviet recruiters were already training the agent runners who would recruit and run the Soviet Spy rings in the UK.

In 1929 the worsening economic situation led to another Labour victory in the General election of that year. Though they were a minority government they were supported by the Liberals and controlled the majority of ministries. MacDonald was again Prime Minister and he promised to concentrate on internal issues to improve housing, increase slum clearance, increase unemployment benefits and set fair wages for miners. As we shall see in the next Chapter he achieved none of his objectives.

1929 had seen the beginning of the great depression in the USA, The unrealistic investment schemes ranging from lunacy to outright fraud had begun a spectacular collapse on wall street that ended up dragging the whole nation and the rest of the world into the worst economic depression yet seen. This depression made its impact in the UK during 1930 and triggered a change in UK society that few could have foreseen. Chapter 3

1930 to Sept 1939

The first half of this period was dominated by the great depression. Unemployment rose dramatically, exports and industrial production fell to all time lows and hardship was suffered by the general population, and in the North of England, Wales and Northern Ireland it was extreme hardship, with unemployment levels reaching 70% in some areas. Many of those in work were only in part time jobs and full time employment became a rarity outside of the Civil Service, Local Government, or the Military. Many of the middle class and upper class investors in the American get-rich-quick schemes found they had lost their money and another culling of the upper class took place.

The newly installed Labour Government, with little real experience, tried to balance the budget to maintain the pound on the Gold Standard. To achieve this they increased income tax and reduced unemployment payments and the wages of public employees. These severe measures triggered a mutiny in the Royal Navy and widespread demonstrations in the hardest hit areas of the UK. The Labour party rebelled at such measures and withdrew it’s support from MacDonald, expelling him from the Labour Party. MacDonald, with the support of King George V resigned the Government and immediately formed a new Government from all parties called the National Government. The Labour party refused to join as did the Liberals led by David Lloyd George. Soon after this a new general election was called after which the Conservative Party dominated parliament. MacDonald remained as Prime minister until ill health forced him to retire in 1935.

This then was the background to the 1930’s.

The south east of England was far less affected by the depression than the north. London actually saw a boom in new factories and new industries, this in turn fuelled a boom in housebuilding. By 1935 the worst of the depression was over. Unemployment was still high and industrial output and exports had only made a weak recovery.

The Communist Party and the Labour Party both made much of the difference in fortunes of the north and south of Britain, they fuelled class warfare, denounced the Church of England as being anti-working class and lost no opportunity to spread rumour and false news through their newspapers and the Left-Wing Book Club.

Behind the scenes The recruiters in the Oxbridge Universities were already selecting their targets for subversion. The Comintern wanted to recruit two distinctly different type of agents. As a result two entirely different Soviet agencies were at work recruiting young British academics. The GRU, Soviet Military intelligence wanted young men and women who would rise into positions of influence in the security services, The Admiralty and the War Office. The NKVD (later renamed KGB) wanted spies in the heart of Government, who could feed back information on policy, alliances and intentions. Both agencies also had to recruit supporting networks, people who could act as couriers, radio operators, and who could use their position in society to further Soviet aims.

A new political force was emerging the Fascist Movement led by an ex Labour minister, Oswald Mosley. This Group were aligned with Nazi Germany. The new enemy on the block.

By 1935 the focus of the UK government and its security agencies had shifted from the Soviet Union to Nazi Germany. The first round of the battle was easily won by the Germans, British Secret Intelligence officers were employed in foreign countries as Passport Control Officers. They enjoyed no diplomatic immunity, and were housed away from British Embassies. In 1934 a young MI6 officer named Ellis sold this information to the German counter intelligence department of the SS. Within days the entire British spy network in Germany was destroyed and many of its people summarily executed. Ellis remained undiscovered and was still working for MI6 until the 1970’s when his guilt was uncovered entirely by accident. He was never prosecuted and retired in comfort on his generous pension. The ongoing fallout of this disaster continued as the Germans shared this knowledge with their allies. Through their spies within Germany the Soviets Union learned of this information and British spies inside the Soviet Union vanished or had “accidents”.

In 1934 The League of Nations Union a private organisation led by Lord Robert Cecil sent a questionnaire to every household in the UK. The aim of the questionnaire was to provide the organisation with proof that the people of Britain wanted the League of Nations to determine British foreign policy not the British government. The questionnaire was followed up by doorstep visits by over half a million volunteers (mainly Junior Civil servants and local authority workers) who helped the households to fill it in, not surprisingly it resulted in a massive vote in favour of the League of Nations and in favour of the disbandment of national military forces. The results announced in the Albert Hall by Lord Cecil and the Archbishop of Canterbury caused deep shock to the government. It went unnoticed at the time that the Labour Party and Communist Party were major sponsors and funders of this entire exercise.

Faced with a hostile and rearming Germany the British government took a decision to re-arm. It was minimised in the press but it kept the hotheads like Churchill happy.

The Army fared badly in this re-armament programme, the standard infantry rifle was replaced with a cheaper version of the same weapon, the Short Lee-Enfield Mark2. It was Boer war technology selected by Civil Servants with an anti-war mentality. The Platoon machine gun was to be the Bren-Gun, a beautiful weapon for a shooting match, especially if you wanted to put 30 bullets through the same hole, but its small magazine capacity, its rigid forward bipod rest and its overall weight made it highly unsuitable for modern warfare, it was designed in Czechoslovakia and had already been rejected by their own army, the German army and the USA. The selected sub-machine gun was even worse, the Sten-gun was an inherently unsafe weapon with no effective safety catch once the weapon was cocked. It would fire itself if dropped and it killed a lot of British soldiers. The last weapon selected was the new bayonet, a short round spike called the pig-sticker, it was extremely hard to inflict a stopping wound on an enemy with it, and was deemed worse than useless by the soldiers who had to use it in action. The mechanisation of the cavalry regiments was another major disaster, the tanks designed for use by the army were poor quality, with thin armour and under powered weapons. The factories that built them were under the control of left wing militant unions and the result was that the majority of these tanks were found to have been sabotaged in the build stage. Equally bizarre was the decision that infantry would always move on foot. They would march to war, march into battle, and march from one deployment on the battlefield to the next. These decisions were made not by the General Staff but by politicians and Civil Servants who had no knowledge of modern warfare and who believed in appeasement and pacifism.

Behind the scenes Civil Servants in the War Office and the treasury did all they could to impede re-armament. The appeasement and peace movements had a large following in the Civil Service and many senior Civil Servants who supported it had the ear of the New Prime Minister, Stanley Baldwin. Baldwin was lukewarm on re-armament he supported it more as a political move than as a means of preparing the UK to defend itself.

The Navy fared badly from re-armament, it need a large fleet of fast asdic equipped destroyers that could protect the UK’s supply line, all it got was two new battleships and their escort destroyers, and a vague promise to build a new aircraft carrier in the future. The Naval Air Arm was re-equipped with obsolete biplane fighters that were slower than German Bombers, let alone German fighters. For offensive operations they had a biplane torpedo bomber capable of a maximum speed of 105 MPH.

Only the Air Force did well and then only because private individuals and private industry ignored the outdated Air-Ministry specifications given to them to build new fighter aircraft and instead developed the Spitfire and Hurricane fighters that were capable of matching their German counterparts and intercepting German bombers. The Royal Air Force had also invested in Radar research and were busy building a chain of radar stations around the south and east coasts of Britain. This chain combined with advanced radio telephony would give the RAF a significant advantage in intercepting enemy aircraft before they. reached UK airspace. For offensive operations they had the new Wellington Bomber that at least equalled the German types in use at that time.

Most advanced country stockpile a reserve of vital raw materials that can be used in times of emergency or war. Britain was no exception and had kept stockpiles of rare-earths, aluminium, steel, Chemicals required for war industries, and ammunition for all the weapons used by the three services. Obviously some of these stockpiles need to be renewed from time to time as the materials decay with time. This is especially true with ammunition where the mixture of brass, steel and highly oxidative chemicals used in the explosives they contain tend to corrode fairly quickly. In an effort to save money the Government had neglected to maintain these stockpiles, and in an effort to gain favour with industrialists large quantities of steel and aluminium had been released to the private sector to be used to build motor cars for the middle classes and cheap pots and pans for the working class. This failure had large repercussions when war eventually arrived.

Support inside the UK for the New Nazi Government of Germany was not confined to Oswald Mosley and his black shirted bully boys. The future King and a good few members of the aristocracy and upper classes showed support and made the pilgrimage to visit Hitler. They admired the new well-ordered Germany, where the trains ran on time and the population seemed to be united under a strong leader. They had no sympathy for the Jews, communists, and political opponents of this new order and they in turn triggered a new wave of virulent anti-Semitism in Britain. Popular books of the period such as the Bulldog Drummond series by Sapper carried phrases such as “he looked like a filthy little Jew”

When Edward VIII became king the Government was thrown into utter turmoil. His relationship with Wallis Simpson an American citizen, married and already a divorcee created a constitutional crisis in its own right, His active and public support of Hitler coupled to his stated intention of becoming directly involved in the politics of Britain added a further dilemma, Edward VIII was a popular figure in the eyes of the British working class, he had spoken out in favour of the poor and downtrodden during the great depression, he was depicted in the left wing press as a man who would fight for the rights of the working classes against the capitalist tyranny of the Tories. The reality was somewhat different, Edward VIII had a most unusual upbringing, his parents leaving him in the charge of a Nanny who favoured him over his other siblings. He was a self indulgent and spoilt little boy who went on to develop character defects that included sexual deviancy, a huge capacity for self pity and a desire to satisfy his own wants and desires at any cost. He was certainly psychologically unfit to be King. Baldwin showed some courage when he insisted that Edward abdicated the throne, he new well that the working class supported the King but he also knew that the public did not realise what the new King really wanted. Baldwin fell back on the King’s proposal to marry Wallis Simpson and declared it would be illegal under the constitution and therefore Edward had to give up the woman he loved or abdicate. Edward chose abdication. There was a public outcry against the Government, the press published articles in favour of Edward. In later years, telephone taps, mail intercepts, and clandestine recordings of conversations confirmed that Edward, by then Duke of Windsor was indeed a fervent supporter of Hitler, that he had supplied the Nazis with the British order of battle in the early days of WW2 and that he regarded Hitlers defeat as a tragedy that denied him the opportunity of regaining the British throne.

Baldwin, tired, ill and getting on in years decided to resign and the Conservative Party elected Neville Chamberlain as his successor. Meanwhile George VI, a shy hesitant man who suffered from an appalling stammer and underlying ill health took the throne.

While all this was ongoing a tall thin unprepossessing young man called Roger Hollis, son of the Bishop of Taunton, had been rusticated from his Oxford college and had moved to China. Elsewhere a number of Bright Cambridge students, Blunt, Philby, Burgess, Maclean, Cairncross and a dozen others had been recruited by the GRU and NKVD as Soviet Spies in the UK. Across the UK a number of scientists, politicians, engineers and Civil Servants had been recruited by them to ensure that the Soviet Union had a complete network across every aspect of British Government, Military, security and intelligence. By the end of 1937 the Soviet Union had more than 2000 active agents inside the UK. The public and secret membership lists of the Communist party reveal that a large number of men and women who rose to public prominence as ministers, MPs, Government advisors, broadcasters, journalists, trade union leaders were long-time and fully paid up members of the party.

A gifted RAF engineer officer by the name of Frank Whittle had begun to theorise and construct a Jet engine capable of powering aircraft. In order for this development to be appraised by the Air Ministry and Government scientific advisors around 100 copies of the drawings and technical descriptions along with Whittle’s scientific paper were made. An enterprising clerk in the air ministry stole two complete copies of these documents, it was quite easy, no one had thought to mark them secret or even number the copies. This clerk, Edwin Copeland, sold one copy to the German Heinkel company and one copy to the American Douglas Corporation, his motives were greed rather than ideological. Douglas passed the plans to the US war department who later financed research and development of jet engines, Heinkel pushed forwards with the work and had the worlds first jet engined aircraft flying in late 1938. The British Air ministry gave the project lukewarm support and the Government advisors all deemed the jet engine as fanciful and unnecessary.

Young Roger Hollis returned from China and resigned from his job with the British American Tobacco company, He married a very respectable young lady and though without visible income he visited France and upon his return to the UK applied for a job in MI5, the application was supported by his wife’s uncle who had some influence in that service and Hollis was accepted and set to work in F branch, which dealt with internal security. Meanwhile Kim Philby was already a rising star in MI6, and both Burgess and Maclean had secured senior jobs in the Civil Service.

Prime Minister Chamberlain had pursued a policy of appeasement with Nazi Germany. To be fair to him he was in no doubt that Hitler posed a real and acute threat to the UK, He was also aware that the UK was totally ill prepared to meet that threat. His aim was to buy time for Britain to re-arm properly. Within his cabinet he was supported by the majority of his colleagues. Lord Halifax believed that Hitler could be tamed by the right approach. After Germany absorbed Austria in the Anchluss operation and then demanded the return of the Sudeten lands Chamberlain decided that the time was ripe for a meeting with Hitler and a British intervention in the events of Europe. He canvassed for and received support from the French Government and he then made arrangements through Sir Neville Henderson, the UK ambassador to Germany. Henderson was strongly in favour of appeasement and believed that Britain was to weak to oppose Germany. He believed that Hitlers warlike ambitions could be watered down by constant diplomacy and a friendly relationship with Britain. Chamberlain also thought he could count on support from Benito Mussolini, the Italian leader, especially as he had softened the British response to the Italian invasion of Abyssinia. From Chamberlains point of view, despite the failure of the first meeting and the need to fly to Germany a second time the meetings were a success. The Sudetenlands passed back to German control without bloodshed and Chamberlain believed that he had brought time for the UK. Chamberlain crowned the visit by getting Hitler to sign a hastily concocted memorandum declaring that Germany and Britain would work together to ensure peace and goodwill between the two nations.

The reaction in Britain as Chamberlain returned from Munich was twofold, the general public acted with relief and joy as the threat of war seemed to have been removed, Chamberlains political enemies, especially Winston Churchill described the Munich agreement as an abject surrender to the Nazi regime and a disgraceful partition of a foreign country without even allowing it to be part of the negotiations. Chamberlain, more pragmatic replied that to have gone to war over the Sudetenland would have been rank folly, we could not have changed the outcome and we had not the military resources to have breached the German western defences let alone fight our way across Germany to relieve the Czech army.

Chamberlain sanctioned one more secret and unofficial peace move towards Germany. Lord Halifax persuaded Hore-Belisha a Jewish cabinet minister to attend a highly secret meeting with Hermann Goering, who was seen as the most powerful man in Nazi Germany next to Hitler. They met at Goering’s hunting lodge and Hore-Belisha unveiled the British demands for better relations with Germany. These included the dismissal of Himmler, Von Ribbentrop and Goebells from the Nazi Government. The cessation of re-armament and stopping the persecution of Jews, socialists and Christian groups within Germany. Goering claimed that he would support these proposals and would personally address Hitler regarding them. The two agreed to meet again in one weeks time. When Hore-Belisha returned to Germany 7 days later Goering informed him that Hitler was sympathetic to the British point of view and that he would welcome a full agreement with Britain and that he wished for nothing more in this world than to have a friendly relationship with England. Hore-Belisha returned to Britain and immediately wrote a full report for Halifax and Chamberlain, he enlisted the aid of one of his senior Civil Servants to write the report without realising that this man would inform Lord Strathcona, the under secretary for war, Strathcona was a follower of Churchill and he made sure that Churchill had a copy of this report in his hands before Chamberlain and Halifax had even read it. Churchill demanded a meeting with Chamberlain and threatened to expose the whole affair to the press if Chamberlain failed to break off negotiations. Chamberlain agreed to Churchill’s demands and the last opportunity to defer war in Europe was lost, Goering lost face with Hitler and in the aftermath Von-Ribbentrop became the loudest voice in Hitlers ear. The Soviet Union was also alarmed at the prospect of an agreement between Hitler and Britain. Stalin had developed a strategy that he believed would take Soviet power to the heart of Europe. The cornerstone of his strategy was that Germany, France and Britain would be weakened by war between themselves. His agents had fostered attacks on the German population of the Sudetenlands in the hope of goading Hitler into taking military action. He relied on that spreading to a general European war as France had a mutual defence treaty with Czechoslovakia and Britain had a mutual defence treaty with France. While this was going on the Soviet Union would be building a large army well equipped with modern weapons built on designs stolen from Germany, France, Britain and the USA. The keystone of this army would be the T34 Tank built to exceed the specification of the latest Panzer MkIV tank currently in production in Germany. Even with the full resources of the Soviet state thrown behind the plan it would be late 1942 before it would come to fruition. Stalin also needed to buy time. With his scheme in the Sudetenlands frustrated Stalin moved on to a new target, Poland.

Poland had been given large swathes of German territory in the aftermath of WW1, The population of many of these areas was predominantly German. Poland, though hostile to the Soviet Union was far more wary of Germany, especially after the Sudeten Crisis and the voluntary return of Memel to Nazi Germany. The Polish Slav population were not too friendly towards their Germanic fellow citizens and the Soviet agents found it easy to stir up violence between the two communities. The news of this violence gave Hitler the pretext to start demanding the return of these lands to Germany and the end of the so called Danzig corridor which allowed Poland control of the land routes to the German city of Danzig.

Stalin was well aware, from his spies in Britain that a number of senior German Army officers had tried to get British help to depose Hitler at the time of the Sudeten crisis. He also knew that the British had not done anything to support those dissident Generals. He used this information to plant a massive disinformation plot inside the Polish Government. It basically told them that the German army was ready to mutiny and that the German public were supporting them, it inferred that Germany was a house of cards that would fall over at the merest touch. This encouraged the Polish military Government to defy Hitler’s demands and trade his insults of Poland with their insults of him. The German/Polish friendship agreement of 1933 was torn up and both sides squared up to one another.

In another sideshow Germany occupied what remained of Czechoslovakia in defiance of the solemn treaties it signed less than a year previously. This prompted Chamberlain to declare a mutual aid pact with Poland that would draw Britain to her aid if she were attacked.

Stalin now played his trump card, Germany would not commit to attacking Poland if they thought that the Soviet Union would fight against them, the German General Staff and indeed the Nazi Party had a horror of the thought of a war on two fronts. Stalin now made friendly overtures to Germany and Von Ribbentrop was invited to come to Moscow armed with powers to sign a treaty between the two countries. The net result was the German/Soviet non aggression treaty, this document cleared the way for a German attack on Poland and it’s secret protocols carved up Poland between Germany and the Soviet Union and guaranteed Germany supplies of materials it needed to sustain its armaments industries. Hitler was jubilant, and he waited impatiently for the pretext to declare war on Poland. It would not be long in coming, a few days later a Squad of SS security troops arrived at a German radio station close to the Polish border. A number of concentration camp prisoners carefully dressed in German and Polish army uniforms had been specially shot for the operation and the bodies were carefully placed around the radio station, which was then riddled with small arms fire before the SS troops vanished back into the night. The local police arrived at the scene and it was quickly broadcast that Polish troops had attacked a German Radio station in German territory and killed German citizens. Despite every diplomatic effort made by Britain and France Germany declared war on Poland and WW2 had begun.

With the benefits of hindsight, research, investigation and the release of previously secret documents we can perhaps shake our heads in wonder at the utter inability of Government to pursue any rational policy throughout the entire period. But when you then realise just how many unelected and often hostile forces were working against rational outcomes and pursuing other agenda, mostly detrimental to Britain, then you might wonder how we survived at all. If Churchill had succeeded in driving Britain into war in 1938 it is likely that Britain and France would have been militarily defeated very quickly and disarmed, leaving the field wide open for a Soviet invasion of Europe in 1942/43 which is very likely to have succeeded. If the security service had been better organised and had instituted proper vetting rather that allowing snobbish class distinctions to rule their recruitment then the future debacles of Britain may have been avoided. If we had acknowledged that the USA was our competitor more than our ally we may have prevented her from taking our export markets and invested in the UK rather than the USA. The list could go on forever. But the one things that stands out is the inefficiency of our mode of Government. The group least trusted and most feared by the Government are the British people. People voted labour and got a Conservative Government, people voted Conservative and got a Labour Prime minister. And in the middle of it all the Liberals danced from one side to the other always thwarting what the people had voted for. It all sounds to familiar in 2021. The British Constitution, a rag-bag of bits of legislation, common law, and outright invention cannot hope to cope with the modern Britain any more than it could cope with the industrialists of the 1900’s. Chapter 4

September 1939 to 1946.

The war years saw another huge increase in the size of the Civil Service, the Secret Intelligence Service, and the Security Service. New scientific security services were opened and the Government Code and Cypher service that had employed a handful of people prior to the war ended up employing 10,000 people by the end of the war. Liaison with Polish exiles in France brought the design of the ‘Bombe’ to the UK. This was a clever computing device that would allow the intelligence department of the Government Code and Cypher School to decrypt German military signal generated by their Enigma coding machine. Prior to the war these signals were deemed unbreakable.

The need to rapidly enlarge wartime services to meet the increased workload carried dangers with it. Recruiting rules were overlooked and as a result Anthony Blunt, Victor Rothschild and Klop Ustinov were all able to Join MI5, and John Cairncross was able to Join The Government Code and Cypher School. Later in the war George Blake was able to join MI6

Across the UK Soviet and USA agents and spies moved to their wartime footing. The German Spies fared less well, their nascent networks had already been detected and penetrated, in the main because of their appalling and lax trade-craft. Those people judged to be Nazi sympathisers were already under close observation.

The Government moved Britain to a wartime footing, and the British Expeditionary force moved to France.

The Government immediately rationed petrol and other Oil based products, and within 6 months had to introduce food rationing.

The Communist Party ran a loud but unsuccessful campaign to stop the war, and when the Soviet Union invaded Finland in November 1939 they lost a few hundred members who protested against this action.

MI5 instituted a clever counter intelligence system that not only thwarted German attempts to land spies in Britain but turned most of them into tightly controlled double agents who would be able to misinform the Germans of British Plans and intentions. The Scheme, known as the XX committee, was led by John Masterson.

The German offensive of 1940 threw the allies into dis-array, The Norwegian campaign demonstrated that the entire control and command structure of the British military was far to slow to react to the swift pace of modern warfare, Political interference from Churchill in the Naval support for the operation resulted in the loss of several ships and an aircraft carrier.

The Royal Navy and its intelligence units had failed to realise that the Germans were reading their signals traffic and conversely the Enigma decrypts that proved this were not made available to the Navy for fear of compromising the fact we were reading the Enigma traffic. Thus thousands died and ships were lost.

In May 1940 the German offensive on France and the low countries began. British and French troops in Norway were recalled to meet the attack but within weeks France was defeated and the British army retreated back to the UK.

Again Enigma information had been withheld from the battlefield commanders depriving them of foreknowledge of German movements and intentions. Thousands more died or were taken prisoner.

Immediately prior to the German offensive against France, Chamberlain had resigned as prime minister and had been replaced by Churchill (to the great dismay of the Conservative Party who had favoured Lord Halifax). Churchill formed a coalition government from all parties.

Churchill was not only Prime minister but also Minister of Defence. His personal habits did not change one iota during the war, Despite food rationing he ate sumptuous meals every day, He drank copious amount of Brandy and Champagne, smoked expensive imported cigars and worked irregular hours that caused chaos in the departments of Government.

Some examples of this could be seen in the fact that the Head of MI6 had to report to Churchill every morning with a box of the latest Enigma decrypts. Churchill was often still asleep and the poor man had to waste hours waiting for him to awaken, bathe, and dress before he could handover the decrypts, explain their significance, and get back to the urgent business of his office. Churchill Promised the British People blood sweat and tears, but he granted himself a luxurious lifestyle well protected from the sacrifice the rest of the population were making.

Churchill always seemed to listen to last and loudest voice he heard, This led to the shameful sacking of Park and Dowding after their highly successful command of the battle of Britain, Dowding had managed to defeat the Luftwaffe despite the fact that Churchill had reduced his squadrons and pilots by 30% in futile attempts to help the French, actions that were carried out despite the strong protests of Dowding, the Air Ministry and cabinet colleagues.

Churchill largely ignored his cabinet colleagues and ruled the country more like a feudal warlord.

The war years had a very positive effect of British Scientific research. The need to defeat the U-Boats led to the development of advanced radar and ASDIC systems. The use of improved radio detection and position fixing systems which not only detected the daily weather reports transmitted by the U-Boats in the Atlantic but fixed their position at the time of the transmission. This information could be used to re-route supply convoys so they avoided the areas where U-Boats were active. The need to decrypt huge volumes of Enigma traffic led to the development of computers that were able to decrypt these signals in real time. The more advanced Enigma used by the German navy was broken into using these systems and the U-boat attack entered into a sharp decline from which it never recovered.

The Royal Air-force used the new developments in Radio and Radar in two different way, they learnt how to bend the radio beams used by German bombers to find their targets and they developed their own Radio Beam systems, Oboe and Gee to ensure the British bombers delivered more bombs on target. In addition they developed airborne centimetric radar systems to help bombers and night fighters find their targets.

All of these developments were shared with the USA, and equally all of these developments were betrayed to the Soviet Union.

The relationship between Britain and the USA was a product of wartime expediency. Lend lease is hailed as American support for the great democracies, however it’s price tags were very high and ensured that Britain would emerge from the war impoverished, this was no accidental outcome but was a crafted policy of the USA designed between Roosevelt and his chief advisor Harry Hopkins. Hopkins, a closet communist, was very close to Roosevelt, he actually lived in the Whitehouse and had the Presidents ear for almost every waking hour of the day. Roosevelt sent him to the UK to assess whether Britain was likely to continue the war with Germany. Hopkins got on well with Churchill and as a result was given access to every corner of the British war effort including our new scientific research, Atomic weapons research, the enigma decryption services and computers. Radar, radio detection and monitoring, aircraft design and aero engine design. Every secret was laid bare before him. Hopkins returned to advise Roosevelt that the British intended to remain at war with Germany, but he also detailed the wealth of secret information he had received and made the case that it should be included in the quid-pro-quo of lease lend. He also devised a payment security system that required Britain to hand over control of all major British owned companies in the USA to American ownership and that the entire British gold reserves be transported to Canada. The transfer of secrets to the USA allowed them to grow vast war industries without the costs of Research and Development that would normally be incurred. America grew rich on the back of the British taxpayer.

In 1941, Germany invaded the Soviet Union. Although Stalin had received several warnings of German intentions he had refused to believe them. The reports from his own spies were not believed because they were not confirmed by other spies. The warning sent to him personally by Churchill was seen as an attempt to draw him into the war prematurely. Therefore Soviet supplies to Germany continued right up to the day that Hitler invaded their country.

The moment the Soviet Union was attacked by Germany, Churchill declared that Britain was their ally against Nazi tyranny. The Communist party in Britain did a very swift Volte-face and instead of condemning the war demanded support for Russia and began an agitation programme for a second war front to be opened to relieve the German pressure on Russia. Russia was now the term used to describe the Soviet Union, Stalin was now a friend, and charities and well wishers formed associations to send help to the poor Russian people. The Soviet Union was able to send diplomatic, trade and military delegations to the UK and all of this made their espionage activities in Britain far easier to manage.

We must now return to Mr Roger Hollis. You will remember that this gentleman had joined MI5 before the outbreak of war. He worked in F division with responsibility for counter-subversion, in that role he was responsible for clearing new Recruits into MI5. Hence the ease that three more soviet agents became employed there. But Hollis had another and more important role that was to ensure that every secret that landed on his desk was passed on via his controller to the Soviet Union. His department had moved to Blenheim Palace near Oxford to avoid Luftwaffe bombing and conveniently his courier, Sonia, a British housewife moved into a house in nearby Oxford. Hollis, codenamed Elli, passed vital information to this controller that gave the Soviet union a clear view of US/UK relations and joint security measures. Hollis was also able to forewarn his controller of any MI5 Operation that might compromise Soviet agents in the UK. Hollis was a highly skilled operator, he avoided the mistakes made by other spies, he never met his controller or his primary courier face to face, he used dead-letter drops to deposit information for them to retrieve, He was a passionate golfer and often used his golf to develop these drop points on the fringe of Golf courses. Sonia was also highly skilled, she had first met Hollis in China and had helped to recruit him. Once he was established in MI5 she was instructed by her Soviet controllers to marry an English communist and gain British citizenship, she did this and lived the quiet life of a suburban housewife and mother. She used a high speed transmission technology to send radio signals to Moscow, these transmission bursts were just a few seconds long and thus could avoid detection or triangulation to establish their location. Her role was never discovered by the security service until after her death. At times Hollis had information that required urgent onward transmission to the Soviet Union for these rare occasions he used another Soviet agent Victor, Lord Rothschild, a man totally trusted in every part of the British establishment. This relationship was to bare greater fruit later when Hollis himself fell under suspicion.

By the time the war was in its third year the Soviet Union had established spies in:

MI5 MI6 GCCS (today known as GCHQ) The Admiralty and its scientific research department The Foreign Office The Home office The Cabinet Office The War Office The Air Ministry and its scientific research department Tube Alloys (The atomic bomb project)

In addition it had numerous journalists and medium rank civil servants, actors Trade Union officials, local government officers and ordinary people directly and knowingly supporting its espionage efforts in Britain.

In addition there were perhaps 2 dozen reluctant supporters, men mainly, they were in senior positions but had been trapped into sexually compromising situations, usually homosexual, and then blackmailed into either passing secrets or supporting access to secrets.

The Free French Base in London offered another opportunity to the Soviet Union, it was heavily infiltrated by their Agents and they were able to use it to carry out ‘wet affairs’ which were the assassination of Frenchmen who were opposed to communism, simply by accusing them of spying for Germany, holding drumhead trials and executing them in the basement of their London Headquarters. The British were powerless to prevent this as the whole French operation had been granted diplomatic status. Another Frenchman, held in high esteem by the British and USA governments was also serving the Soviet Union, his name was Jean Monet – the man, who a decade later, was behind the creation of the European Union.

The class system aided and abetted this whole setup, if you were a ‘good chap’ from a ‘Good family’ and a member of the ‘right clubs’ or indeed a Freemason then you would easily get into top jobs.

This same snobbery defended these traitors even when there actions in front of their friends made it obvious that they had some sort of hidden agenda, Blunts effeminate homosexuality was well know amongst his circle of friends, dinner guest of Guy Burgess often noticed paper bags stuffed with money lying around his flat. But even if they had suspicions these tight knit social groups such as the Apostles would never dream of informing on each other. Their loyalty was to their kind, not to their country.

Sadly these loyalties were carried into the post war Civil service and are still active today.

Japan had been less successful in enlisting British traitors. Only two are known to have actively spied for Japan. Lord Sempill. From 1922 until 1941 he passed secret information to the Japanese. Despite being caught red handed, after war had been declared Sempill was never punished, merely asked to resign from Government service. Stanley Vaughan Heenan was an officer in the Malay defence force. He passed information to the Japanese revealing the location of every RAF airfield in Malaya and actively marked airfields to enable greater accuracy for Japanese Bombers. He was caught in the act of marking an airfield and detained. He was held in a military prison in Singapore and as the loss of Singapore became highly probable he taunted his military police guards that he would soon be free and they would soon be locked up. As the Japanese closed in on the prison his guards took him to the docks, shot him and dumped his body in the sea.

One point that should be made is that Indian troops that were part of the defence force in Malaya were disaffected by the Indian Congress party and many of their Junior officers told their men not to resist the Japanese. After the conquest of Malaya and Singapore the Japs raised a 40,000 strong force of volunteers from the Indian Soldiers who had been stationed there.

A similar event happened in North Africa, Indian Soldiers surrendered wholesale to the German Army and were reformed into a Waffen SS brigade that later took part in the defence of the French Channel ports after D-Day.

Under Nazi Law the only force allowed to recruit non-German soldiers was the Waffen SS. These foreign troops were organised into their own national Battalions, Brigades and Divisions. They included Norwegians – one Division, Dutch – 2 Divisions, French – 2 Divisions, Yugoslavs – 1 Division, mostly Moslem. Indian – 2 Brigades, Russian – 2 Divisions, and most sadly British – 1 company. In all around half a million non Germans fought in the Waffen SS.

As world war two reached it’s end the Western Allies and the Soviet Union held conferences to decide a common policy towards Germany and the reinstatement of National Borders.

Germany wrecked by Bombing was divided up into occupation Zones. However Germany had many secrets that all the Allied nations coveted, Jet engines and aircraft design, Tank design, Atomic weapons design, Submarine design, Rocket design, a great plum pudding of secrets, skilled engineers and scientists, and every one of the allied nations wanted to scoop as much of it as possible onto their own national plate. Alliances were set aside as the French, British, American and Soviet Union sent out specially trained military squads to grab as much as they could regardless of occupation zones. Each of the allies tried hard to impede the progress of their opponents, in dark alleyways on moonless nights shots were exchanged as opposing groups tried to grab a scientist or some well hidden secret information. German informants would be bribed by one side and murdered by another. And Germany became a seething mass of intrigue and murder and took its place as the hot-end of what was to become the cold war. The USA and the Soviet Union were the clear winners in this race for secrets. Britain and France were not in the same class of ruthlessness.

In defeated Japan the USA was represented by Douglas MacArthur. He became the military Governor of Japan and simply refused to allow the British, French or the Soviet Union to enter the country. This gave the USA a massive bounty of secret information and technology as the Germans has shared much of their research with Japan.

The British Government, torn apart by renewed political rivalry faced a General election right at the outset of the Potsdam conference between the Allies. Churchill, by now a tired and ageing man, learnt that while he attended the conference he had been voted out of office. Not surprisingly the British delegation at Potsdam made very little impact on the decisions taken there.

The new British Labour Government, led by Clement Attlee, had barely sat behind their ministerial desks when the USA presented them with a huge bill for lend-lease. As 1945 turned into 1946 Britain was near bankrupt and had crippling shortages of food, coal, building materials and medicines. The cost of victory was high and the peace dividend was near zero. The war had damaged relationships between Britain and her principal Dominions, Canada, Australia, and New Zealand. Many angry words had been exchanged between the Prime Ministers of these Dominions and Churchill, Churchill had refused to include them in the war planning committee or to consult them before deals were made to give the USA bases on their territory. He was accused of putting their soldiers at risk in hazardous operations while holding British soldiers back in reserve. The final straw was seen as Churchill’s friendship with Jan Smuts the Boer leader of South Africa, Smuts was invited to take part in many conferences and was privy to many military secrets denied to the other Dominion Prime Ministers. This ex enemy who had led forces that slaughtered Australian, Canadian and New Zealand soldiers during the Boer War was party to Britain’s secrets in WW2, the other Dominion Prime Ministers were affronted and dismayed by all this.

The final dismal act of the war was the discovery from captured German documents that HRH the Duke of Windsor had indeed supported the Nazi Party and had indeed betrayed his country. This was news so shocking that Buckingham Palace sent Anthony Blunt, an MI5 officer to Germany to retrieve and destroy the documents. Blunt was, of course, a high ranking Soviet Spy at this time.

As the war years came to an end it seemed that everything that had induced Britain to fight it in the first place had been destroyed, Poland was again under Russian control, most of eastern Europe was under the control of the Soviet Union, The British Empire was in total disarray, and the United States had reduced Britain to abject poverty. The British Merchant fleet had been decimated by the U-boats in the Atlantic and the need to run supply convoys to the Soviet Union. The war had severely damaged or destroyed a large swathe of housing stock leaving the population under-housed. Hardly a fit land for the return of tens of thousands of servicemen and women due to be demobbed. In fact the Government deliberately slowed down the demobilisation process to avoid swamping the already overburdened housing market and food supply. Thousands of British soldiers airman and seamen lived out the next year in idleness in Italy, Germany, the Middle East and Far East.

The joyous celebrations that greeted the end of the Second World war now subsided into the grim realisation that the peace brought just as much hardship, with no relaxation of Government control. Inspectors and regulators descended on the British people to ensure that they complied with the restrictions on foodstuffs, clothing, toys, housing, cooking, water usage, farming etc etc, British coal and British food was sent to Germany, whilst British children grew up malnourished and cold. Chapter 5 1946 – 1960

The Lend lease fiasco ended up with Britain saddled with a debt of $31.7 billion dollars. It seemed to have escaped the notice of the British treasury that this amount included supplies sent to Australia, Canada and India and included charges for good not yet received in Britain. It also included full billing for all the Liberty ships (Merchant vessels) supplied under lend lease that had already been returned to the USA.

The US Marshall plan now ploughed money into Germany. Cities were rebuilt, industries reformed, the German people recovered very quickly from the wartime devastation of their country and their living standards improved far faster than those in Britain.

Britain received very little aid from the Marshall plan. And in fact was coerced into continuing to supply food and coal to Germany despite serious shortages inflicted on the British people. In the severe winter of 1947 many old or infirm British citizens died of hypothermia as they were unable to obtain coal to heat their homes.

The Marshall plan is often seen as a great act of generosity made by the United States to help Europe recover from the ravages of world war two. In fact the harsh reality is that is was paid for by the British Taxpayer in the huge sums extracted from Britain in repayment for Lend Lease. It can be fairly said that British morality and British blood saved Europe from Nazi Domination and Soviet domination, but almost all of the peace dividend was scooped up by the Soviet Union and the United States.

The United States had realised it’s stated ambition of breaking Britain's world trade dominance and weakening the British Empire by leaving it holding a rump of dependent nations that relied on British financial support rather than contributing to the exchequer.

Canada further added to Britain's financial woes by sending a bill worth £1.1 billion for goods she had supplied to Britain during the war. The Treasury declined to offset that against the dozens of airfields and thousands of aircraft supplied to Canada during the same period.

The Labour Government set about a wide-scale reform of Britain. It introduced the National Health Service, National Insurance, Child Benefits and a massive housebuilding programme aimed at providing 1 million new homes. The stated aims of the government were to reduce the extremes of poverty and wealth in Britain. The nationalisation of key industries and services was undertaken, Coal, steel, railways etc were all nationalised.

Prime minister Attlee was totally enmeshed in domestic policies and had little interest in Foreign affairs or Economics. Despite relatively high unemployment he allowed the importation of unskilled West Indian workers on HMT Windrush in 1948 despite protests from many of his own MP’s. It was Labours first real attempt at social engineering which, it believed, would help it to maintain a power base in the country.

At this time Britain's military assets were still at the cutting edge of science. All three services had, at last, received the benefits of wartime research. The Admiralty had the most advanced submarine detection and destruction systems yet know, the Air Ministry had pioneered very advanced target location systems and Bomb aiming devices that increased accuracy to a matter of a few yards. The war office had developed the Centurion tank that remained way ahead of the rest of the world for a decade. There was ongoing research and development of guided missiles, supersonic aircraft, advanced long range radar systems and Navigation systems that could guide submarines underwater to any point on the globe with high precision.

Civil aviation was also making a strong comeback Turbo prop and jet aircraft were on the drawing boards of the major British aircraft manufacturers and British European Airways and British Overseas Airways Corporation were already making new and profitable routes around the world.

New industries, had sprung up around these sectors and the new Technical Colleges were providing them with the technically skilled workers they needed.

In the reality of the cold war British designed computers were helping to decrypt Soviet wireless transmissions. British Aircraft overflew Soviet territory to gain intelligence and the British Army on the Rhine monitored Soviet troop movements in East Germany, whilst the army’s Intelligence corps mounted sorties into East Germany and East Berlin to root out infiltrators and local spies. These operations often ended up with British casualties, aircraft were shot down in Soviet airspace, and running gun battles took place in Berlin. All of which was kept totally secret from the British Public.

Attlee was not a communist but he was initially exceedingly naive about Soviet intentions and very much at odds with his Foreign Secretary, Ernest Bevin, who had direct experience of fighting off communist attempts to control the Trades Union movement. In a moment of total insanity Attlee allowed the Soviet Trade Mission to Britain to be given several of the new Rolls Royce Nene jet engines. These engines were copied in Russia and used to build the new generations of Mig Fighters that were to cause the Allies so many problems in the Korean War. Fortunately Attlee soon lost his naivety and the Government prepared for a possible war against the Soviet Union.

Unwilling and financially unable to suppress violence in India, The British Government granted independence to India and Pakistan in 1947. Around 1 million people died in the religious war that followed the granting of independence and Gandhi was assassinated by a member of his own party. In 1948 Burma and Ceylon were also given independence.

On the 24th June 1948, the Soviet Union blocked all land, Rail and water based routes from west Germany to the western controlled zone in Berlin. Soon after they cut the electricity and food supply to the zone. The allies responded with a massive airlift that managed to keep the western zone supplied with essential materials. The Soviets finally gave way and on 12th May 1949 the blockade was lifted. The cost of supporting this operation added another £100 million pound bill to the British taxpayer.

Soviet espionage in Britain was still running well. They had rings of agents working in all the key elements of the Government, Military and scientific research areas of the UK. However the first suspicions that there was something wrong were beginning to percolate through to the Security Service. Hollis now head of F branch and a director of the service was able to fend off these suspicions or redirect suspicion to lower echelon services, “after all it was far more likely that lower class people would betray their country than upper class people” he argued to those that doubted his judgement. He was supported by the Director General of MI5, Sir Dick White, and though MI5 started to carry out positive vetting of the staff of other Whitehall departments no such measures were introduced within its own walls. Hollis had never revealed his own friendship with notable communist before he joined MI5 and he now removed their files from MI5’s registry to ensure that no one could use them against him. In 1948 the USA, using British designed computers, began to decode a large number of Soviet signals sent during and after WW2. Some of these signals referred to a British spy who was highly placed in the foreign office. This spy had the code name Homer. A young and energetic MI5 officer named Arthur Martin was given the task of finding out who Homer was. At the same time an MI6 officer responsible for liaison between the USA and MI6 was also made aware of the situation. This Officer was Kim Philby. Arthur Martin put together all the known facts about Homer that could be read from the decrypted material. He ended up with a short list of eight possible targets. By prodigious and energetic research he eliminated them one by one until he had a clear case against Donald Maclean. A high ranking career officer in the Foreign Office. As the case had been raised in the USA MI5 as a matter of courtesy passed details back to MI6 for onward transmission to the USA. This enabled Philby to be aware of all the developments of the case, he managed to warn Maclean and he also rationalised that if Maclean was uncovered then another spy Burgess would also be uncovered. Hollis was also sending all the information he received regarding Martin’s investigation straight to his own handlers. The net result was that just as MI5 were ready to act both Burgess and Maclean defected to the Soviet Union.

Martin was an intelligent and intensely loyal individual. He carried out an analysis of events preceding the defection and unofficially persuaded his American contacts to give him a traffic analysis of Soviet communications between their Embassy in London and Moscow and their Embassy in Washington and Moscow over the entire period of the investigation. He noted that there where unusual spikes in the traffic between London and Moscow within 24 hours of him submitting each progress report on the investigation. He also noted that similar spikes appeared in the Washington traffic within 24 hours of his reports reaching the MI6 station there. He was convinced that there was a serious penetration of both security services and he took his suspicions to the head of MI5, Sir Dick White. Within 24 hours Martin was transferred to the counter insurgency office in Kuala Lumpur Malaya. For an officer to think there was a mole in the security service was treated as an unpardonable crime, akin to the Pope claiming that Christianity was just a big practical Joke.

There can be little doubt that this Labour Government coped reasonably well with the transition from a wartime economy to peacetime economy and dealt as well as they could with the unexpected financial burdens that were thrust upon them by the war. Living standards rose, housing recovered, and social welfare, working conditions and safety at work were all improved. Attlee ensured that Britain would possess its own independent nuclear deterrent. and it can be said that in the history of British Prime Ministers of the 20th Century Attlee was a man of substance rather than bluster. One of Labours junior Ministers serving in the Board of Trade was a young man called Harold Wilson, Wilson made several trips to the Soviet Union, some of a prolonged nature.

In 1950 the outbreak of the Korean war and the decision by the United Nations to intervene placed additional strains on the British treasury. Attlee was a strong supporter of the United Nations and felt it was Britain's duty to supply military forces to fight alongside the USA and others.

In 1950 the general election reduced the labour majority to 5 seats in the commons. The worsening financial situation, caused by the Korean War, led the government to try to reduce costs, one of the measures was to impose charges for spectacles and dental treatment that were previously free under the National Health Service. The Labour party split over the issue and Attlee called another election in 1951 which returned the Conservative party to power.

After returning as Prime Minister, Churchill issued a note for the Cabinet on 29 November 1951. He listed British Foreign Policy priorities as Commonwealth unity and consolidation, "fraternal association" of the English-speaking world, First The Commonwealth and Second the USA, and thirdly "United Europe, to which we are a closely—and specially-related ally and friend … it is only when plans for uniting Europe take a federal form that we cannot take part, because we cannot subordinate ourselves or the control of British policy to federal authorities"

This Conservative Government carried on and enhanced the policies of the previous Labour administration with respect to housing, social welfare, and workers welfare.

The labour party was rent with division Bevan, (not to be confused with Bevin), wanted the party to move to the hard left and retreat to the policies of the 20’s and 30’s Attlee, supported by Bevin described class war and constant industrial action as an outmoded and counter-productive policy Attlee was supported by one of the rising stars of the Party, Hugh Gaitskell, and Bevan failed to win sufficient support to win the leadership or change Labours policies.

The Korean War dominated the politics of this period. The United Nations debate to intervene had been successful because the Soviet Union walked out of the talks and thus were unable to use their power of Veto to stop the resolution from being carried by the Security council of the UN, (a mistake they would never repeat). The US already had considerable forces based in Japan and these troops managed to push the North Koreans back to the Original border between North and South Korea. The American General, George MacArthur had been made supreme commander of the UN operation and he now decided to use his rapidly expanding multi-national force to invade North Korea. This decision appears to have been unilateral as there is no record that the UN or even his own government sanctioned this action beforehand. It was a disastrous decision. Initially UN forces moved quickly as the disorganised and defeated North Korean Army retreated before them. The Soviet Union, which had supported the initial attack by North Korea and had supplied them with the weaponry and military aid they needed to undertake it, realised that they could not enter the war in support of North Korea without triggering the 3rd World war for which they felt unprepared. Now China enters the frame. China had fought a long and exhausting war with Japan from 1934 to 1945. at the close of that war they resumed the civil war that had already broken out before Japan invaded them. The Communist Party of China were the victors of the civil war and proclaimed the Peoples Republic of China under the leadership of Mao Tse Dong in 1949. From the western viewpoint it was assumed that they would be allied with the Soviet Union. This was erroneous as politically and culturally China was not impressed by Stalinism, however the ravages of war had left them in great need of technical assistance and the Soviet Union was the only country willing to supply it. Stalin used this point into pressuring China to send military aid to North Korea. China had not waged an aggressive war for 2000 years and it was uneasy about supporting North Korea which clearly had waged an aggressive war. The Chinese military force sent into North Korea was given secret orders that it should only help North Korea to regain its territory currently occupied by the UN forces. A large Chinese Army crossed the Yalu river into North Korea and advanced to take up positions facing the UN forces. They were supported by a large contingent of the Chinese air force equipped by the Russians with the New MIG fighter jets (powered by a copied Rolls Royce Nene engine). These were flown into combat by both Chinese and Russian pilots and were a considerable thorn in the side of UN air supremacy.

The war swung backwards and forwards for three years until reaching a stalemate along the Original Border. In 1953 an armistice brought the fighting to an end. However the formal state of war exists to this day.

The American reaction to the war was to demonise China and that led to another set of unexpected circumstance. Tibet had been a part of China since the 12th century. The USA acknowledged that fact in its wartime propaganda films supporting the Nationalist Government. The post war UN boundary commission also acknowledged Tibet as part of China. Tibet was the last remaining home of a sect of Buddhism that used human sacrifice to predict the future. It’s population were mainly serfs, owned slaves, who belonged to the landowners. The system used the most brutal punishments for minor offences, leg and arm lopping were commonplace, and the death sentence was given for anything more than minor offences. The population had to support and feed tens of thousands of monks who did not work or produce anything at all. All of this was ruled over by the Dali Lama. From 1940 to 1947 the Chief advisor to the Dali Lama was a German SS officer who had escaped from British custody in India. When the communist party came to power in China the Dali Lama was summoned to Beijing and he agreed to be the Governor of Tibet Province. He was instructed to abolish serfdom and conform the legal system with that of the rest of China. On his return to Tibet the Dali Lama largely ignored the instructions of Beijing and life in Tibet carried much as before. In 1951 the Beijing Government alarmed at the lack of progress and modernisation in Tibet sent a small delegation there to meet the Dali Lama. He managed to convince them that progress was hampered by lack of funds. His budget was increased and a Beijing committee was stationed in Tibet equipped with radio transmitters to keep Beijing informed of progress. The Dali Lama sent his brothers into India and began to move gold and other valuables out of the country secretly. When the Beijing Committee discovered this they were attacked and murdered. The Chinese Government reacted by sending in troops and the Dali Lama fled to India carrying as much gold as he could. He was immediately hailed as a hero by the west and Tibet was portrayed as a small independent nation cruelly overrun by the Chinese communists. The CIA paid the Dali Lama one million dollars a year to maintain an anti Chinese propaganda campaign. This enabled him to run a private campaign to free Tibet which raised millions of dollars from public donations. These funds were used by him and his family to maintain a lavish lifestyle in Switzerland, where right into the 1990’s he maintained friendships with many questionable ex Nazis. He and his brothers and their families have become, at least, multi-millionaires on the back of donations made by people who thought they were trying to help poor little Tibet.

The effect of this war on the UK was twofold. It’s economic impact meant that rationing and austerity remain prevalent in the UK. Its political impact was to encourage Government to maintain its regulatory practises over industry and the allocation of raw material.

Despite all the negative factors Britain was recovering, the economy grew and GDP outstripped every other European Nation.

Winston Churchill had grown old and he was a sick man. This encouraged him to provide guidance and direction to the government but not to meddle in the day to day running of ministries. His ministers were mostly experienced and centre right wing in their policies. There were however two ministers, one senior and one junior who would try to change the direction of Britain. Both had a disastrous effect on the economy, both were happy to ignore their parties Manifesto, and both very happy to lie to parliament and the electorate. We are talking about Anthony Eden and Edward Heath. We shall hear more of the latter later.

Anthony Eden was a war hero, awarded the Military Cross during WW1. After the war he joined the Conservative party and eventually won a seat in the House of Commons. He was a popular man. Eloquent and intelligent he was also handsome and always well dressed. He rose quickly in the party and held a junior ministerial post under Baldwin and rose to be Foreign Minister under Chamberlain. Contrary to popular notions he was not an ally of Winston Churchill before WW2. He made several speeches against Churchill and he totally supported Chamberlains appeasement policy as a way of giving Britain time to re-arm. He fell out with Chamberlain and resigned his post not on a matter of policy but because he felt that Chamberlain had usurped his role in the negotiations with Hitler. Eden had developed an ulcer and gall stones, he was advised to have an operation to remove a blockage in his bile duct. The operation was botched and he thereafter suffered from periodic serious infections, liver damage and extreme pain. During WW2 Eden served under Churchill rising again to be Foreign Minister. They had serious differences of opinion over UK/USA relations and UK/De Gaulle relations. However it is fair to say that Eden worked hard to heal the breaches between Britain and the Dominions and his actions and judgement during the war were sound and to the national benefit. When WW2 ended the conservative party was out of Government and Eden was part of the Shadow Cabinet. He wanted the party to elect a new leader – preferably himself, as he believed that Churchill with increasing ill health was not fit enough to carry the burden. Churchill sought a compromise and agreed that if the Conservatives won the next election Eden would be deputy prime minister under Churchill and in due course Churchill would resign and hand Eden the reins of power. Eden accepted this and in due course the Conservatives party won the 1951 election. When Churchill met with King George VI and proposed Eden as Deputy Prime Minister the King vetoed the idea, claiming there was no constitutional grounds for such a position. Eden was furious and relations between him and Churchill became less than cordial. Years later we find that the Kings opinion of Eden had been damaged by whispers and gossip encouraged by Anthony Blunt that Eden was a dissolute, bisexual, dilettante who would ruin the country. This ruinous gossip was even entered on Eden’s security records. Eden’s doctors had prescribed amphetamine tablets to help him cope with increasing pain caused by his ongoing medical problems. Little was known then of the damaging effects of these drugs and as a result Eden became short tempered and suffered from large scale mood swings. In 1955 Churchill resigned due to ill health and advise Queen Elizabeth II to call on Eden to form a Government. Eden duly became Prime Minister but by them both his Physical and mental health were dangerously out of kilter. Intent on restoring Britain's pre-war prestige he embarked on a series of diplomatic blunders that cost Britain lives, prestige, and were an economic disaster. The Suez crisis was the public manifestation of this but he lost all British influence in Iraq, Iran and Saudi Arabia by his high handed demands that they accept British Foreign policy as their guiding policy. The USA was quick to move into these oil rich regions and replace the British. He had undertaken covert alliances with Israel and France to support military action against Egypt and then issued a denial of this in parliament. The whole operation had become a fiasco, the Egyptians has sunk blockships in the Suez canal rendering it impassable. The Soviet Union threatened direct military intervention and the USA refused to support Britain. Eden gave the order to pull out and the British and French Military contingents withdrew to their own bases in Cyprus and Algeria. In Britain the Government was forced to return to rationing and Britain's supplies of oil now had to make the arduous journey around the Horn of Africa and up through the South Atlantic to reach Britain. The Question remains as to how Eden believed this military adventure could possible succeed. Now with the benefit of later information we know he was duped into believing that he had special intelligence that indicated that the plan would succeed. He was fed a lot of false information pertaining to be intelligence briefings from the Israeli secret service, Mossad. This information was passed to him personally and in great secrecy by a very trusted and influential figure, Lord Victor Rothschild. Rothschild was known to be sympathetic to Israel, but the fact he and his wife were soviet agents was unknown. Suez was a triumph for the Soviet Union, it caused a diplomatic split between the UK and USA, it caused major economic damage to the west because of the closure of the Suez Canal and it pushed Egypt into the Soviet Sphere, giving them an advanced listening base into western radio traffic. In the aftermath Eden resigned as Prime Minister and was replaced by Harold Macmillan.

Macmillan can best be described as a patrician Prime Minister, He was left of centre on social policy, increasing house building targets, demolishing retail price maintenance and tweaking the economy to provide real growth. In terms of Foreign Policy he was right of centre and he pursued a vigorous policy to restore the UK/USA relationship and diminish Soviet influence in Britain. He reinvigorated the security services and provided budgets to improve the technical assets of both MI5 and MI6.

Kim Philby was now under strong suspicion of being a soviet spy, his security clearance was revoked and he became a journalist working for the Observer Newspaper.

Macmillan had tried to join Britain with the European Economic Community, during the negotiations it was made clear to the EEC that Britain was happy to join a trading partnership was would not be interested in creating a Federal Europe or supporting the common agricultural policy that was in the process of being debated within the EEC at that time. On this basis De Gaulle, now President of France, and desperate to have the Common Agricultural Policy (CAP) bail out the French economy vetoed the British application.

MI5 scored a number of successes in capturing minor Soviet Spies in the UK. But in a number of suspicious circumstances the major spy-masters always seemed to evade being identified.

MI6 had less success, its major triumph in enlisting high ranking Soviet Military Officers to supply information in Moscow is now known to have been a successful tactic by the KGB to pass false information to Britain and NATO and to discredit the information given by genuine defectors to the west. It also had the added bonus to the KGB of identifying MI6 staff based in the British Embassy in Moscow.

In Britain a MI6 operation to get information about a Soviet cruiser that had carried Khrushchev on a State Visit to Britain ended in humiliating disaster. The diver sent down to take photographs of the ships propellers (they were thought to have been a new secret design that enabled the ship to travel faster than equivalent British warships),vanished, some months later his body, minus it’s head and hands was brought to the surface in the nets of a fishing boat, there is still doubt today about the true identity of the body. The enduing scandal led to Khrushchev cutting short his visit and the failure of the British attempt to begin Nuclear Weapons limitation talks with the Soviet Union – a policy opposed by the USA. It is claimed, but has never been proved that the USA deliberately leaked the operation to the Soviet Union to scupper the British initiative. Macmillan was a popular Prime minister. He presided over a significant improvement in the UK economy, a major raising of living standards and a reduction in Government regulation of industry. His tax reforms led to a more balanced spread of taxation and the reductions in purchase tax added additional stimulus to the economy. But Macmillan had enemies. Within his own party their was a faction in favour of joining the EEC and the Federal European plan. Within the Civil Service there was alarm as he removed regulatory powers and thinned the ranks of Civil Servants, eroding their power base. The Soviet Union also regarded him as a threat, improved living standards had diminished the power of Trades Unions, and the British Communist party membership had fallen by 65%. British technology was emerging as a powerful threat to the Soviet Union.

The official Opposition, the Labour Party, was currently led by a moderate and patriotic Hugh Gaitskell, who supported the Government in many key areas.

We are approaching a period when internal and external forces destroyed the progress made between 1955 and 1960. Destroyed Britain’s Technology Industries and reduced the economy to the its 1946 levels. It was a time of mass betrayal by vested interests.

Chapter 6

1960 to 1970

This decade saw a huge reversal of British fortunes across the whole gamut of domestic and international politics.

The decade opened well enough, low unemployment, rising living standards and lower cost of living had all helped to increase GDP. A simple example is the price of Chicken. Up to 1959 the price of Chicken made it a luxury food for the average British citizen, something you ate on special occasions like Christmas it cost around £3 pounds for an average sized Chicken against an average wage of £10 per week. By 1960 the average wage had risen to £14 per week and you could buy a whole roast chicken and chips for 4 people at a price of 10 shillings (50p), a standard loaf cost 9p, and a pound of potatoes 1p. As Macmillan stated at the time “We had never had it so good”.

Small m morality was common place, it was still considered as immoral and stupid to have sex outside of marriage, let alone get pregnant. Pornography consisted of grainy black and white photos of a girl showing her stocking tops. It was considered wrong to kick people in a fight or to hit women. Children played outdoors, climbed trees and learned to be social human beings. Families tended to live in the same geographic locations so young people had daily experience of their Grandparents, Aunts, Uncles and Cousins. Their were rituals to mark the passing of the way points of life. Boys were given small penknives around the age of nine or ten, the excited whittling of sticks usually resulted in a cut finger that brought home the pain and discomfort a knife can cause. Girls were given play kitchens and began the long journey into womanhood supported by their mothers, grandmothers and aunts. Boys and Girls would play together in the ritual games of the day, and then separate to play the games that defined their roles in life, the boys playing competitive games, the girls favouring co-operative games. At 14 the rites of passage were marked with boys getting their first pair of long trousers and girls being allowed to wear stockings.

Primary education prioritised reading writing and mathematics, At the age of 11 children took a test, the brighter kids went to Grammar School and the rest went to the secondary schools.

Religion was still a factor in the life of the majority of British people though Church attendance had fallen dramatically since WW2. If asked most people would declare they were C of E.

Anti-Semitism was still rife, though not quite as bad as the pre-war days. A new kind of bigotry was filling the newspapers of the day as people reacted against the influx of black workers from the Caribbean. Adverts for flats or Bed-sitting-rooms would state ‘No Blacks’ and bus drivers and conductors in London refused to work with black workers. The colour bar had arrived.

This then was the background to the start of the 1960’s. In 2018 conspiracy is a rather overworked word and conspiracy theories have somewhat blunted its impact. But in 1960 there emerged the framework of several conspiracies that would bring Britain to her knees. Not that all the conspirators wanted that outcome they just did not realise that their actions were working alongside other conspiracies and the combined weight would severely damage all the keystones of a civilised society.

So what happened?

1) A conspiracy to replace Hugh Gaitskell as leader of the Labour Party with someone who was far more radical and hard left wing and who could be counted upon to support pro Soviet policies.

2) A conspiracy within the Conservative Party to get rid of Macmillan and replace him with a pro-European leader.

3) A conspiracy within the Civil Service to embarrass the Government and encourage a new government which would bolster Civil Service numbers and power.

4) A conspiracy by the Soviet Union to make use of all their agents of influence, now occupying senior positions across the UK to destabilise and demoralise the UK and to attack the moral base of the nation. Special emphasis was placed on Television and leisure activities as a way to forward this agenda. The young academics and students who would have been membership fodder for the communist party before WW2 were now encouraged to join CND and the new Socialist Workers Party. The Soviet Union were prepared to fund the process through proxies to the tune of half a billion pounds. They laid emphasis on script writers, producers, academics, authors and journalists. Their longer term strategy was to ensure that the next generation of teachers and lecturers would push the same message into the ears of the British people.

Within the MI5, new blood and new technologies had begun to uncover the depths of Soviet penetration of the UK, Furnival-Jones had brought Arthur Martin back from Malaya and given him a role to uncover Soviet spies in the security services and throughout the military and Government departments. Martin teamed up with a MI5. scientist, Peter Wright and another MI5 officer Jane Sissmore, together they began working in total secrecy to identify the British traitors. Wright persuaded the Atomic Energy research Establishment to let him have time at night on their most powerful computers and masses of previously disregarded Soviet signals were fed into the machine and then handed to GCHQ for cryptanalysis. They also dug out crates of intelligence material captured from the German Abwher and SD security services at the end of WW2. Lastly they re-examined the MI5 Archives and examined the files of every allegation of spying made since 1930 but which had been ignored by case officers or signed off as ‘No Further Action’ by directors. Soon they began to see results and several spies in the Admiralty and the Foreign Office were caught and prosecuted. They established the guilt of Philby and prepared a plan to arrest him as he returned from the Lebanon to report to the Observer head office in London. This plan was changed by Roger Hollis and instead an MI6 officer, who had been a close friend of Philby was sent to the Lebanon to interrogate him. Philby confessed to that officer and promised to return to the UK the following week. Instead he defected to the Soviet Union. Hollis had warned him that he had been uncovered and he bought time to arrange his defection.

This defection had caused Macmillan considerable embarrassment, he had previously been asked questions in the House of Commons as to Philby’s guilt or innocence. He was advised by Hollis that there was no evidence to suggest Philby was a spy and he therefore stated in the Commons that Philby was entirely innocent. The questions had been asked by members of his own party, briefed in private that Philby was a spy. The man who gave them the information was none other than Victor Rothschild. He, of course, knew that Hollis would clear Philby at that time and he knew from his contact with Peter Wright and Dick White that the evidence was mounting against Philby. It was a move that damaged Macmillan and curried favour with the Europhile section of the Conservative Party led by Edward Heath.

The next embarrassment to Macmillan was the very clever honey trap laid for John Profumo, Secretary of State for War in Macmillan’s Government. In 1961 he attended a party at Clivden, the home of the Astor family and was introduced to Christine Keeler, he began a short lived affair with her and when he discovered he was one of many men she was seeing he broke off the relationship. Unknown to Profumo Keeler also had a sexual relationship with Yevgeni Ivanov, the senior naval attaché at the Soviet Embassy. In 1962 a shooting incident between two other men who had relationships with Keeler led to the press discovering her relationship with Profumo. However the newspapers would not print the story. Desperate to use the information to discredit the Government George Wigg, a labour MP was given a secret briefing by a Soviet mole, Bernard Floud. Wigg raised the matter on the floor of the House of Commons, Profumo admitted knowing Keeler but lied about his sexual relations with her. Keeler then publicly stated that he had slept with her and had sexual relations with her, Profumo had to resign. Hollis had known all of the details about Keeler from the outset. He would have been able to warn Profumo before the relationship started as she had been under surveillance from the MI5 watchers. That he did not do so is just one more link in the chain. Co-incidentally Wigg became the liaison minister between the two secret services and the Prime Minister Harold Wilson.

In December 1962 Hugh Gaitskell visited the Soviet Embassy to obtain a visa for his forthcoming visit to the Soviet Union and meeting with Khrushchev, the Soviet leader. Shortly after he became ill with a virus infection. He carried on with his visit and upon his return to the UK became ill again and needed emergency hospital treatment. He died on the 18th of January 1963. The official cause of death given was that he had contracted Lupus and died of heart liver and kidney failure. His doctor, was highly sceptical about this diagnosis and some years later Gaitskell was secretly exhumed and his body was found to contain Ricin, a deadly poison. In the leadership election that followed a little known Harold Wilson became leader of the Labour Party.

Senior Civil Servants began to leak details of confidential Government reports to the press. Most of these reports were damaging to the Government and particularly damaging to Macmillan. They added weight to the plot to oust him.

At this point the Conservative plot to oust Macmillan paid off, told he no longer had the confidence of his party he resigned. One small snag now occurred to the plotters, when the plot was dreamed up it looked certain that the conservatives would win the 1964 general election. Now that Macmillan had resigned that looked less likely. Edward Heath not wanting to lead the party to an election defeat suggested they appoint an interim leader and the luckless, lacklustre pro EEC Alec Douglas Home became Prime Minister and leader of the Conservative Party. Douglas Home was a competent administrator, he was also a peer and had to renounce his peerage in order to become Prime Minister. He had an unfortunate accent with prolonged vowel sounds and he was unsuited to public speaking and television interviews.

The same could not be said of Harold Wilson or his shadow cabinet, with perhaps the exception of George Brown the last survivor of the Gaitskell era to remain in the cabinet. Wilson, Wedgewood-Ben, Healey, all excelled in getting their message across to the British public. The message was powerful, Britain needed to embrace the new technological age and use it to regain prosperity and better living standards for all. Wilson’s apparent youthful energy, and the number of eloquent younger men in his shadow cabinet helped to secure a Labour victory in the 1964 General election. The Labour majority was very small and threatened to upset their radical plans for Britain, the next year was spent promoting popular policies, increased sickness benefits, the forced purchase of private rented accommodation by local authorities under the pretext of improving slum conditions and removing rapacious landlords. It worked, Wilson called another General election in 1965 and secured a majority of 66 seats in the Commons. Now the full plan was set in motion.

British companies were still leading the world in the field of advanced electronics and computing. This was especially true in the defence related industries. British aircraft designers had produced vastly improved designs of both jet fighter and bombers. Significant progress had been made in the design of ballistic missiles and missile defence systems. Companies like Marconi, Racal, Sperry, English Electric, Hawker Siddley, ICL, were all involved in a huge technological leap forwards. Between them they employed tens of thousands of skilled workers and they supported thousands of smaller component manufacturers employing tens of thousands more workers.

Anthony Wedgewood-Benn, Lord Stansgate as he had been, was an eloquent left wing Marxist. His first post in the new Labour Government was as Minister of telecommunications. In 1966 he was promoted to Minister of Technology. His colleague Dennis Healey, a former active member of the Communist party of Britain, was Minister of Defence. Between the two of them they dismantled the entire technology base of Britain, they cancelled government contracts, reduced research budgets, Racal, Marconi and Sperry were driven to near bankruptcy and all the aircraft manufacturers were forced into one huge conglomerate entity ‘The British Aircraft Corporation’. Regulation, red tape and reduced budgets reduced the efficiency and output of these companies and wholesale redundancies increased unemployment. The car industry was centralised into British Leyland and from that point onwards lack of investment coupled to almost continuous Union militancy paved the way for the destruction of Britain's car industry. The brand new factories in Bracknell, Berkshire that supported Sperry, Marconi and Racal were demolished and made way for a shopping centre in the 1980s.

The Wilson Government had one other claim to fame, it was the only Government in the History of the 20th Century to have several active Soviet block spies sitting in its Cabinet, and several more sitting on its back benches.

As Wilson came to power MI5 were at last getting to grips with the fact they had been penetrated at high level by the Soviet Union. Martin, Wright and Sissmore had compiled a comprehensive report with an analysis that clearly pointed to top level infiltration. They concluded that only 2 people could possibly fit the accusation Hollis, by then Director General of MI5 or Graham Mitchell, the Deputy Director of MI5. Unfortunately Peter Wright had developed a close friendship with Victor Rothschild and trusted him implicitly. He discussed his suspicions with Rothschild who quickly passed it on to Hollis. Hollis then very adroitly pointed the finger of blame at Mitchell and a long operation was carried out to try to gain evidence that Mitchell was a spy. The Prime Minister refused permission for Mitchell to be interrogated. And the investigation dragged on for months. Eventually Mitchell retired with nothing proven against him. During the investigation Wright had to seek the permission of Hollis to search Mitchell’s office In one corner was a locked desk that appeared empty. Wright asked Hollis for the key but was told it had been used by a former Director General and the key had been lost. Wright asked for permission to pick the lock and Hollis told him to come back the following evening with lock-picks. The following evening after Mitchell had left to go home Wright, watched by Hollis, picked the locks on the desk and opened all its drawers. They were all empty and full of dust, but one had four marks that indicated that something had been removed very recently. The marks were about the right size for the rubber feet of a battery operated voice activated tape recorder favoured by MI5. Wright went home and puzzled over the incident and then it occurred to him that Hollis was the only person that knew he was going to open the desk and Hollis had delayed him from doing so by 24 hours. It was another one of those strange coincidences that seemed to surround Hollis.

Wright related these facts to Martin, Sissmore, Furnival-Jones and Dick White (then head of MI6). It was decided to investigate Hollis. Again Wright confided in Rothschild. The following day Wright was summoned to Hollis’ Office. Hollis met him with a smile and after some small talk looked squarely at Wright and asked him why he thought that he, Hollis, was a spy. Wright, taken aback muttered some facts of the case and to his surprise Hollis merely smiled and made a joke of it. After a long and fruitless investigation and despite a large amount of circumstantial evidence and several instances of hard evidence Hollis was able to retire on full pension in 1966. Hollis was protected by the very establishment he sought to destroy, to admit to the world that the head of MI5 was a long serving Soviet Spy was too much for the Senior Civil Servants or the Government to stomach. It was dealt with by ignoring it. Other investigations into Soviet agents in the UK ran into roadblocks, Wilson insisted that MI5 could not interview any member of Parliament without his express permission. This protected some members who were know to be Soviet block agents such as Stonehouse.

By now the economy was going into a nose dive, unemployment was increasing, inflation was crippling growth and across the country small businesses were failing at an unprecedented rate.

We now enter the final phase of the decade. Across the range of public media an attack was launched against the very essence of British culture and morality. Television series belittled the work ethic and patriotism of the working class, magazines aimed at young people preached sexual liberty and encouraged promiscuous sex. Satire lampooned politicians, police, Christianity. New laws made divorce easier. Soft drugs and hard drugs, previously the habit of the dissolute and affluent upper classes became available in large amounts and the use of them was promoted by pop stars, actors and the trendy left. The incidence of sexually transmitted disease began to rise at an alarming rate as did crime levels. Sexual deviance became trendy amid a clamour for the legalisation of homosexuality. Education standards fell sharply by 1968 and fewer students were studying science and engineering. Materialism began to grip the younger generations as tacky but trendy goods were pushed onto the high street. Unemployment exceeded 500,000.

By 1969 Britain was a pale shadow of the busy successful nation with high living standards that existed in 1960. The conspirators had done a thorough job. It is interesting to note that not one single promise made by Wilson to the electorate in 1964 was ever honoured or even attempted. Wilson's government hastened the destruction of the British economy and the British way of life in a deliberate and planned manner. Chapter 7

1970 – 1979

As the 1970 General Election approached the majority of public opinion polls indicated that is would be another Labour Victory. The change in voting laws made in the previous year reduced the voting age to 18, allowing teenagers to vote for the first time. The election held on June 18th led to the surprise victory of the Conservative Party now led by Edward Heath. Heath secured a majority of 31 seats in the House of Commons.

One paragraph of Heaths foreword to the Conservative parties manifest of 1970 catches the eye, it reads;

“So it will not be enough for a Conservative Government to make a fresh start with new policies. We must create a new way of running our national affairs. This means sweeping away the trivialities and the gimmicks which now dominate the political scene. It means dealing honestly and openly with the House of Commons, with the press and with the public.”

Later in the text of the manifesto is the only reference to Joining the EEC (later EU);

“If we can negotiate the right terms, we believe that it would be in the long-term interest of the British people for Britain to join the European Economic Community, and that it would make a major contribution to both the prosperity and the security of our country. The opportunities are immense. Economic growth and a higher standard of living would result from having a larger market. But we must also recognise the obstacles. There would be short-term disadvantages in Britain going into the European Economic Community which must be weighed against the long-term benefits. Obviously there is a price we would not be prepared to pay. Only when we negotiate will it be possible to determine whether the balance is a fair one, and in the interests of Britain. Our sole commitment is to negotiate; no more, no less. As the negotiations proceed we will report regularly through Parliament to the country. A Conservative Government would not be prepared to recommend to Parliament, nor would Members of Parliament approve, a settlement which was unequal or unfair. In making this judgement, Ministers and Members will listen to the views of their constituents and have in mind, as is natural and legitimate, primarily the effect of entry upon the standard of living of the individual citizens whom they represent.”

Heath was highly influenced by advisors outside of the normal Governmental or Civil Service circle of special advisors. Despite all the rhetoric of seeking public approval, of honesty to parliament, press and public Heath maintained an elitist view that only the elite knew what was best for the abstract vision of the country and that the views of the citizen were of little importance. Heath played down relationships with the USA and though he voiced support for the American bombing of Hanoi, his reasons were more orientated to gain favour in China (by that time China was markedly anti Soviet Union), than to support the USA. Heath had a close relationship with Victor Rothschild and he created him as the chairman of his policy ‘think tank’ he was advised by Rothschild on many matters of both internal and external politics. Heath wanted to end the cold war and he favoured détente with the Soviet Union. This was favoured in Moscow as the Soviet Union was facing it’s own financial and social crises. However this policy was opposed by the USA. To balance the USA opposition Heath was persuaded to expel hundreds of Soviet diplomats from the UK based upon evidence from MI5 that these diplomats were actively engaged in spying activities within the UK. In actual fact, with Hollis now retired, MI5 had uncovered the majority of senior level soviet spies in the UK. None of these spies including Blunt or Cairncross were ever prosecuted, instead they were given immunity from prosecution in the hope that they could be induced to reveal other spies. It never worked, but it saved the Government, the Crown and the political parties from the grave embarrassment that they had honoured, harboured, promoted and fêted many of these people whilst they were actively engaged in the destruction of Britain. Through all of this Rothschild escaped from any blame and after the most cursory examination he was declared innocent by the Security Service. The Heath Ministry now proceeded with several tweaks to the social welfare legislation, it became a series of robbing Peter to pay Paul. Prescription charges were raised as were the costs of spectacles and dentistry under the National Health Service, further reductions in free school milk were introduced, and sickness benefit was no longer paid for the first three days of sickness. The savings were used to pay for invalidity benefits and minor tweaks to old age pensions. For the first time benefits and pensions were linked to the cost of living index. Heaths main pre-occupation was to enrol Britain in the EEC. He started to canvass for Britain's entry immediately he became Prime Minister and he established an informal and secret group of conservative Ministers and MP’s to assist him. It became plain from the very start of negotiations that Britain would have to accept ALL of the major points of the treaty of Rome if it was to gain membership, this meant that Britain’s freedom in international markets, including the Commonwealth would be severely restricted and that ultimately British sovereignty would vanish as it became part of a Federal Europe. Despite all of the assurances in the manifesto these points were closely guarded secrets that were kept from the House of Commons, the press and the British public. No attempt was made to consult with the Public by any means. It is unclear if the Queens staff were advised as to the sovereignty issues, but recently released cabinet papers clearly indicate that Heath considered it essential to withhold these facts as well as the other terms of entry from the British public as he believed that there would be an outcry against membership. Technically and factually the British accession to the treaty of Rome was illegal and a criminal act in that it removed the sovereignty of the UK to a foreign power. It is only the weakness and ambiguity of the British constitution that allowed Heath to get away with what in fact could be described as an act of treachery. It is important to note that senior Civil Servants colluded with the Prime Minister to keep the unsavoury facts of EEC membership secret from Parliament and the British Public. In particular the estimates of the damage to the UK economy, and the economies of Australia and New Zealand were all kept wrapped under the closest secrecy. Nothing the Government was able to do could repair the damage done by the Wilson Government and unemployment soared past the one million mark by 1972. Another consequence of the Suez crisis of 1956 was the rise of Arab nationalism and their consequent takeover of the rich oilfields of the middle east. OPEC, an organisation founded to cartelise the production of oil by fixing production rates and prices. In 1973 they enforced an oil embargo against all nations that had supported Israel in the Yom Kippur war. The price of oil rose from $3 per barrel to $12 per barrel. In the UK there were huge shortages of fuel and the Government introduced a 3 day working week in order to save energy. Inflation rose dramatically, and the mining unions seeing an opportunity to push their own agenda announced strikes and flying pickets to stop other non-mining related factories from working. In 1970 a car owner could buy 3.2 gallons of petrol for £1.00, by 1973 the price of the same quantity of petrol had risen to £2.50. Similar price hikes hit commercial fuels and marine fuels and the raw materials of the plastics and synthetic fibre industries. On the 1st January 1973 Britain became a full member of the EEC. This introduced value added tax, initially set at 10%. Now the initial effects of EEC membership became known. Tariffs on imports from the Commonwealth countries had an immediate effect of raising prices on the large-scale importation of meat, wool, fruit and vegetables from Australia, New Zealand, South Africa and Rhodesia. This drove up both inflation and the cost of living index, in addition the political fallout in the Commonwealth was massive. Britain was accused of betraying the Commonwealth in order to line the pockets of French farmers and German Industrialists. Heath now chose to confront the miners and trade unions by calling a general election in 1974. His theme was “Who runs Britain”. He lost the election by a narrow margin. Heath had a complex personality. He was a lifelong bachelor, which led to speculation about his sexuality that continues to this day. He had a cold, austere nature, he was rude and inconsiderate to those who had to work with him and he was quite incapable of reaching out to the British people, though it is likely that he would have thought such a thing as beneath his dignity. His passions were music and sailing and he was accomplished in both of these past-times. His touchy and unbending nature made him unable to accept defeat and learn from it. His vision was always of Europe, never of Britain. He viewed the Conservative Party and Parliament as merely ways to achieve his personal ambitions, he seems to have little affection or loyalty to either of them. As a constituency MP for Bexley he seems to have had very little contact with his constituents, leaving such matters in the hands of his agent. He chose to live in London and his private getaway was located in Salisbury, Wiltshire, far away from the constituency that brought him to parliament and sustained him there. But one thing is certain, he lied to the British people and to Parliament regarding membership of the EEC and in doing that he began the process that ultimately brought the entire UK to the point of dissolution, poor living standards and foreign dominance by an overtly hostile Franco/German led EU. Britain would be sucked dry of resources, overwhelmed by immigration and prevented from trading across the world except by the Eurocratic rules imposed by Brussels. Britain would be a net contributor to EU coffers and a net importer of EU products. Heath betrayed Britain.

The 1974 election produced a hung parliament, no one party possessed an overall majority. Heath attempted to form a coalition with the Liberal party but was rebuffed. Queen Elizabeth II therefore invited Wilson to form a minority Labour Government. Wilson followed the same strategy as he did in 1964, a year of popular policies followed by another snap election which produced a small working majority for the Labour Party. Dennis Healey was now the Chancellor of the Exchequer and he promised to tax the rich until the pips squeaked, Higher rate taxes increased to 83% and wealth fled from Britain. The stock-market index went into free fall, inflation soared and Trades Union activity led to negative growth. Healey was forced to ask the International Monetary Fund for a loan to bail out Britain, The conditions of the loan put severe restrictions on Government expenditure and the Labour Manifesto was abandoned. Wilson had promised a referendum on Britain’s membership of the EEC, this duly took place in 1975, The Government and all the political parties backed remaining in the EEC and those voices opposing membership, especially those who pointed out the loss of sovereignty were dismissed as cranks or communists. The result was a majority vote to remain in the EEC. Wilson had formally complained that MI5 was leading a plot to drive him from office. After an investigation it was stated that no such plot existed. In fact Wilson had been the subject of several cursory investigations by MI5. However Hollis as a Director and later Director General of the service had always stopped the investigations and initialled them NFA – no further action. In the 1960 further facts and suggestions came to light that renewed interest in Wilson. And matters came to a head when a highly reliable Soviet defector of proven veracity in a wide number of issues gave information to the USA regarding Wilson.

Anatoli Golitsyn was a Major in the KGB who defected to the USA, he claimed that Harold Wilson (then Prime Minister of the United Kingdom) was a KGB informer and an agent of influence. This encouraged pre-existing suspicions within the British security services concerning Wilson. During his time as President of the Board of Trade in the late 1940s, Wilson had been on trade missions to Russia and cultivated a friendship with Anastas Mikoyan and Vyacheslav Molotov. He had also extended one such trade mission and had left his normal accommodation for some days. He never gave any account of what he was doing during that time. He continued these relationships when Labour went into Opposition, Golitsyn alleged (and these allegations were later confirmed according to material from the Mitrokhin Archive), that Wilson’s insights into British politics were passed to and highly rated by the KGB. An "agent development file" was opened on Harold Wilson, and the codename "OLDING" was given to him.

When Hollis left MI5, these allegations were re-examined and a further investigation took place. The results of that investigation are not known, but they were certainly strong enough for the facts to be laid before Jim Callaghan in 1976 and damaging enough for him to lay them before Wilson and demand his resignation. Wilson at first tried to deny the allegations, but when Callaghan threatened to leak them to the press (in fact some of the press were already aware that something had happened and Chapman Pincher of the Daily Express was closing in on Wilson). Wilson resigned, returned to the back benches and eventually lived in semi exile on the Isles of Scilly. The usual excuses regarding failing health etc were made to the world at large. Considering Wilson lived on for another 20 years these excuses seem a little far fetched. Her Majesty Queen Elizabeth II appears to have had a soft spot for Wilson, she afforded him the same attention she had previously shown to Sir Winston Churchill. She made him a Knight of the Garter and when he left the House of Commons he was made a Baron. He was the second alleged Soviet Spy to gain favour with the monarchy, Anthony Blunt being the first. James Callaghan was now elected leader of the Labour Party and became Prime Minister. He inherited a disturbing mix of problems and his own party was divided with one group actively working against the government. Increasing union militancy was bringing the nationalised industries to their knees. Michael Foot and Anthony Benn (he had dropped the Wedgewood bit to sound more like one of the chaps) supported the militants. Terrorist violence in Northern Ireland had spilled onto the British Mainland, the economy was in tatters and living standards were falling. High unemployment, now approaching 2 million was draining the exchequer and high inflation was driving up all the index linked payments of pensions, sickness benefits and unemployment benefits. Britain earned the title of the “Sick man of Europe”. Needless to say EEC membership brought no relief to this situation but just became another drain on national resources. The first public news of butter mountains and wine lakes became known during this period and there was a feeling of betrayal growing in the general population, the EEC membership was supposed to herald and age of prosperity and higher living standards but none of this materialised amidst the promises of dry crusts today but cake tomorrow. During this same period of time the Conservative party had also had a hard fought leadership battle. Margaret Thatcher had, despite all the odds, beaten the party grandees and was now leader. She led an effective opposition and delivered a manifesto that embraced an entirely new way of thinking. Edward Heath retreated into obscurity, refusing any part in the new opposition front bench. Thatcher understood that if the Conservatives came to power she had to deliver reform very quickly and that meant a head on collision with the Unions, the Civil Service and ‘established’ way of doing things. She understood that the British people would expect to see across the board improvements in living standards, employment and inflation within the first year of a Conservative administration. On the 28th March 1979 the Labour Government lost a vote of no confidence and was forced to resign. A general Election was called for 3rd May.

The 1970’s kicked off with a general feeling of optimism, people hoped that Heath would lead the country back to the growth and prosperity of the Macmillan era. It was not to be. Heath’s Government trapped in outmoded Keynesian economics and totally focussed upon gaining EEC membership above all other policies succeeded in worsening an already bad situation. His few domestic policies at first sight seem reasonable but in fact the country could not afford them and they helped to grow the budgetary deficit that would lead to the need for an IMF loan later in the decade. The second Wilson administration saw a marked increase in Marxist policies and a new surge of class warfare and a deepening of the north/south divide in Britain. Healey’s fiscal policies drove away foreign investment and his taxation destroyed our internal wealth generating capability. Forced into austerity by the IMF Healey presided over high and rising unemployment and a large drop in living standards. Healey preferred internationalism to nationalism, he had been a committed communist, now he turned his attention to helping create an international organisation, based on elitism with a markedly socialist viewpoint that would in time be able to supplant national governments by wielding sufficient monetary power to bend them to it’s will. This organisation became known as the Bildaberg Group. It was and still is opposed to democracy.

The Election of 1979 brought the Conservatives, led by Margaret Thatcher back into power. Thatcher considered Monetarism as a better foundation for economic management than Keynesian theories. Though hampered by the old guard conservative grandees she was determined to carry out a complete overhaul of British economic policy. It would not prove an instant panacea but would produce long term benefits to the country as a whole. Real events intervened and before anything else the Thatcher government had to deal with labour led trade union activity. Chapter 8

1979 to 1990

Margaret Hilda Thatcher was Britain's first female Prime Minister. The daughter of a middle class shopkeeper, a qualified scientist, she has left a mark on the 20th century that goes far beyond the United Kingdom. Her will power, convictions and dedication to Britain gives her a well earned place in the hall of fame of British politics. She was once described as a ‘Marmite person’ meaning you either loved or hated her. That is perhaps true in so far as she pursued policies which were far from popular at the time. However in retrospect even her enemies have to admit that she took control of a Britain that was on its knees and stood it back on its feet.

After a decade of service to the UK and at a time when she was poised to bring the whole question of EU membership back into the public forum she was stabbed in the back by her cabinet colleagues.

The issues of Soviet espionage in the UK had been brought back under control by the various security services. The spy rings were broken up and Soviet diplomats were quickly expelled if they attempted to carry out covert acts on UK soil. The Communist Party of Britain was now an ineffectual rump of its former self and many of its publications had ceased to trade. The one remaining problem were the agents of influence, politicians, academics, journalists, broadcasters, union leaders, authors, actors and actresses all of whom were able to continue to undermine British society. No one could stop them because we cherished free speech as part of our democratic tradition. With skilled manipulation they used free speech to undermine that tradition. The 1980’s saw the birth of the politically correct movement. Small highly vocal groups began to undermine the right of free speech under the guise of women's liberation, anti-racism, antifascist, at first all this was regarded with some amusement but within the decade these groups managed to stifle free speech by persuading weak willed politicians to support their bile. Equally the television channels continued to pour out programmes that demeaned traditional values. The heroes were those who cheated the system, didn’t pay their rent, didn’t have a job, their roles played by young attractive actors and actresses, the villains were those who portrayed the traditional values of work, paying your way and responsible behaviour, usually acted by gross caricatures of the patriotic British male. The sitcoms and soapbox series chewed away at British values in a carefully crafted way drip by drip. Many of those involved in these productions were members of the Socialists Workers Party.

As the decade progressed other international groups who were quickly filling the void left by the Soviet Unions declining influence began to use similar tactics, but used in a more thoughtful way. These groups could count on support from a wide range of major industrial concerns. Their power was in their combined wealth and they could use that to good effect to ensure that those people sympathetic to their cause became enriched and that those who were critical became impoverished. Politically they can best be described as Social Capitalists. There dogma was simple, the Elite should rule and not be hampered by public opinion or elections. The elite knew what was good for the people, far better than the people themselves. The first effect of this could be seen in the evolution of the EEC into the EU. Europe was to become a federated State ruled by a non elected elite who had no accountability to the people of Europe. The Ultimate aim, termed as Globalism was to create an international economic power-base that could quickly bring overwhelming economic chaos to any country or group of countries that challenged their world view.

This then was the background of the 1980’s. Thatcher reduced the power base of the trade unions, reduced the power and number of Civil servants, challenged the EU, Fought a successful war with Argentina. Presided over the fall of the Soviet Union, and rid South Africa of the Boer dominated apartheid regime. She strengthen Britain’s alliances with the United States and strengthened Britain’s defence capabilities. She achieved this in the face of opposition from within her own party and right up until 1990 her Iron will kept Britain on track with a growing economy, and increased GDP. She privatised state owned industries and created powerful regulatory organisations to ensure that these industries could not create near monopoly conditions and over-charge the public for their services. She refused to privatise the railways and regarded them as a national asset that would function better as a state owned business.

Inevitably her policies drove unemployment to new levels not seen since the 1930’s As mines, steel works and engineering companies closed huge swathes of workers found themselves unemployed and with skills that left them unemployable. The British car industry was turning out vehicles that relied on gimmicks rather than reliability or good design, square steering wheels, gas powered suspension, built into vehicles that rusted and suffered mechanical failures within months of purchase led to its rapid decline. One Brand, Rover, had maintained its place as an innovative designer and quality manufacturer, bolstered by the fact that it supplied the army with 4 wheel drive vehicles Rover had turned out some excellent vehicles including the Range Rover. Aircraft design and manufacture in the civil sector was by now miniscule, only in the military sector did we still have a worthwhile product, the Harrier Jump Jet. Westland staggered on, producing helicopters under licence from Sikorsky in the USA.

The Thatcher Government won the next two General Elections, the Labour Party under the leadership of Michael Foot and then Neil Kinnock were unable to convince the British people that they were fit to govern. Labour Party and Trade Union membership fell to all time lows.

By 1987, unemployment was falling, the economy was stable and strong, and inflation was low. Tax cuts had stimulated growth and unemployment was falling fast. Thatcher had been firmly opposed to British membership of the Exchange Rate Mechanism (ERM, a precursor to European Monetary Union), believing that it would constrain the British economy, despite the urging of both her Chancellor of the Exchequer Nigel Lawson and Foreign Secretary Geoffrey Howe. Thatcher reformed local government taxes by replacing domestic rates (a tax based on the nominal rental value of a home) with the Community Charge (or poll tax) in which the same amount was charged to each adult resident. The new tax was introduced in Scotland in 1989 and in England and Wales the following year, and proved to be among the most unpopular policies of her premiership. Local authorities had used the occasion to lobby for a large increase in local government tax and as a result the new poll tax charged as much per adult head in a household as the older tax had charged for the entire household. Public disquiet, agitated by the Labour party and trade unions culminated in a 200,000-strong demonstration in London in March 1990; the demonstrations deteriorated into riots, leaving 113 people injured and hundreds more under arrest. Thatcher was increasingly disenchanted about the EEC. She believed it had not delivered prosperity to Britain and that it’s growing body of rules and regulations were strangling trade and slowing recovery. She was incensed by French intransigence regarding the common agricultural policy which was manipulated to be heavily in favour of French farmers resulting in France being a net beneficiary of the EEC. She began to discuss these matters in Cabinet. This triggered several Conservative ministers and MP’s to begin to discuss replacing her with a more Europhile leader. A stalking horse under the guise of Sir Anthony Meyer challenged her for the leadership in 1989. She easily defeated him. 1988 and 89 saw continued economic growth a further large reductions in unemployment. 67% of householders were now home owners and privatisation had reduced consumer costs and improved services across the board. There had been little improvement in Northern Ireland and murder and terrorism was still a common occurrence. Thatcher did however gain the confidence of the Government of the Irish Republic and drew them into the peace making process. This aroused fury amongst Northern Irish Unionists and permanently broke the link between the Unionist party and the Conservative party. It has to be said that the business activities of some senior members of the Conservative party had given rise to questions about cronyism and illegal share activities. Accusations were made and countered but a handful of MP’s resigned seats on private company boards and one Cabinet Minister voluntarily resigned rather than face an investigation. As 1989 drew to a close it could be said that Thatcher had not only revived the economy she had given back to the British people some measure of the pride and confidence they had lost after 1964.

Chapter 9 1990 t0 2000

At the New year celebrations of 1990 few could have foreseen the changes about to be unleashed on Britain. Following the poll tax riots Thatchers approval rating in Britain had dropped to a low point. Equally Labour were now beginning to lead the Conservatives in the opinion polls. The plot to replace her now gathered steam. During a State visit to the USA to meet President Bush (senior) Iraq invaded Kuwait, Thatcher lobbied the USA to send Troops to liberate Kuwait and committed Britain to giving military support, when Bush showed his doubts about the enterprise she is reported as telling him “This is no time to go Wobbly”. On her return to Britain she put into motion the planning and support to ensure that a sizeable British military force would fight alongside the USA and smoothed the pathway with diplomatic approaches to the Arab nations that would have to support the UK/USA battle groups. Events in the USA now triggered a recession and that recession had started to throttle growth in the UK. Hampered by EEC regulations it seemed to Thatcher that Britain's hands had been tied by the EEC and that her ability to manoeuvre to mitigate the recession was unduly limited. Her criticism of the EEC increased both in quantity and volume. When the Italian company Augusta made a bid for Westland Helicopters, firmly supported by Minister Heseltine, Thatcher fought it tooth and nail and ensured that a counter bid from the USA was successful. She did not want a key defence industry to fall into European hands. Thatcher had strongly opposed Britain entering into the European Exchange Rate Mechanism. She saw it for what it was, a precursor to abandoning national currencies and substituting them with a single European currency. Her cabinet were totally in favour of joining the ERM. She held them off for a long time but in October 1990 Britain Joined the ERM, almost immediately it was obvious to her that it was a disastrous mistake. Not mincing her words she told Geoffrey Howe, one of its leading supporters what a fool she had been to listen to him. Howe resigned from the Government on November 1st and made this criticism of the Prime Minister. “How on earth are the Chancellor and the Governor of the Bank of England, commending the hard ecu (the Euro) as they strive to, to be taken as serious participants in the debate against that kind of background noise? I believe that both the Chancellor and the Governor are cricketing enthusiasts, so I hope that there is no monopoly of cricketing metaphors. It is rather like sending your opening batsmen to the crease only for them to find, the moment the first balls are bowled, that their bats have been broken before the game by the team captain." It was enough to trigger another leadership challenge and on November 14th Michael Heseltine, another Europhile MP, made a formal challenge for the leadership. Thatcher secured 204 votes, 4 short of the 15% overall majority she needed to win outright. She intended to fight the second ballot, but in a meeting with her cabinet it was made clear that she would be ousted even if she did win a second ballot the entire cabinet would resign en-mass and declare her unfit to govern. Stunned by this betrayal she handed in her resignation to the Queen made a brief speech in the Commons and made farewell telephone calls to other heads of state. She emerged from 10 Downing street in tears and was driven away to return to the back benches.

The reaction of foreign countries to her departure was one of disbelief that the British could be so stupid. In Britain there was a mixed reaction from regret to jubilant triumph.

In later years thatcher wrote of the EU as follows;

“The European Union (EU) was fundamentally unreformable, a classic utopian project, a monument to the vanity of intellectuals, a programme whose inevitable destiny is failure". She argued that Britain should renegotiate its terms of membership or else leave the EU.

The New leader of the Conservative Party and Prime Minister was John Major.

Major had climbed the pathway to Prime Minister by allegedly back stabbing anyone who stood in his way, purporting to be anti ERM he successfully ousted Geoffrey Howe from the Foreign Office, and despite his inexperience became Foreign Secretary, within three months he had played the same trick on the Chancellor, Nigel Lawson, and became Chancellor in his place. He then did a complete turn around, allied with Douglas Hurd and Howe he badgered Thatcher into joining the ERM, but cleverly used Howe as the front man. He declared himself a Thatcher loyalist but as soon as the opportunity to replace her presented itself he was very quick to take advantage of it.

At first Major enjoyed a measure of popularity that in it’s turn restored public faith in the Conservative party. Major abolished the unpopular poll tax, though the revised rating system actually made little difference to the amount the average household paid. Major was quick to use the Kuwait war as platform to be seen as a worthy successor to Thatcher, firm and resolute in the face of foreign aggression. He took the entire credit for the successful outcome, failing to mention that it was Margaret Thatcher who had done all the groundwork that made the war a success from the British point of view. Mrs thatcher now on the back benches pointed out the need to win the peace not just the war.

Despite the bite of recession and rising unemployment Major against all predictions and expectations won the 1992 General election, albeit with a vastly reduced majority.

The Honeymoon period was not to last long. The ERM made the British currency highly vulnerable to currency speculation. In the autumn of 1992 it became evident that the pound was under pressure. The Chancellor, Norman Lamont, tried to see off the pressure by raising interest rates and counter dealing on the currency markets. The situation quickly worsened with a Hungarian currency speculator named George Soros leading the pack, Soros now living in the USA made billions for himself, Lamont spent billions trying to stem the tide, he raised interest rates , sometimes 4 times in a single day. Eventually on the 16th September the Pound left the ERM. The fallout from this insanity was dire, 32,000 homes were repossessed, more than 100,000 small businesses went bust, But John Major insists to this day it was not the fault of joining the ERM.

Soros seems to have earned his rights of passage into the Globalist groups by this action, it was a perfect demonstration of how to totally disrupt a nations economy. Thereafter and to this day his Soros Foundation funds projects that support the Globalists world view.

Major began to hit brick walls within his own party and cabinet over his enthusiasm for the Maastricht Treaty which would widen the powers of the EU over Britain. Bill Cash, Margaret Thatcher and John Redwood led the Eurosceptic wing of the Conservative party and did all they could to prevent it being ratified in Britain. Finally Major resorted to using a vote of confidence to force his will on the party.

Increasingly Major lost his authority in parliament and in his own Party. His ‘return to basics’ campaign signalling a return to morality and law and order was widely mocked as many of his MP’s were forced to resign having been caught out in one form of sleaze or another. Years later it was discovered that Major himself had had a 4 year long extra-marital affair with Edwina Currie, a controversial Conservative MP. Cash for questions, extra marital affairs, pornography and homosexual activity were all reasons for Conservative MP’s to have to resign from parliament. This attrition and the loss of seats to Labour in the By-elections that followed these resignations cost Major his majority in Parliament. His last few months in office were as a minority Government.

There is one other area of John Major’s Premiership that needs mention. During his last few years in office he had made repeated speeches about the Health Service often impromptu in nature, in view of the other crises in his Government these comments attracted little publicity, but there was a theme in them in his constant references to “improvements in palliative care of the elderly or chronically sick”. There are no cabinet records of this period that show any discussion of these matters nor are there records in the Health service that refer to these speeches or to improvements in the care of the elderly or chronically sick. What there is however is a faint record of an increasing number of old or infirm people dying in hospital. You may not think that remarkable but it is, up to that point the majority of elderly people died at home or in Nursing Homes. Very abruptly the trend switched to dying in hospital. Following more recent scandals regarding the so called Liverpool care pathway a freedom of information request revealed that this process had been ongoing since the 1990’s and an average of around 30,000 people a year had been euthanised. Evidence from relatives, nurses and others has clearly indicated that in the majority of cases no consultation with the patient, relatives or anyone else took place and certainly as a matter of public record hospitals were paid a bonus for every patient they euthanised. Relatives claim that healthy old people attending hospital for minor ailments would suddenly appear unconscious and would die. One woman describes her father partially drugged begging her for a drink of water and when she tried to give him a drink she was threatened with arrest.

We have to be quite clear about this, it had been common practise for many years for doctors, usually GP’s to administer lethal doses of Morphine to a patient dying in great pain and beyond any medical help, often the patient would be begging them for such a release. Technically this was still murder, but it was also a humane way to end terminal suffering. Death would follow within a short time after a lethal dose of morphine was given.

What was happening in the hospitals was quite different, the patient was drugged and then left without food or water until they died, often in considerable distress and pain. Often they had no life threatening condition but were subject to a social rather than medical decision. That is also murder and it is also an international crime against Humanity. Let us look at the judgement of the war crimes tribunal on German doctors that carried out a very similar programme in Nazi Germany;

The indictment read in part: 14. Between September 1939 and April 1945 the defendants Karl Brandt, Blome, Brack, and Hoven unlawfully, wilfully, and knowingly committed crimes against humanity, as defined by Article II of Control Council Law No. 10, in that they were principals in, accessories to, ordered, abetted, took a consenting part in, and were connected with plans and enterprises involving the execution of the so called "euthanasia" program of the German Reich, in the course of which the defendants herein murdered hundreds of thousands of human beings, including German civilians, as well as civilians of other nations. The particulars concerning such murders are set forth in paragraph 9 of count two of this indictment and are incorporated herein by reference. —?International Military Tribunal All hospitals, nursing homes, old-age homes and sanatoria were required to report all patients who had been institutionalised for five years or more, who had been committed as "criminally insane", who were of "non-Aryan race" or who had been diagnosed with any of a list of conditions. The conditions included schizophrenia, epilepsy, Huntington's chorea, advanced syphilis, senile dementia, paralysis, encephalitis and "terminal neurological conditions generally". Many doctors and administrators assumed that the reports were to identify inmates who were capable of being drafted for "labour service" and tended to overstate the degree of incapacity of their patients, to protect them from labour conscription. When some institutions refused to co-operate, teams of T4 doctors (or Nazi medical students) visited and compiled the lists, sometimes in a haphazard and ideologically motivated way. During 1940, all Jewish patients were removed from institutions and killed.

Those doctors found guilty by the tribunal were hanged, as were the Ministers and Civil Servants who administered and enforced it.

It is to the shame of Britain that this policy exists to this day and has as recently as August 2018 been extended. Now let us look at the economics of the policy.

An elderly person receives old age pension, and maybe supplementary benefits as well. These amount to a direct cost of an average of £14,000 pounds a year. There is the additional administrative cost, which adds about £50 pounds to this amount. The average elderly person costs the NHS about £30,000 a year in GP time, free medicines and hospital time and materials. However their death costs the state nothing since the removal of funeral grants. Therefore with average life expectancy the state can save around £44,000 pounds per year for the expected life time of the individual. Lets assume a 5 year life expectancy so the saving is £220,000 multiply that by the numbers euthanised and you have £6.6 billion pounds saving. Drop the age to those of around 60 with a 20 year life expectancy and you begin so see savings of over £20 billion. And these figures do not take into account pension or benefit increases or increased NHS costs. It is all about money and it is symptomatic of the Governments divorce from the care of the people.

The 1990’s saw the introduction of a new breed of politician who saw politics as a career move rather than a calling. This was true of all the major parties as the old guard retired and made way for the next generation. John Major was, perhaps, Britain's first Globalist Prime Minister. He would not be the last.

John Major presided over the disastrous 1997 election which saw the Conservative party whittled down to 165 seats in parliament. They lost all their seats in Scotland and Wales. The newly reformed Labour party led by Tony Blair held 418 seats and Blair became the new Prime Minister.

Tony Blair was a career politician, at varying times he supported different and opposing policies in his party in order to gain preferment. As he rose to the top layers of the party he abandoned the cornerstone policies of the Labour party in order that Labour should appeal more to the property owning middle class than the working class voter.

Blair was a Globalist from day one. His style of leadership was described as ‘sofa’ government meaning that his decisions and policy making was undertaken within a close group of associates whether elected or not. He largely ignored his Cabinet and Parliament. He was described as acting more like the Head of State than its Prime Minister.

Asked what were his priorities on becoming Prime Minister he replied I have three priorities “education, education and education”. So perhaps we should first look at the effect Blair had on education.

Entry to University was based upon an applicant receiving sufficient examination passes during secondary education to equip them for the rigours of University education in their chosen subjects. Applicants were expected to be literate and numerate. The costs of a University education could be met by a means tested Government Grant. The children of poor families could get 100% coverage of living and tuition costs and wealthier families would be expected to cover a portion of those costs according to their income.

The Universities were not happy with this situation as it made them heavily reliant on Government for their funding and thus gave government a large say in the type of courses they ran. Universities wanted to emulate the business world, they wanted to generate high profits and pay large management salaries.

Blair ended the entire Government Grant system, replaced it with interest bearing student loans, a policy he copied from the USA. And he cut the Universities free from Government regulations over course material.

The end results were a dumbing down of many degrees, a lowering of entry standards and courses that were of little benefit to students in acquiring employment when they obtained their degree.

Equally disastrous was the policy that let local technical colleges and colleges of further education become quasi-universities. It signalled the end of affordable further education for working class adults.

A similar dumbing down took place in secondary education. Examination standards at ‘O’ and ‘A’ level were reduced to ensure that more students would qualify for university places. primary education became dominated by abandoning the basics of literacy and numeracy in favour of encouraging self expression.

Blair had promised to reduce unemployment and sure enough the number of registered unemployed fell dramatically during his first term as Prime Minister, in fact they had merely changed the rules, many long term unemployed dating back to Margaret Thatchers premiership were transferred to the disability register and were no longer classed as unemployed. Thousands more moved to this register as the rules were relaxed. Equally long term sickness benefit recipients, that is people who had drawn sickness benefit for more than three months were also moved to invalidity benefits. It became a worrying fact that Britain now had a generation of people who had never had gainful employment and that they in turn were raising another generation who had never had anyone employed in their household. The social cost of promiscuity began to be another factor in the benefits scramble, young women who had children outside of marriage found that they would be given social housing and state benefits on demand. This gave rise to a significant increase in illegitimate births and in some cases women would have several children each one by a different father. The cost of all of this was born by the taxpayer as Blair raised taxes to pay for his social policies.

Blair also relaxed the rules on immigration leading to a flood of new immigration to the UK. This policy was purely Labour Party centric, he rationalised that these new immigrants would be more likely to vote Labour in the future.

This policy added to the existing stress on public services, housing and the NHS. To add to this pressure Blair oversaw further cuts in all the public services, the local tax offices were closed as were the Local Social Security offices. The fire brigade was cut back as were the police and ambulance service. Prescription charges were increased to a point where it was cheaper to buy medicines over the counter that use a doctors prescription, likewise increased charges for dentistry and glasses hit the poor very hard. For the first time ever a Labour Government had increased the gap between rich and poor.

Blair’s next move was to introduce the Human Rights act. At first glance this act looks like a noble piece of legislation that incorporates all of the British values of Human rights. The presumption of innocence etc etc. However its tortuously worded protocols entirely negated those articles because they brought ALL British law under the jurisdiction of the European Court of Human Rights including all its precedents and raised that court to the position of the supreme arbiter of ALL UK law. For the first time in 1000 years Parliament and the Crown were no longer the lawmakers of Britain. The ECHR was independent of the EU but the EU brought in a new regulation that all member states must submit to the ECHR as their primary supreme court. The EU then was able to heavily influence the ECHR and establish its own High Court, the European Court of Justice that worked hand in glove with the ECHR. It is the stated aim of the EU to create a common legal system throughout Europe. This system will be based upon Roman Law. No presumption of innocence, no trial by jury, arbitrary arrest and detention without reason, etc etc. Blair was no fool, he recognised that changes would have to be introduced slowly, and so it started. Some magistrates were replaced by district judges, some minor offences were classed a proven by a Police officer, there was no option for the accused to plead not guilty or put the matter to trial. Sliding rate fines were introduced to deter people from pleading innocence. Perhaps most disturbing the Police and Local government were given powers to spy on British Citizens without recourse to applying to local magistrates for a warrant. The proliferation of video cameras to identify offenders, mainly motorists proved to be a cash cow for Local government and the Police. Single cameras raise millions in fine revenues, but police patrols to deter crime were cut back and a citizen reporting car theft or burglary was likely to get little or no response from the Police force.

Politically correct dogmas began to be enshrined in the law, the ‘hate’ crime allowed people to be prosecuted for using racist language in an argument. This really became a law against white English people as non English people could use their national language to abuse someone with total impunity.

The politicisation of the Police, Civil Service and NHS followed on. NHS reforms created huge swathes of well paid managers whilst doctors, nurses and wards were cut back. Senior Police officers received huge pay rises and their professional organisation was given sweeping powers regarding police powers and organisation. Senior Civil Servants sympathetic to Blair's aims were promoted and again given huge salary increases and they in turn were urged to promote into the junior levels of management individuals who would support Labour policies in the future (and by definition attempt to thwart the policies of any other party that might rise to power). The most senior Civil Servants were enrolled into Blair’s inner circle.

To ensure that the labour party coffers were topped up Blair turned a blind eye to Cash for Honours. Major Labour party donors could expect to see their names in the new-year honours list as CBE’s, Knighthoods and Life Peerages were given away to the faithful.

This policy of politicisation was to bear fruit in Blair’s ambitions to surpass Margaret Thatcher as a successful leader of British Military might. Blair had established a friendly relationship with Bill Clinton, the US president.

Blair enlisted Clinton's aid to bring peace to Northern Ireland, the process was successful and the Good Friday Agreement spelt the end to the 30 year old conflict. Peace was purchased at the price of including Sinn Fein in the new power sharing Northern Ireland Government and by granting immunity from prosecution to numerous IRA terrorists. However Blair was to find that the old adage about the ‘Irish Question’ was true, as soon as you find an answer they change the question. Within weeks of the Good Friday accord an IRA splinter Group started a new terror campaign, it continues in a muted form to this day. Blair authorised two minor military operations, one was to use the RAF to Bomb Iraq, the other concerned sending a Gurkha battalion to East Timor to quell violence there.

Chapter 10 2000 – 2009

In May 2000 Blair had another opportunity to flex his military muscles, a civil war had broken out in Sierra Leone, murder and genocide had become widespread. Blair despatched the British army, under the command of Brigadier David Richards. The British force relieved the UN peacekeepers who had been under siege and after a number of skirmishes with the rebels they surrendered and were disarmed.

Blair was re-elected as Prime Minister on 7th June 2001. He had maintained a friendly relationship with the USA and established a personal rapport with its new president George Bush Junior.

After the attacks by Al Qaeda on the USA in September 2001 Blair allied Britain to an invasion of Afghanistan with the USA and Canada on October 7th 2001. This invasion was initially a success in driving the Taliban out of Government and re-establishing a secular government in Afghanistan. However the Taliban then began a guerilla war against the allies with a heavy cost in both lives and equipment. The British army found that its supply lines were highly vulnerable to attack and that the majority of its transport vehicles were not able to withstand Taliban mine blasts. To cap it all the ministry of defence cut the ammunition allowance meaning it was dangerous for the British to undertake aggressive defence tactics for fear of running out of ammunition.

The terrorist attacks on the World Trade Centre in New York had given Blair and Bush the opportunity to push forward an agenda to invade Iraq. Why Iraq, nobody knows, there was not a single thread of credible evidence to link Iraq with the Al Qaeda attacks in the USA (there was, however, an embarrassing amount of evidence to link Saudi Arabia to the attacks). Despite the British army being at full stretch in Afghanistan and despite the fact that his own government had cut defence spending again, Blair plunged into planning an invasion of Iraq. His main problem was that there was no evidence to support the plan. He badgered the heads of MI5 and MI6 to give him some justification for the attack. Eventually MI6 produced a dossier that claimed Iraq had long range ballistic missiles capable of hitting European cities and that he was fitting them out with Chemical and biological warheads prior to launching an attack on his neighbours who had supported the original invasion over Kuwait. It was nonsense and had been sourced from the over active imagination of a 17 year old Schoolboy. Blair’s press machine now swung into action demonising Iraq and its leader Saddam Hussein. The USA was following the same pathway and despite cabinet opposition, the warnings of his generals that the Army could not cope with Afghanistan and Iraq at the same time, Blair pressed ahead with the invasion. During the run-up to military action Blair consistently lied to parliament about Iraq’s possession of weapons of mass destruction. He further lied that Iraq would be given an opportunity to comply with the destruction of these weapons before the invasion began. In reality the war had already begun, the RAF were already bombing the Iraqi command and control structures and groups of covert forces were already at work arming and training the Iraqi Kurds to help the Invasion.

This war of dubious legality killed thousands of Iraqi civilians, led to the deaths of British soldiers and along with Afghanistan cost the taxpayer countless billions of pounds. It was Blair’s penultimate vanity project.

Blair was a committed Europhile, he enmeshed Britain ever deeper into the EU. Surrendering more sovereignty and even reducing the UK rebate hard won by Margaret Thatcher. His Charisma hid a deeply flawed character. He wanted to be liked if not revered by the British public but he showed nothing but contempt for them in return. His promise of a referendum on the EU never materialised.

On 5th May 2005 Blair achieved his third election win for the Labour party, but with a reduced majority.

Warned that the attacks on Afghanistan and Iraq were likely to trigger terrorist attacks in the west and an upsurge of Islamic terrorism Blair Scoffed at the idea. On 7th of July 2005 Islamic terrorists detonated 3 suicide bombs in London killing 52 people.

Blair began to try to gather support for a war against Iran but even his most stalwart backers refused to be drawn into this new intrigue.

Blair had for a long time been in favour of Britain joining the Euro and giving up the pound. Only the hard opposition of Gordon Brown stopped him from doing so. Brown, though pro Europe was highly sceptical about the Euro and believed that if Britain had adopted it it the economy would have crashed uncontrollably. However, Brown did sell off a large part of Britain's Gold reserves at knock down prices well below market rates for no reason other than political dogma. Poor local election results, falling popularity in opinion polls and the deepening rift between Blair and Brown reduced the Labour party to chaos.

Blair had always retained a modicum of popularity within British Industry, but now he lost that in a series of blunders that damaged Britain's booming exports to China. In a visit to China Blair had told the Chinese that Britain was only a small country and would not be able to satisfy China’s import needs. Later at a public function in China he delivered a long lecture on human rights to the Chinese Government. The subsequent fallout saw British exports to China slashed to the bone.

Matters within the Labour party now rose to a head with both Blair and Brown waging a war of words with each other in public. Blair had promised Brown that he would step down as Prime minister in Browns favour in return for Brown not challenging him for the leadership of the party. He was now forced to honour his promise.

In Britain there was rising concern about the EU agenda and it’s threat to traditional British freedoms and culture. The UK Fishing industry, one of the largest and most efficient in the world had already been destroyed. UK ship-building and heavy industries were a pale shadow of their former might. UK laws were being eroded and parliament had become a rubber stamp institution approving thousands of EU regulations every year. Every corner of life seemed subject to EU regulation. As far back as 1996 there had been growing concern that there was collusion between the Europhile politicians in all British political parties to lead Britain into a federal Europe. Indeed there was little difference in the Labour, Conservative or Liberal viewpoints on Europe. In fact all the political parties had coalesced into a single centrist left ball. Conviction politics vanished from the mainstream parties as parliamentarians no longer had to concern themselves with law making, instead spin as it came to be known ruled the political airwaves, the contest now was about who could make the most convincing sound-bites on television or Radio. The age old arguments about better living standards, defence, workers rights and the price of beer and cigarettes were long gone. Now it was a contest to see who could be the most politically correct, who could favour women’s rights, multiculturalism, gay rights. Vocal minorities had a field day as they were fêted and honoured by Government and opposition alike. New petty regulations turned decent citizens into criminals overnight, free speech was seriously eroded, and all the while the EU burrowed deeper into UK institutions.

During the course of the Labour parliaments the Conservative party had voted in a number of leaders, William Hague, Ian Duncan Smith, Michael Howard and David Cameron. Cameron had won a leadership contest with David Davis. Davis was a champion of personal freedom and he had vigorously campaigned against proposals that encroached on the freedom and liberty of the citizen. He was increasingly Eurosceptic. Under Cameron the Conservatives remained staunchly pro -EU. Cameron would campaign about EU reform but in the main this was merely posturing to counter the threat from other parties who may have launched campaigns condemning the EU.

The liberal Democrats had also run through a number of leaders during the Blair years, Paddy Ashdown, Charles Kennedy, Menzies Cambell, Vince Cable, and Nick Clegg. Their policies showed a measure of ambivalence, one minute calling for an in or out referendum on EU membership, the next opposing it. They campaigned against university tuition fees and promised to abolish them in their manifesto.

Britain had, from time to time, spawned any number of small political parties few survived more than a decade and rarely could count on more than a handful of votes in an election. In 2006 Nigel Farage, an English MEP, became the Leader of the United Kingdom Independence Party. The party itself had existed for some years but had failed to make an impact either in the political arena or national consciousness. Farage was about to change that. UKIP as it became to be known was going to change the political scenery of Britain. Nigel Farage began to reveal facts about the EU that were disquieting. Farage was a member of the European Parliament and he laid bare the corruption and total lack of democracy in that institution.

A large-scale scandal emerged regarding members of parliament making fraudulent expenses claims. Across all the parties discrepancies were found, some so serious that they were referred to the police. This, despite the fact the Parliament had regularly voted itself pay rises way above inflation and already paid members a level of expenses that was more than generous, led to a widening of public disdain and distrust in Politicians in general.

This was the legacy of the Labour government Now as Blair exited from Downing street The Chancellor, Gordon Brown became Prime minister.

Gordon Brown was a solid, well educated sensible man. As he realised his ambition of becoming Prime Minister he must also have been aware that he was walking into a situation created by Blair that would need a miracle to resolve without damaging his party. His party was committed to signing the latest EU treaty – the Lisbon Treaty. Blair had reneged on his promises to hold a referendum over this treaty and Brown was left with the job of signing it on behalf of Britain. He did so with the minimum of ceremony or publicity, amidst a storm of disapproval, trying to justify the lack of a referendum Brown stated that the treaty was far to complex to be decided in that manner. This was seen as an elitist point of view and provided the Eurosceptic members of Parliament with further ammunition to fire at Labour. Fate was not kind to Gordon Brown, in 2008 a deep and serious depression hit the western world. Reckless lending to the tune of Billions had led to a major banking crisis. The origin of the problem lay in the USA but it quickly spread across Europe and Japan. To stop the crisis worsening Brown used 500 billion pounds of taxpayers money to shore up British banks. Unemployment began to rise, inflation increased and the Bank of England began to print money in a process called quantitative easing to reduce pressure on the pound. VAT was cut by 2.5% and a car scrappage scheme introduced to stimulate the motor manufacturing industry. The Government seemed to be lurching from crisis to crisis and public confidence in Labour dropped considerably. The credibility gap between the citizen and the politicians became wider and wider as it became evident that these bankers had committed massive frauds, whilst paying themselves huge salaries and bonuses yet none of them faced prosecution. The blame fell back on Brown for overly relaxing banking regulations whilst he was Chancellor. Brown himself failed to engender public confidence. In public appearances he looked stressed and unwell. His unguarded comments about a member of the public who asked him to do something about immigration “She is a bigot” further indicated just how divorced the political establishment had become from the citizens they purported to represent. The lady in question had reflected a concern held by millions of Britons.

Chapter 11

2010 to 2019

In the General Election of 2010 Labour suffered 91 losses. No other party had gained a majority and there was in effect a hung Parliament. The Conservative Party had mounted a lacklustre campaign, many people complaining that Cameron did not seem to have any particular vision for Britain. The Liberals had done well in the televised debates between the party leaders, Clegg was photogenic and articulate whereas both Brown and Cameron came over as rather robotic. However Clegg’s appeal was not enough to stop the Liberals losing 5 seats. Cameron and Clegg agreed to form a coalition Government and Gordon Brown resigned on Tuesday 11th May. Though Brown may have made mistakes and have pursued unfeasible policies he was a conviction politician, he believed passionately that his policies were good for Britain. He was undeserving of the odium heaped upon him after his resignation.

UKIP had fielded a number of candidates in the election but had failed to win any seats. Very early on in the life of the new government Cameron, who had promised a referendum on the EU, did a volte-face, saying as Brown had signed the Lisbon Treaty a referendum was no longer required. In this he handed UKIP a very large stick with which to thrash the Government. Farage declared war on the Government and Cameron made the error of mounting a personal attack on Farage. Thereafter Cameron had to plan his EU policies to counter growing public support for Farage.

For the Liberals the coalition was a disaster, they had long opposed university tuition fees and student loans and their manifesto carried a pledge to abolish them. Now in partnership with the Conservative Party they voted to increase these fees by 30%. The howls of protest from their electorate base and from all the students unions who had supported them and helped to fund their election campaign boded ill for the future of the party. Their second major disappointment was the failure of the referendum on the alternative vote to produce the yes vote they had counted upon. They laid the blame for this on lack of Conservative support and in a tit-for-tat move voted down the proposed boundary changes that would have resulted in a better balanced electorate. The coalition was already weakening by the end of the first year of the governments tenure.

The new leader of the Labour Party, Ed Milliband had won the leadership election at the cost of defeating his own brother, David Milliband. The two remained distant to each other for some years. David took consolation by using his friendship with Hilary Clinton to secure a well paid job in the USA. Apparently the idea of remaining as a constituency MP held no appeal to him. Labour now swung to the left again and disavowed Blairism. In truth Cameron, Milliband and Clegg all danced to different versions of the same tune. That tune was largely irrelevant to the British people, the British economy and was destroying the national culture of Britain. As the gap between rich and poor widened to an obscene level parliament was more concerned with promoting foreign aid, multiculturalism, lesbian gay and transgender rights and the EU. The globalist agenda was in full swing and little Britain was only important as a paymaster for the Globalist ambitions. None of the party leaders had the faintest idea of the plight of the average UK citizen. They made gauche attempts to look like men of the people, Cameron standing in a pub sans jacket and tie swigging beer, Milliband eating a bacon sarnie, Clegg mixing with the peasants in at a pop concert, all of this came over for what it was contrived spin.

With a sense of deja vu we see the new ‘industrialists’ Google, Amazon, Facebook lobbying the government for favourable trading conditions. None of these companies wanted to pay their way via corporation tax in the UK and all of them won shameful reductions from Cameron and Osborne the Chancellor. Amazon was systematically destroying the British retail industry, it could afford too, with favourable business rates on its warehouses, tiny corporate tax payments and its ability to pay minimum wage on zero hour contracts that made its payroll a very insignificant part of its cost base. Google and Facebook hosted anti-British bile, terrorist handbooks, extreme pornography stole the private information and data of their user base and sold it to the highest bidder, but their executives were still honoured guests in Downing Street. Most amazing of all was Cameron using Blair as a private consultant to the Government. Rather akin to the Archbishop of Canterbury asking Richard Dawkins for advice on religion.

If we now look behind the scenes we see that the Government had in fact handed control of Governing Britain to the Civil Service. The Civil Service dictated domestic policy to the Prime Minister and the Civil Service took control of the executive. They ran weapons procurement, they ran the NHS budget and the various sub-committees that controlled the day to day running of the NHS. They took control of the regulatory boards that were supposed to protect consumers from over pricing in the privatised industries. They loosened the controls on local authorities allowing the senior local government officers to effectively exercise executive power over local government. No funds were available to improve the health service, Police, ambulance or Fire Service. But limitless funds seemed to be available for the vanity schemes, for Gay rights programmes, school budgets were cut and schools became independent of Local Government control, within months we see headmasters awarded huge salaries but the standard of education falling like a stone down a well shaft.

One defence manufacturing company related a story that amplifies the whole sorry situation. This company had designed a new light weight anti-tank missile that could easily be carried by infantry. After carrying out internal trials they asked the MOD to send someone along to have a look at the new weapon. In due time an official from MOD arrived and spent a day with the company reviewing the weapon, its capabilities and its costs. At the end of the day he told the company that they were unlikely to get a contract for this missile. When asked why he said “its the wrong colour and its too cheap. Paint it white and double the price and you will get a contract”. They followed his advice and they got a contract. It is no wonder that all the new weapon programmes were massively over budget and delivery times. It is no wonder that British Soldiers still fighting in Afghanistan and Iraq were still dying because they did not have landmine proof vehicles.

At the national level the Civil Service delighted in setting up league tables and tick box schemes, these projects concentrate on quantity not quality. GP’s were paid more to work shorter hours, National Health Charges were raised yet again but is was still some years before anything was done to ensure that the flood of health tourists actually paid for the medical services they received courtesy of the British Taxpayer.

One of the less discussed outcomes of the Blair Ministry was the separation of the judiciary from the Government. The government could no longer appoint senior judges and the newly formed UK supreme court was answerable to the Crown, not Parliament or the people. As almost all the senior judges had been appointed by Blair in the first place this process handed the control of justice to a predominantly left wing liberal caucus, who proceeded to drive a horse and cart through the established court rules and sentencing guidelines.

The politicians became more and more remote from the electorate, surrounded by security, and using agents to deal with their constituents they lost all contact with the reality of life endured by the British people.

During the last few years of the Blair/Brown government their had been a plan to issue the British people with Identity cards. It was unpopular and it was going to cost a lot of money. To fund this plan the diplomatic consular services budget was reduced by 85%. This was the money used to help and support British Citizens outside of the UK. These services were reduced to near zero, the rump that was left such as issuing new passports and other essential documents was handed over to non-British private companies. British Citizens abroad became less well cared for than the nationals of many third world countries. Cameron cancelled the ID card scheme but the Consular budgets were never restored.

Immigration had seen the population of Britain increase by around 5 million in a matter of a few years, add to that illegal immigrants thought to number half a million and the stress on housing, education and health services became extreme. The government chose this time to reduce hospital emergency services at a time when GP services were no longer providing night cover resulting in far greater usage of hospital emergency services. The resulting deaths, chaos and public anger were brushed aside. It was the same story with the emergency service call centres, where centralisation had ended up with technical glitches and emergency call handlers who were poorly trained. More deaths, more chaos followed and again the outcry was ignored.

Cameron seemed to be entirely happy with his progress, he seemed to view the role of Prime minister as if it was just a job, 5 day working week and long holidays. He was referred to as a Toff, as if that explained away his behaviour and remoteness from reality, He acted more like a spoilt child who had never had to strive overmuch to get his way in anything.

During both Major’s, Blair’s and Cameron’s Ministries there had been a steady increase in the number of armed police units throughout the UK. There had traditionally always been the option of arming police officers, Pictures of Policemen armed with rifles and shotguns at the Sidney Street siege in the 1930’s confirm this. However is was not until John Major’s time that armed officers were seen patrolling in London and other cities. Initially these officers carried 9mm carbines made in Germany. Capable weapons but with a reduced risk of collateral damage. The pistols used were the tried and trusted, but dated Browning automatic Pistol, also firing a 9mm round. Even with these relatively low power weapons accidents had happened. Hysteria over firearms sometimes led to erroneous reports that individuals were carrying them, in one case a deaf man carrying a chair leg in a bag that he was taking to his home to repair was reported by a bystander as carrying a weapon. Armed police arrived and shouted to him to drop the bag he was carrying. He tried to approach them to explain that he was deaf and could not hear what they said and he was shot dead. That was just one of several similar shootings of innocent people that occurred between 1993 and 2010. By the 2000’s the Police were being re-armed, the 9mm carbine was replaced with the military grade German made G36 5.56mm assault rifle in its short barrelled configuration. This weapon with its very high muzzle velocity carries a significant risk of unintended collateral damage. It’s 30 round magazine can put a bullet through a man, through a brick-wall behind him and kill someone on the other side of the brick wall. It can be fired as semi automatic or fully automatic and is easily adapted to use a longer barrel and a high capacity drum magazine. It is superior to the SA series weapons issued to the British army and considerably cheaper. The Police also received the Glock 17 and 26 automatic 9mm pistols. Ammunition used in these weapons has been changed from round nosed ‘ball’ ammunition to hollow point designed to inflict the maximum damage to anything it hits causing death from even leg or arm wounds that would merely be incapacitating with ball type ammunition. Police forces justify these weapons as needed in the fight against terrorism, however they have never been used in that role. Indeed the use of the Glock and a hollow point round triggered violent riots in London and several other cities when the police apprehended and shot an unarmed petty criminal in London. The questions arise as to why the police need these highly sophisticated weapons and why are they better armed than the British Army – who, incidentally, would be called upon to deal with any gang of armed terrorists in London.

In the interest of brevity I have only covered the most common weapons in use. A full description would amaze any reader in Britain including as it does grenade launchers, sniper rifles and anti tank weapons and a mass of modern machine guns that would grace the armoury of a South American despot. The only purpose of some of these weapons in the hands of the Police, especially the machine guns would be to put down large crowds of rebellious people. This policy seems not to have been originated by any recent Government but appears to have grown over time by liaison between the Association of Chief Police Officers and Civil Servants of the Home Office. Certainly despite budget cuts the Police force has been able to spend millions on armaments and armaments training. That combined with the building of new and lavish Police headquarters meant less money for keeping officers on the beat. Avon constabulary provided their new headquarter with a golf course and a showjumping arena. These vanity projects paled into insignificance compared with the new MOD building in Bristol with its Olympic swimming pool, gymnasium and movie theatre built into the top floors to provide leisure facilities for its Civil servants at a cost of hundreds of millions to the taxpayer. While at the same time the Military catering budget was reduced by half and the rank and file of the armed forces were forced to eat pre-prepared meals that were substandard in every respect.

The general public were assailed by ever rising prices of gas, electricity, water, and rail fares. The government appointed watchdogs who were supposed to regulate these industries seemed more inclined to support their profitability than to ensure fair trading.

The controversial climate change lobby gave the Government an excuse to tax airfares and carbon based fuel production, whilst giving massive grants to untried and inefficient alternative power schemes. A whole new class of millionaires were formed by these schemes including the trading of carbon credits.

The situation with the EU had worsened, British exports to the EU were shrinking year on year whereas our imports from EU countries were expanding. Our contribution to the EU was rising every year as the EU took on new members from impoverished eastern Europe, and that had led to hundreds of thousands of new immigrants able to enter Britain without restriction under the EU free movement rules. Crime rates soared, benefit take-up soared, stress on housing, education and health services stretched them to breaking point. The new entrants were briefed on the rights to benefits before they even entered Britain as the government set up benefit advisory centres in their countries of origin to ensure they got the maximum amounts from welfare Britain. Immigrants were given priority in public housing.

Additional largesse was distributed via the foreign aid budget, billions of pounds were allocated to this budget as a set percentage of GDP. Despite severe austerity and service cutbacks in the UK, despite massive shortfalls in the defence budget. This largess was given away via NGO’s that lined their directors pockets at the cost of the British taxpayer and was used by one foreign recipient as the means to attempt to buy a British football club.

Cameron of course wanted his own war, now that it appeared that no British premiership was complete without one. His attempts at intervention in Syria were blocked by Parliament, but he changed his target to Libya and commenced a bombing campaign that supported the CIA inspired revolution that removed the stabilising if harsh Gaddafi regime and replaced it with a mix of ineffectual socialists and hardcore Islamists. Within a short time the country was enmeshed in civil war and the Isis terrorist had established a strong presence there.

Now floods of refugees began to cross the Mediterranean and pour into Greece and Italy.

The Conservative/Liberal coalition was unwinding quite visibly and as the 2015 election approached the EU was clearly one of the major concerns of the British public.

UKIP and Farage had maintained a steady barrage of home truths about the EU. They made clear the loss of sovereignty and the anti-democratic nature of the EU establishment, they re-iterated the unjust CAP policies, they reminded Britain of the wholesale destruction of it’s fishing industry. More than anything else they pointed out the lunacy of unrestricted immigration from eastern Europe. In the 2013 local government elections they won 147 seats and took 23% of the vote. National popularity polls indicated that they had achieved the support of more than 10% of the electorate. Two Conservative MP’s left the party and became UKIP’s first representatives in the UK Parliament

Cameron faced with the 2015 election began to talk of the need to renegotiate Britain's terms of membership with the EU. He promised that once he had renegotiated these terms he would then ask the British people to decide if they wanted to remain in the EU in a straightforward yes/no vote in a referendum.

The European Union Referendum Act required a referendum to be held on the question of the UK’s continued membership of the European Union (EU) before the end of 2017. It did not contain any requirement for the UK Government to implement the results of the referendum. Instead, it was designed to gauge the electorate's opinion on EU membership. The referendums held in Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland in 1997 and 1998 are examples of this type, where opinion was tested before legislation was introduced. The UK does not have constitutional provisions which would require the results of a referendum to be implemented. In contrast, the legislation that provided for the referendum held on Alternative-Voting in May 2011 would have implemented the new system of voting without further legislation, provided that the boundary changes also provided for in the Parliamentary Voting System and Constituency Act 2011 were also implemented. In the event, there was a substantial majority against any change. The 1975 referendum was held after the re-negotiated terms of the UK’s EC membership had been agreed by all EC Member States, and the terms set out in a command paper and agreed by both Houses. Following the 2016 Brexit referendum, the High Court confirmed that the result was not legally binding, owing to the constitutional principles of parliamentary sovereignty and representative democracy, and the legislation authorising the referendum did not contain clear words to the contrary.

Therefore we can see that despite Cameron’s verbal assurances that the referendum would be binding he made no attempt to assert that in the legislation put through parliament to legalise the referendum. It was all a cynical move to try to undermine UKIP, and to demolish the strong anti-EU cadre within the Conservative party. Cameron was confident that he could sway the EU to give him enough leeway to claim a major renegotiation and that Government spin would ensure a yes vote in the referendum.

In the 2015 Election Cameron won a small outright majority and the Liberal party suffered a huge loss of seats their 57 seats in the 2010 parliament was reduced to 8 seats in the 2015 parliament. This was a result of Clegg having broken most of their manifesto promises whilst in the coalition.

Cameron’s jubilation at the election result was tempered by the fact that UKIP had secured a 12.6% share of the vote, although they had won only one seat in the new Parliament, they had become the third largest political party in the UK, 3.6 million people voted UKIP.

In the past Cameron had accused the UK Independence Party of being "fruitcakes, loonies and closet racists, mostly," leading UKIP MEP Nigel Farage (who became leader in September of that year) to demand an apology for the remarks. Right-wing Conservative MP Bob Spink, who later defected to UKIP, also criticised the remarks, as did The Daily Telegraph. Cameron was seen encouraging Conservative MPs to join the standing ovation given to Tony Blair at the end of his last Prime Minister's Question Time; he had paid tribute to the "huge efforts" Blair had made and said Blair had "considerable achievements to his credit, whether it is peace in Northern Ireland or his work in the developing world, which will endure". These incidents reveal just how out of touch with reality and the British people Cameron had become. While he and his Chancellor, Osborne, presided over yet more savage cuts, yet more loss of sovereignty, a huge growth in the gap between rich and poor, he still could not believe that he and his policies were hated by the British people. He still could not see that his majority was not caused by approval of his policies but was caused by the swing away from the Liberals. Indeed it may be said that he and his clique in Parliament better deserved the insult they had thrown at UKIP members. They were racist and bigoted against the English, they invoked and supported policies that were destroying the roots of their nation and their fiscal policies had done little to ease Britain's financial position but a lot to lower the living standards of its people. Fruitcakes, Loonies and closet racists indeed.

Other than the referendum it appeared that things would carry on much as before. Crime rates continued to rise, denied by the Government by using different reporting guide-lines. The privatised railways continued to increase fares whilst running appalling services. It remains one of the indicators of the insane railway mess that it was now cheaper to drive between major cities that to take the train. The commuter belt took the brunt of these fare increases, here people had no option but to use the railways and the rail companies squeezed them dry with above inflation price rises. The newly hatched left wing Labour Party under Corbyn added to their misery by encouraging the trade unions to disrupt these services on a daily basis. Corbyn, an unashamed Marxist, led the labour party into an anti-Semitic, pro Arab, anti capital shift to the extreme left. He was supported by an organisation called Momentum who, using the internet and any available public gathering, unleashed a torrent of abuse upon anyone who opposed Corbyn. Cameron (now often referred to as ‘call me Dave’) and his rather limp home secretary could have used their anti-hate crime legislation to nip this in the bud, but they did nothing.

In February 2016 Cameron announced that he had achieved a major re-negotiation of Britain's terms of membership with EU. These new terms amounted to very little of substance and were bought at the cost of conceding another chunk of Britain's ability to veto new EU legislation. Cameron made grandiose and bombastic speeches in support of the new terms and to the surprise of many announced that there would be an in/out referendum on Britain's membership of the EU on 23rd June 2016.

The campaigners for and against Brexit (as it came to be called) kicked off almost immediately after the announcement of the date of the referendum.

Cameron announced his support for remaining in the EU. And almost immediately the Government sent a leaflet to every home in the UK praising the benefits of EU membership. This cost the taxpayer £9.3 million pounds, as it was a government publication it did not count as election expenses and thus gave an unfair advantage to the Remain campaign.

This was followed by just about every major organisation as well as the Government beginning a campaign labelled ‘project fear’ to persuade people to vote for remaining in the EU. They claimed that leaving the EU would have a catastrophic effect on the whole UK economy, massive unemployment, food shortages, medicine shortages, the end of the NHS, and the pound falling to the level of the Dollar, and total civil disorder.

The CBI, Bank of England, Universities, The Civil Service, BBC, newspapers such as the economist, even the President of the USA joined in this cacophony of doom. Cameron and Osborne were key players in all of this aided by other pro EU ministers and MP’s. Many of them making the cardinal error of assuming that anyone who would vote to leave the UK was a bigoted racist (they do not seem to have learned the lesson from Gordon Brown in 2010).

Outside of the official Remain campaign, centred around the multi-party ‘Britain Stronger in Europe’ group, around £72 million was spent promoting remain, this money was not subject to scrutiny by the electoral commission (Chaired by a pro EU individual).

The Leave campaign was split between two main groups Leave EU, supported by UKIP and Nigel Farage and further supported by an offshoot campaign group across the political parties of the UK. and Vote Leave, created by an anti EU cross party group. The electoral commission ruled that the VOTE LEAVE group was the official anti EU group and that it would gain all the free benefits that this status incurred.

Vote Leave principal supporters were;

• Michael Gove (Co-Convener), Conservative MP for Surrey Heath, Lord Chancellor and Secretary of State for Justice • Gisela Stuart (Co-Convener), Labour MP for Birmingham Edgbaston • Matthew Elliott (chief executive) • Dominic Cummings (Campaign Director), former government adviser • Boris Johnson, Conservative MP for Uxbridge and South Ruislip, former Mayor of London • Steve Baker, Conservative MP for High Wycombe • Douglas Carswell, then a UKIP MP for Clacton • Ian Davidson, former Labour MP for Glasgow South West • Nigel Dodds, Democratic Unionist Party MP for Belfast North, Deputy Leader of the DUP • Iain Duncan Smith, Conservative MP for Chingford and Woodford Green • Frank Field, Labour MP for Birkenhead, former Minister of Welfare Reform • Lord Forsyth, former Conservative MP for Stirling and Secretary of State for Scotland • Liam Fox, Conservative MP for North Somerset, former Secretary of State for Defence • Chris Grayling, Conservative MP for Epsom and Ewell, Leader of the House of Commons • Daniel Hannan, Conservative MEP for South East England • Paul Keetch, former Liberal Democrat MP for Hereford • Lord Lawson, former Conservative MP for Blaby and Chancellor of the Exchequer • Andrea Leadsom, Conservative MP for South Northamptonshire, Minister of State at the Department of Energy and Climate Change • John Longworth, former director-general of the British Chambers of Commerce (BCC). Longworth was suspended from his role at the BCC following his public comments in support of Brexit on 3 March. • Lord Owen, former Labour and SDP MP for Plymouth Devonport and Foreign Secretary • Priti Patel, Conservative MP for Witham, Minister of State for Employment • Dominic Raab, Conservative MP for Esher and Walton, Parliamentary Under Secretary of State for Justice • Graham Stringer, Labour MP for Blackley and Broughton • Theresa Villiers, Conservative MP for Chipping Barnet, Secretary of State for Northern Ireland • John Whittingdale, Conservative MP for Maldon, Secretary of State for Culture, Media and Sport • The information on Leave EU is harder to come by. They remain an active group to this day despite all manner of allegations regarding their campaign and financial backers. The electoral commission has pursued them relentlessly and their backers and financiers have been labelled with everything from fascist, racist, to communist.

The difference in content of the two leave campaigns was probably beneficial, Vote Leave tended to put forward facts and figures, whereas Leave EU highlighted the effects of those facts and figures on the lives of ordinary people. Nigel Farage was a star of this campaign despite being attacked by the remain, campaign and the BBC as a bigoted racist.

The leave campaign was supported by an excellent video film entitled ‘Brexit the Movie’, which clearly laid bare the fallacy that the EU was good for Britain and demonstrated its lack of accountability, its scandalous waste of public funds and it’s inherently anti-democratic constitution.

The entire campaign was hard fought by both sides right up to polling day. Many on the leave side believed that they had lost the vote, but as the counting continued it became clear that in an unusually high turnout the majority of voters had voted to leave the EU.

Much has been said about this referendum, usually bile from the remain lobby. Little or nothing has been said about the vote rigging in some areas where non residents had been fraudulently entered on the electoral roles with estimates between half a million and a million votes rigged in favour of remain. London and the Lancashire areas being the main centres of this fraud. That is not to mention the fact that many students voted twice, being registered in their home city area as well as their University area.

Cameron and the Government were stunned by the result. Cameron was so confident of a yes vote that he had refused to allow any planning to take place for the eventuality that the public voted to leave. In his pre referendum speeches he had claimed that if the British people voted to leave the EU HE would trigger article 50, the resignation document, within days. Instead he decided to resign. His resignation meant that the Conservative party had to go through an election for a new leader, this allowed a minimum of a 3 month delay in triggering article 50. This time was well used by the fanatical remain grouping to begin the process of negated the referendum results.

The election of the new Conservative leader was marred by backstabbing (Gove v Boris Johnson) and gerrymandering (for the sake of illusory party unity) Therese May, an EU remainer rose through the voting until her only opponent (Andrea Leadsom) was forced to withdraw – this meant the leadership did not have to be voted on by the Conservative Party Membership – where it was questionable that May could have won the vote. May became leader of the conservative party and prime minister on 13th July 2016.

On her election May made many comments in support of the referendum results which allayed fears that she favoured remaining in the EU.

May seems to have favoured her predecessors disdain for cabinet government, her non-elected advisors were soon in place blocking access to her and writing policy for her.

May showed her colours early in the day in actions not words, she visited Germany and apologised to Angela Merkel that she would not be able to serve article 50 until 2017, She also relinquished the UK’s right to the revolving presidency of the EU in 2017.

On the international stage May managed to upset the Hinckley Point Nuclear Power Station deal with China (a signed and agreed contract with Cameron) on the basis it was a threat to national security. After some huffing and puffing she later re-instated the project. (The project was that a French company, financed by China would build a new nuclear power station at Hinckley Point – the site of an existing nuclear power station). It never seemed to occur to May that Britain could build it’s own nuclear power station and finance it by cancelling the London to Birmingham high speed rail project, a vanity project launched by Labour and supported by Cameron. May supported the European Arrest Warrant, a piece of legislation issued by the EU which totally destroyed the traditional view of criminal justice in the UK. A member state of the EU could demand the arrest and extradition of a British citizen without reason, and could then hold that person in a cell for up to 840 days without having to give reason for the detention.

One comment regarding May is worth repeating at this stage. Phil Wilson for the Open Britain group said, "It's good to know that privately Theresa May thinks what many of us have been saying publicly for a long time, leaving the single market would be bad for businesses and for our economy. Now she is prime minister, Theresa May is in an unrivalled position to act on her previous concerns, starting by putting membership of the single market at the heart of her government's negotiating position."

On 29th March 2017, May served article 50 on the EU, nine months had elapsed since the Brexit referendum.

A blow by blow account of May’s Brexit negotiations is not the purpose of this narrative, however we can say they they were characterised with a lack of ability to stand firm to to the UK cause. As the EU’s largest internal import market and the EU’s second largest net contributor the UK had some clout, but failed to use it. Noticeably the Prime Minister often seemed to contradict the Brexit secretary David Davis. It became increasingly clear that Mrs May did not want to negotiate a full exit from the EU.

Time dragged on with no positive results. In Parliament the pro EU lobby had gained strength, Chancellor Hammond continued to predict doom and gloom if the UK left the EU and the Conservative pro EU fanatics teemed up with their Labour counterparts to harass and attempt to defeat every move towards a clean break with the EU. The will of the people, democracy means nothing to this self appointed elite who ignore the will of the voters who put them into parliament, and who voted for Brexit.

Finally May called a cabinet meeting at Chequers and made a proposal for an agreement that seemed the worst of all options, it allowed the EU now and in the future to make regulations that are binding upon the UK with Britain taking no part in the making of those regulations. So bad is this proposal that David Davis and Boris Johnson along with other junior ministers resigned from the Government.

Mr Johnson accused Mrs May of reducing Britain to the status of an EU “colony”. He told the PM he could not carry on as Foreign Secretary as he could no longer sing her song. He added: “I have practised the words over the weekend and I find that they stick in the throat”. While insisting Brexit should “be about opportunity and hope”, under the current PM, “the dream is dying, suffocated by needless self-doubt”, Boris wrote. He added: “We have postponed crucial decisions — including the preparations for no deal — with the result that we appear to be heading for a semi-Brexit, with large parts of the economy still locked in the EU system, but with no UK control over that system”.

David Davis lucidly put the case against May’s proposal;

“So you’ve got inevitably a civil service and some of the ministers as well whose primary instinct is to defend what we have. But if we’d spent the last 10 centuries of our history defending what we have, we’d be a very much poorer country if that precludes things that can make us into a great country. We’re going to have a massive growth in services, we are one of the world’s leading service exporters. Under the Chequers proposal, the rules for those things are going to be written in Brussels.[by the EU] How can you have the rules for your best industries, your future, your champions, written somewhere else? And how will they write those rules? Well go ask James Dyson. They wrote the rules deliberately to disadvantage him. Or go and ask the somebody who has got a diesel car that’s not worth very much now because they rigged the rules to suit the German car industry.”

Following the Chequers meeting rumours began to circulate, and we must be clear here that these rumours have not been proved true, that the chequers proposals had been written in collusion with the German Chancellor’s office and discussed and approved in a meeting between Mrs May and Angela Merkel BEFORE they were discussed with or revealed to the British cabinet. Indeed it is claimed that during the Chequers meeting May ruled out any change to the document because it had already been agreed with Chancellor Merkel. Further a second option written by Mr Davis as the responsible minister for Brexit was suppressed and not made available or discussed with the cabinet.

Rumours abounded that May’s proposal would at first be rejected by the EU as favouring Britain and then reluctantly accepted with minor amendments that cost Britain yet more ability to control its own destiny.

Eventually even May lost her credibility with her own party, parliament had become a hotbed of intrigue as factions were formed and then fell apart. No UK politician of any party emerged from this debacle with and credit.

The conservatives finally replaced May as leader with Boris Johnson, a questionable choice given his mercuric nature, personal scandals and the fact he was yet another Eton toff with a track record of switching sides in debates.

The delays in leaving the European Union meant that the UK had to hold another round of elections for representatives to the European Parliament. The run up to the election saw campaigning reach a fever pitch unprecedented in this type of election that formerly barely stirred public interest and was characterised by very low voter turnouts. The clear winners were UKIP and the Conservatives, Labour and Liberals all lost seats to them. UKIP now saw itself as a credible political party and announced that it would fight for seats in the next general election to the UK parliament. Nigel Farage was at the peak of his popularity and the party was predicted to stand a good chance of winning 40 plus seats in a general election.

The UK parliament at long last agreed to hold a general election. The campaign by the Conservative party was clever in so far as it campaigned to keep Labour out with scare stories and personal attacks on the Labour Party leader ably assisted by the media. The Conservatives refused to do any kind of deal with UKIP and so split the UKIP voters. Farage then decided to withdraw all UKIP candidates from Conservative held seats. This destroyed UKIP’s credibility. Labour supporters who had switched to UKIP now voted for the Conservatives and Johnson won the election with a very comfortable majority. UKIP failed to win a single seat in the new parliament.

The new government professed to prioritise BREXIT and issued a strict timetable for negotiations after which the UK would leave the EU with or without an agreement. After a year of lengthy and often fruitless negotiations the UK left the EU with a deal that was in essence identical to that which May had proposed and which had been rejected by the UK parliament twice already. The new government backed by its majority quickly passed the required legislation and the BREXIT referendum and the UK voters were betrayed yet again. There was now a customs border between Northern Ireland and the rest of the UK.

The BREXIT dividend should have been able to transform the UK economy. It represented direct government reduction in spending of at least 20 billion pounds a year. The decrease in industrial red tape and re-alignment of trade regulations would reduce the cost of living by up to 20%. The ability to enter into independent trade deals would increase UK exports. All told the UK economy was expected to grow by 15% within three years of leaving the EU. The dividend was widely expected to be used to improve and modernise the UK infrastructure addressing the housing shortage, and lack of services as well as reducing indirect taxation by a reduction in Value Added Tax. Instead the British public learned that the UK was going to spend billions in establishing a ‘Space Force’ despite the fact that the UK had never built or launched a rocket capable of space flight, and had no facilities or infrastructure that would allow them to do so. Politically the government started to condemn and release propaganda criticising China and Russia yet these two countries had been used as the major plank of future trade deals that would revive the UK economy. The much vaunted trade deal with the USA failed to materialise as the American terms and conditions were more intrusive to UK sovereignty that membership of the EU had been.

12) 2020 onwards

Then along came Covid-19. If ever there was a single event that proved the ineptitude and utter inability to act of the UK Government, Civil Service and Health service this was it. The UK had carried out two theoretical exercises in the preceding decade that simulated what might happen if a serious pandemic to hold in the UK. Both of these exercises underlined the shortages of protective clothing and medical equipment, both exercises underlined the lack of liaison between government departments that would be required to effectively control and contain such an epidemic. All the advice was ignored. The first notification of the danger ahead reached the UK on December 31st 2019 in an informal warning received by the Foreign Office from China. It was ignored. Several more formal warning both from China and the World Health Organisation were received in the UK in the first two weeks of January 2020, they to were largely ignored. It was not until the formal declaration of a world health emergency was made on January 21st 2020 that the UK government did anything at all. Strangely Oxford University had received a copy of the full genome of C-19 on 16th January and were already at work trying to manufacture a vaccine. The government however played down the danger claiming it was just another type of flu and nothing to worry about. For the next 12 months the government dithered, chopped and changed advice and told outright lies to the British people. Below are just a few of the major failings;

Failure to acknowledge the potential severity of Covid-19, “Don’t panic its just another type of flu.”

Failure to set up effective health screening at UK borders.

Failure to have sufficient stocks of protective clothing, masks, and medical equipment.

Failure to enforce a complete lockdown once it was evident that the virus was spreading in the UK.

Moving infected old people from Hospitals to private nursing homes and homes for the elderly ensuring that thousands of old people and the staff caring for them were at high risk with no protective clothing or medicines to prevent the virus spreading. Having allowed this to happen the government then lied to the British people by denying it had happened.

Failure to implement effective track and trace methods.

This list could go on and on but the outcome was that tens of thousands of UK citizens died needlessly because of Government ineptitude and lies. In terms of government priorities it was clear that the economy took precedence over the people.

And whilst all this was going on the British parliament, British news media started the blame game based upon nothing but unsubstantiated accusations and propaganda they attempted to shift the focus from the UK’s own failings by blaming another country for the entire debacle. In doing so they did irreparable harm to the UK long term financial growth. At the end of the day, no matter how this virus originated the UK governments response to it was pathetic, irresponsible, and directly led to many thousands of avoidable deaths.

Afterword

Is it Government of the people or Government by the people?

This may seem a trite question to ask, but it is increasingly apparent that throughout the past 118 years the UK Government has paid scant attention to the people except when they needed their vote in parliamentary elections. This state of affairs has inclined the majority of the population to regard politics and government as something that is apart from them. We grumble at the rising costs of this or that, we complain about taxation or the way government spends or wastes our taxes, we vent our dislike of this or that politician, but we don't see ourselves as part of the process. Even voting in national or local elections seems to be a bothersome chore for many people. We have remained apathetic as we have been exploited by the ever hungry cash machine of local and national government. Stealth taxes spring out on us and we just sit back, grumble a bit and then pay-up. Overall taxation accounts for 37.5% of GDP but when you factor in the stealth taxes that are dressed up as penalties then the figure rises to 41.7%. This apathy has cost us dearly in many different ways. Even the way those who do vote in General Elections bears little resemblance to defining what a majority party does when it gains control of Government. Who amongst us actually reads a political party manifesto before an election? If we vote we tend to vote along what we see as tribal lines “my mum/dad always voted for xyz party and so do the rest of my family” The fact that the xyz party is screwing up the country and ruining your life seems to have little bearing on the core voting patterns with only a small percentage of floating voters defining which party wins the election.

So what does this mean? Well for starters every core value that you might believe enshrines the UK has vanished during your lifetime. Habeas Corpus, Magna Carta, Presumption of Innocence, non-disclosure, all consigned to the scrap heap. Manufacturing and innovation are so over regulated with costly approval systems that the cost of getting a new innovative product to the market is so prohibitive few now bother. Duties and tariffs that mean you pay at least 20% more for computers and home appliances than the rest of the world. Restrictions on imports and tariffs on food that mean you pay more for your food than you need to.

Your Governments surrendered the sovereignty of your country and lied to you about it. It has cost you, the tax payer, billions over the past 45 years, and do you have any idea what that money was used for? It was used to pay French farmers to over produce food that was then dumped across the world destroying emerging industries in the third world. France was a net beneficiary of the EU budget for most of the time the EU has existed, and you paid for it.

So again one can ask, how did this all happen?

The United Kingdom is a constitutional monarchy with a parliamentary democracy. That is the official description of our country. There are two words here that we need to examine, constitutional and democracy.

The UK has never had a single written constitution, instead it relied on a rag bag of ancient and less ancient laws that were part of what became termed as constitutional law. This made up about 75% of the constitution, the remaining 25% seems to have been made up as we go along. In part and especially that part that defined and protected the individual from the power of the state the law relied upon the common law, parts of which dated back to William the Conqueror, Magna Carta, and legal precedent, the decisions made by senior judges in the higher courts over the centuries. This constitutional law also governed the relationship between the monarch and the state, for instance it is illegal for parliament to discuss ending the monarchy. Equally the monarchy has been a convenient cushion for the Government and all public authorities to excuse themselves from acting in bad faith to the people. They swear allegiance to the monarch, not the people, and as the monarch is theoretically banned from entering into political debate there is a perfect Gordian Knot that means Government can do whatever it likes. Parliament is adjudged to be supreme in the law making hierarchy but as it is ruled by the Governing party that in real terms still amounts to the Government having a licence to do whatever it wants. After the UK joined the EU the majority of our constitution became null and void as it was replaced by EU law. Therefore the UK is ruled by a foreign constitution, something that was a clearly defined act of treason by the constitution it replaced.

Now let us examine the word Democracy. It is defined in modern terms as the following;

A system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body, and vote directly on each issue, e.g. on the passage of a particular tax law. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association. "Rule of the majority" is sometimes referred to as democracy. Democracy is a system of processing conflicts in which outcomes depend on what participants do, but no single force controls what occurs and its outcomes.

You may note that the form of democracy in the UK could best be described as a constitutional democracy where the power of the government is limited by the constitution. The problem being that the UK has had a poor constitution for centuries and that since joining the EU what little constitution there was has been whittled away by EU legislation. Now our Government is limited not by our constitution by by the EU rules and regulations that have supplanted it. It does not matter who you vote for, they were, and still are, all constrained to rubber stamp the 3000 odd new laws issued by the EU each year during the UK’s membership of the EU. They have not changed them, they seam unwilling to repeal them. Therefore we, the people, need to think about this and use the same courage and commitment we used to vote for Brexit to insist that the UK produces a new written constitution that prevents Government ever again from signing away our freedoms to a foreign power and which give us, the people, the deciding vote in any major change to our laws.

The truth is that today a true definition of the UK would read a governmental monarchy, because parliament, constitution and democracy do not exist in any real meaning of those words.


Submitted: June 09, 2021

© Copyright 2021 JDB401. All rights reserved.

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