In Defense of Civilization

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Status: Finished  |  Genre: Non-Fiction  |  House: Booksie Classic

Proving civilization is good, what causes civilization to grow, and the present/future of Western and Global civilization
(Non-Fiction I wrote back when I was a neo-con), I am a libertarian/ancap now, but many of these ideas are relevent and helped me grow my ideas.

In Defense of Civilization

Proving civilization is good, what causes civilization to grow, and the present/future of Western and Global civilization

Part One: Proving civilization is good and what causes civilization to grow

Homo Sapiens Sapiens, us, is a species that is relatively new to the Earth and the Universe; yet, this species is perhaps, the most interesting species that we know of. However, Homo Sapiens Sapiens is also a species that faces challenges, dilemmas, and problems. What makes this species so important to us is that this species is our species. We are a species that is capable of building devices that can go to other planets, yet, we are also a species capable of wiping ourselves out within a matter of minutes. Yet, relative to the universe, we are a blink of an eye. This blink in the eye is potentially the most interesting and important blink of the eye in this planets history. We are the most intelligent, advanced species on the planet; yet we have huge problems and challenges. Most of these can be attributed to constraints on us, with the biggest one being our violent nature. How do we overcome these constraints and reach our full potential as a species? This is one of the few questions that this essay will explore. The only way to reach our full potential however, is through building and growing civilization; history has shown no other way of achieving progress. What is progress and how can we achieve and continue progress? This essay explores this question as well. However, the title of this essay is "In Defense of Civilization", and this essay will also prove that civilization is good, better than anarchy, better than barbarism, better than ignorance, better than superstition, better than being primitive. However, civilization will have to be defined first and explaining how some civilizations are different from others will have to come before anything else.

Civilization is a recent phenomena, and is something that is very unique. We are the only species that can create civilization, but few humans have lived in civilization, and even fewer have lived in advanced civilizations, like Western civilization. Ninety nine percent of humans that have ever lived have lived in third world conditions or worse up to this point in history. Civilization can grow and be progress through three main types of progress; economic, political/social, and scientific/technological. There are different ways to measure these three types of progress, and thus, measure how advanced a civilization is. Economic progress can be measured by the levels of debt, savings, GDP per capital, poverty, etc. Political and Social progress can be measured by the crime rate and how many/what rights are in the constitution/laws. Scientific/technological progress can be measured by the level of technology, number of theories and scientific laws discovered, and the amount of scientifically peer review articles and journals. There are many other ways to measure progress in these fields, and these are just a few. Though there are many ways to define civilization, one way to define civilization is a society that has achieved writing/language, a state/government, and some level of law/order. Now, there are different ways to advance in all three of these fields as well, and many other subfields as well that overlap fields (much like green is a color that is half blue and half yellow, education is a field that consists of overlap with all three fields. What allows us to build civilization? The main/primary item we have that other animals do not have the capacity to do is rational thought. We can discover facts about the world, store them in our head, communicate them to each other, and pass them down from generation to generation, allowing the potential for our offspring to be more knowledgeable, educated, and sophisticated than us; which allows them to achieve more progress and advance civilization. Since we lack biological weapons (such as claws), we have to depend on our coordination with other humans and using our minds to plan our acquisition and food and other resources. Our mind is the only advantage we have over other animals, thus, any form of morality must be based on our mind and reason and our ability to use this asset of ours to achieve moral ends. What is moral? This can be somewhat subjective, but what is not subjective is that we need our mind so we can understand morality, good, bad, etc. The only stage of development in mankind that has allowed us to achieve sophisticated morality, logic, reason, material wealth, education systems, institutions, and the freedom to use our mind in a way that create significant amounts of wealth, material wealth or intellectual/cultural wealth, is civilization. Civilization is good and moral because it allows us to discover what is right and wrong in a reasonable/sophisticated way. A primitive society or tribal society will not be able to achieve any form morality due to a lack of law and order and sophistication. However, there are different levels of civilization and different ways to advance civilization.

How can civilization progress and become more advanced? A higher standard of living can be achieved by achieving higher levels of physical capital (machines, tools, factories), human capital (education), and/or technology; all of which increase productivity (Krugman and Wells, 2012, Pages 679-680). The key to long run increases in the standard of living is achieving higher levels of productivity per worker. Thus, investing in education, physical capital, and science are all essential. How does one gain the resources to invest in these three items? Money, and there are only three institutions that are big enough in a civilization that can invest a significant amount of resources in these three items. They are government, corporations, and financial institutions. The first gets its resources through taxation, and the second from profits, and the last from profits and individuals depositing money at their institution.

Institution

 

Where it gets it resources from

Where it spends its profits

Government

Taxation/Borrowing/Printing

Debt reduction/rainy day funds

Corporations/Business

Sales

Physical Capital/stock holders

Financial Institutions

Interest Payments/Deposits

Loans/investing/stock holders

 

All three institutions must operate in a functional and efficient way in order for civilization to advance; and also must work together. These three institutions are in some way, the trinity to a healthy economy and must work together, though remain separate/independent to some degree in order to have enough productivity growth. Government has to spend significant amounts of money on education (public education) to make sure there is enough human capital, spend money on infrastructure to add to the physical capital stock of a country, and spend money on science and research and development. Corporations and business have to make profits to replace aging physical capital and build new physical capital in order to either add more workers or increase the productivity of existing workers to increase production and thus, increase the standard of living. Financial institutions in order to increase economic growth, must invest loan money out and keep enough at hand to deal with bank runs and crisis. Financial institutions are essential, as they loan money to corporations/businesses so new ones can start up and existing ones can expand; but also loan money to governments. Financial institutions give individuals in a civilization a safe place to store what they money they earn through work, but don't spend, and gives these individuals a hope of making a profit off of trusting the financial institution with their money. Financial institutions also allow individuals to make investments and large purchases, such as cars and homes, that can't necessarily be afforded in one payment or in one time. However, if one of these institutions becomes too powerful, than that does upset the trinity and balance of power. Individuals in a society to have power over which institutions have what power, directly and indirectly. As consumers, individuals can choose to shop at small businesses if they feel that corporations are to powerful. Individuals can also vote for politicians that will implement or get rid of certain regulations that will make businesses either less or more powerful. The same goes with banks, individuals can choose what banks to deposit their savings and vote for politicians that choose to do certain things. How can the size of government change than? Individuals, acting as voters, can vote for politicians that will either increase of decrease the power of government. By talking about the trinity of business, government, and financial institutions, this is not to say there are not other institutions. The scientific establishment, the education system, and unions are examples of other institutions that overlap with the one of more institutions in the trinity. For example, the scientific establishment spends much time/resources on Research and Development, which both business and governments spend money on. Increasing productivity is the key to increasing economic progress, but there are other forms of progress as well.

Though scientific/technological progress relies on economic progress (economic progress equals more resources can be spent on science/technology), economic progress also relies on scientific/technological progress. What specific things can science do to make civilization more advanced? Freedom of speech, market place of ideas, freedom to think, exploration, and Manhattan like projects are the biggest contributors. The mission to put a man on the moon was an example of exploration, and in the process of putting a man on the moon, the American civilization invented many items. In the process of inventing new ways to fight/survive a war with the USSR from the 50's to the 80's, American civilization invented the microchip and the internet, which both have completely revolutionized out society, increasing economic prosperity/economic progress, and has also given us much social/political progress as well. The market place of ideas is important for any advanced society, as it allows a society to

(1) Develop/evolve morality, philosophy, ideologies, and reason.

(2) Expose and debunk bad ideas.

(3) Allows good ideas to be justified and continued.

(4) Gets rid of the potential for a monopoly of power/information (reduces effectiveness of propaganda).

(5) More efficient and effective public discourse.

Despite much of the misinformation on the internet (the main stream media has much if not more mis information than the internet though), the internet has been essential in weakening the monopoly of corporate owned media, allowing a better market place of ideas and thus, more social/political progress. The main goal of political and social progress is to achieve more law and order, which includes, but is not limited to...

(1) Lower crime rate.

(2) More virtue in society.

(3) Law and Order of the government (no military junta).

(4) Weakening of mysticism and superstition.

(5) Higher rates of literacy, education, and knowledge

Part Two: Defending and arguing for Western Civilization

`Over the past couple hundred of years, it has become painfully obvious that the more free and democratic a society is, the lower crime rates and corruption rates it has as well. This means that a republic with constitutional rights and procedures, meant not only to establish law and order over the society, but law and order of the government as well, is the best system of government the human species has discovered that can work for advanced societies. For thousands of years, most governments have been ruled by dictatorships, monarchs, military junta's, or other forms of tyranny, and have achieved lower levels of progress and have had less advanced societies. It is obvious when comparing Western and American civilization to most past civilizations, that capitalism (not free market, there are many different forms of capitalism), a republic with freedom of speech (and other freedoms), a market place of ideas, and a culture that accepts and values science and technology leads to a more advanced civilization. Freedom is required for any civilization to be advanced though. Freedom is the key to significant progress. In the book Capitalism: The Unknown Ideal, Ayn Rand wrote "Rights are conditions of existence required by man's nature for his proper survival" (Rand, 1967, Page 370). Reason is the only way Homo Sapiens sapiens can survive and improve its condition, standard of living, wellness, and happiness. The only ways Homo Sapiens sapiens can properly exercise reason (and thus, live and improve) is if their minds are free; free to think and communicate.

Thus, advanced society requires reasonable institutions, laws, and individuals. It also requires freedom, which requires law and order (anarchy is not true freedom, there is no such thing as absolute freedom). Reason and Freedom go hand and hand as they need each other and are both necessary for civilization and morality. How can anyone oppose reason or freedom? These two words are somewhat subjective, as individual rights have to be defined; and reason has to be explained and discovered. Reason is also sometimes dependent on facts and theories, which can evolve, or change from time to time. However, it is impossible for any rational person to be against freedom or reason; though there seems to be a number of people (intellectuals) that seem to dislike civilization, and Western/American civilization in specific. They have a number of criticism not only of Western civilization though, but of the morality. What are some of these criticism. There are thousands of specific criticism, but they generally fall under several categories.

(1) Western civilization has been and still is imperialistic (and is racist/oppressive/steals).

(2) Western civilization has been oppressive to its own people (sexism/homophobia/fascism).

(3) Western civilization has been destructive to the environment.

(4) Western civilization has caused a false consciousness and serves the global elite.

(5) Western civilization does not recognize the common good and is immoral.

Now, let's deconstruct these criticisms one by one. Some of these claims are not entirely false, but never the less, the individuals making these arguments are usually intellectually and morally incompetent, are jealous of Western civilization, and/or suffer from oikophobia.

 (1) Yes, Western civilization has been imperialistic over the past several hundred years. However, many of the individuals who make these arguments fail to criticize the imperialism of other civilizations and societies throughout history (Mongolian empire, Russian/Soviet empire, Greek empire, Aztec empire, Ottoman empire, Persian empire, Mayan empire, Incan empire, Japanese empire). The claim that Western civilization is still imperialistic flies in the face of reality. Though some would argue that the United States an imperial power and has/is colonizing the middle east (for oil); this claim fails to recognize that for imperialism to work, the imperial society has to benefit from its colonies. If the middle east is a colony, the United States definite has not benefited from being involved in the middle east. Hundreds of billions of dollars in spending/debt, the fact that oil prices have risen drastically over the past several years, and the thousands of American lives lost is a sign that our involvement in the Middle East is not imperialistic.

(2) Yes, woman have been oppressed and homosexuals have been oppressed historically and are still today, somewhat treated unfairly. However, compared to other major cultures and societies, our country has progressed the most when it comes to the equality of the sexes and equal treatment/rights for homosexuals. Most of the individuals that make this claim are either ignorant of other cultures/history, or are intellectually dishonest and/or incompetent, as they fail to gasp the reality of how homosexuals are treated in Islamic societies today. They also fail to grasp the sheer oppression of woman in these societies or past societies as well. Though fascism arguable became infamous through Western regimes in the 1930's and 1940's; it was also other Western powers that defeated these fascist regimes.

(3) Yes, many Western products have negative environmental effects, but over the past several decades, huge strides have been made by Western science and governments to reduce the environmental impact of economic activities. As a result, our resource consumption is much more efficient than that of other societies. Yes, the citizens of the West do emit more CO2 per capital than other countries, but the West also has a higher standard of living, so measuring CO2 per capital would not be entirely accurate. In terms of every million dollars worth of GDP produced, the United States will emit 559 tons of CO2, while China will emit 1,361 tons of CO2, and Uzbekistan will emit 3,454 tons of CO2 annually (Krugman and Wells, 2012, Page 461)! CO2 emissions in the United States has also only increased by about 30% over the past three decades, while the economy (adjusted for inflation) has increased by over 100% over the past three decades (Krugman and Wells, 2012, Pages 699, M-4/M-7). This shows Western civilization has made environmental protection, conservation, and efficiency a bigger priority than most other societies and civilizations.

(4) Many accuse that most Western individuals (and Americans in particular) are under a "false consciousness" and are being brain washed to support Western civilization (rather than protesting it or engaging in revolution), against their economic self interest and/or against the common good of humanity as a whole (Newman, 2010, page 304). This "false consciousness" is produced by the mass media, which is owned by the elites. Though there is definitely bias and lies that are produced and sold by the mass media, many of these lies and biases are ones directed against Western civilization (and America in particular) and the individuals making these arguments fail to recognize that the media in other societies isn't exactly non-bias and objective all the time either. Individuals that make this claim also fail to recognize that Western societies have the most advanced "market place of ideas" and political protections/individual rights in the world; and that there are a wide diversity of opinions that are expressed and can be expressed. Just because most Americans disagree with the ones claiming we are under a false consciousness doesn't mean they are, and it suggests the ones making this claim might actually be under a false consciousness themselves.

(5) One of the biggest criticisms of Western civilization is that it is immoral and hurts humanity as a whole. One the biggest reasons some individuals believe this is because they believe the material/economic wealth western civilization current has was "stolen" from other countries. Though this argument can somewhat work with Europe in past centuries, it ignores the fact that most of the societies European powers colonized lands and used resources that were not being used the native societies they colonized. These societies have always been poor (Europe didn't make them poorer) and many of them continue to remain poor. This is not to say that the colonization was justified or was good; but is instead to say that the colonization didn't cause them to be poor. This argument does not work for the United States either. Though some will claim we stole the land of the Native Americans; these individuals fail to acknowledge the fact that native Americans fought each other over land as well and the only reason we managed to overcome and conquer their lands was due to our superior military technology. Some individuals also believe that material wealth is immoral, and either site religious and/or Marxist oriented reasoning. They claim massive material wealth is a sign of greed, lack of care of the common good, and is thus, immoral because these individuals believe that our material wealth is finite. However, they fail to realize wealth and prosperity can be created by either consuming more resources or by being more efficient with resources. Thus, if someone is rich, it's usually because they didn't steal it, but because they created it.

Now that the attackers of Western civilization have been debunked, the argument for Western civilization must be made. The arguments for Western civilization fall under three main categories, under the trinity of progress; economic, political/social, and scientific/technological progress.

(1) Economic progress

Western civilization and it's development of capitalism (not the free market), financial markets, and other institutions, markets, and policies that have contributed to the sheer amount of material wealth accumulated over the past few centuries. Ninety nine percent of Homo Sapiens sapiens that have ever lived have lived in third world conditions, or worse. Even the elites and "rich" of the past societies and civilizations had a lower standard of living then most poor people in the West today. The economic system that the West has developed has shown its superiority on its ability to create an unprecedented amount of material wealth, prosperity, and a drastically higher standard of living for everyone in the long run. Though there are some concerns about the environment that are legitimate; the technology and inventions that result due to the incentives from either profit or government subsidies (direct or indirect) due increase productivity and efficiency, which can reduce resource consumption while maintaining the standard of living.

(2) Political/Social progress

The enlightenment began a process in the West that several centuries later, has lead to the legal equality of both sexes and all races in Western civilization, along with the individuals in the West experiencing a level of freedom unparallel in the history of the planet. The constitutions of the West generally protect individual rights (freedom of speech, right to a trial, etc) and serve to restrain the government and also protect minorities from the majority.

(3) Scientific/Technological progress

The sheer amount of innovation and knowledge advancement that has taken place over the past several centuries has almost all been accomplished by the West. Putting a man on the moon, mass production, most of the health advancements, and most of the discoveries about the universe have been made by the West. Most of these innovations have improved the standard of living and quality of the average Western individual. Many of the innovations have also helped individuals and societies elsewhere.

 

Part Three: Advancing Western Civilization and the United States

Now that it has been demonstrated that civilization is superior to non-civilized societies (earlier in this paper) and that Western civilization has achieved the most progress for Homo Sapiens sapiens of any civilization; the obstacles, both internally and externally that Western civilization faces, must be exposed. The ways to overcome these obstacles must also be explored and developed.

The internal obstacles are mainly economic in nature, but before the economic obstacles are explained, the political/social and scientific/technological obstacles must be explained as well. Perhaps the two biggest political/social obstacles to more progress in the West are political correctness and "hate speech" laws; and the increased intrusion by governments and media corporations (Google, you tube, etc) on personal privacy. Both of these obstacles serve to intimidate individuals with "extreme" views, anti establishment/government views, and thus, limit and in the future, will shutdown the market place of ideas and this would actually, lead to regression, rather than progress. The scientific/technological problems the West faces are not significant now, but in the future, the West will have to develop more advanced technology and science when it comes to healthcare and productivity, due to the demographic conditions the West faces over the next several decades.

The economic obstacles the West faces are problems that the West faces both in the short run and long run. Perhaps the two biggest challenges the West faces are the rising public debts/future liabilities and the declining savings and investment rates. The high (and rising) levels of public debt will result in the governments sucking up more of societies resources to pay the interest of the debt (which results in even lower investment/savings and thus, the standard of living will remain stagnant, and maybe even regress). The declining levels of savings/investment will stagnate the standard of living as banks will have less capital/liquidity/money to loan out for productive investment/loans, which will stagnate production. Lower levels of investment also mean less Research and Development spending, which means less science spending and less innovation, which also stagnates the standard of living. The lower savings/investment rates though, are partially due to demographics; so any solution to remedy this must take this into account.

What is driving the public debt increases in Western Civilization though? Over the past several years, the global recession can be blamed. However, the massive rise in public debt in the long run (over the next several decades) can be almost entirely contributed to the rising health care, social security, and pension costs that are caused by the promises Western governments have made to their populations. These promises cannot be sustained and these "entitlement" programs must be reformed. If these programs are not reformed, Western civilization will collapse within a matter of a couple decades at most. Thus, the biggest problem to progress in the West are internal economic debt pressures and low investment/savings (partially caused by demographic changes).

There are four main external threats facing Western civilization. They are environmental degradation/climate change, a rising militant China, and Islamo-fascism. Environmental degradation threatens to drastically alter the water and food supplies and maybe drastically reduce these, leading to global instability and mass immigration/refugees, and many would go to the West, causing social unrest and cultural unrest. Environmental degradation will also lead to slower economic growth and cost billions if not tens of billions annually. A rising militant China will lead to the balance of power in the world to be thrown into chaos. As China acquires resources for its population using whatever means necessary, it will not only colonize, but will go to war with establishment and other rising powers in order for the regime to retain legitimacy by providing for its citizens. This will include confrontation, if not war, with the West and China is already engaged in economic and cyberwarfare with the West. Islamo-fascism and fundamentalist Islam in general present a demographic and cultural threat to the West (especially the millions of Muslim immigrants to Europe); but Islamo-fascism presents a unique threat. This ideology aims to acquire weapons of mass destruction and use them on not only on their fellow, less fundamentalist Muslims, but specifically on Western civilization and Israel (an offshoot and under the umbrella of Western civilization). These external threats, though they are not the greatest threat to progress in the West, they are the greatest threat to Western Civilizations preservation and survival. They are also the gravest threats to the survival of mankind.

The destiny of our species is to become a species that will rise to the heavens and become a species that explores other stars and colonizes other planets. The only way to achieve this is for Homo Sapiens sapiens to achieve a higher level of civilization, a level of civilization beyond what Western Civilization has developed. In order for this to happen, there must be a nation-state/political entity to act as the world leader/policeman. This entity must have the military, economic, and scientific capacity not only to preserve itself, but must have the ability to defend preserve civilization, build/advance civilization, and expand/export civilization. So far, there is only one political entity that has the capacity to do this for the benefit of mankind for generations and centuries to come. The United States of America.

There are other candidates, but these candidates either wouldn't be able to defend, preserve, build, advance, expand, and export (dpbaee) civilization and/or couldn't do it for the benefit of mankind. Though Chinese civilization/society has a lot to offer the world, the government of China is a gang of authoritarian psychotics hell bent on oppressing their own people and becoming an imperial power. The history of China has been one of imperialism going back at least 3000 years. Though Chinese dynasties then lacked the technology to establish an empire on the size/scale that Britain had at its peak of power, the will certainly wasn't lacking, and now China has a twofold will to establish an empire. The first is its historical imperialism/expansion. The second is the need for revenge after its century of humiliation at the hands of the West and Japan from about 1840 to 1950. The Chinese government/military was humiliated due to both opium wars and with the government's loss of legitimacy, the civil unrest and civil wars erupted in China which resulted in further weakness. This lead to the Japanese confidence in their ability to use China as a colony, which result in the Japanese occupation of China in the years before and during World war two. This brutal humiliation that result in tens of millions of Chinese dead from European powers, Japan, and internal unrest/civil war. The revenge that lingers in Chinese society, and the Chinese elites is great, and since the United States is now the leader of Western civilization, China will aim to undermine and replace the United States as the global leader and world police man. China will be militant not only because of this reason (revenge), but will also need to acquire  massive amounts of resources, especially in Africa, and will back authoritarian and genocidal regimes in Africa up to this point. In the future, China will use its military if necessary. These leaves China unqualified for the role of leading this species to the heavens.

Even if much of Europe were to become one political entity with the same/one fiscal, monetary, political, and military command/structure, Europe would still lack not only the demographics to be the global leader, but also the political/cultural "fire in the belly" to stand up for civilization against its enemies. Europe's likely  hood of political unity is slim though, especially as the global recession has arguable, hit Europe the hardest.

How can the United States lead the species into a more prosperous, free, and advanced tomorrow? First, the United States must be able to identify its weaknesses and area for improvement/progress, to make itself progress more in all three areas. Second, the United States must be powerful and influential enough to unilateral be capable of preserving not only itself, but Western civilization as a whole, Western offshoots (Australia and Israel), societies aligned with the West (Japan, South Korea), and be able to expand Western Civilization. This is not a call to invade countries that are not a part or aligned with the West, but it is to say that if a significant portion (majority of the population in a nation) want to align themselves with the West and/or become more free, democratic, secular, etc, than the United States needs the military capacity to unilateral remove the regime "governing" the nation and be able invest money and time into rebuilding the nations institutions (much like we helped to rebuild Germany and Japan after World War Two). Preferably though, the United States would work together with allies to do this if need be. The United States also needs to expand civilization, not only on this planet, but needs to invest tens of billions a year if not a couple hundred billion annually into...

(1) Creating/inventing new technology to make going into space and space travel/moon colonization cheaper, safer, and quicker

(2) Building space infrastructure orbiting the earth and on the moon

(3) Investing money into manned exploration of Mars

(4) Invest money into developing technology/craft/equipment that will allow Homo Sapiens sapiens to mine asteroids

(5) Invest money  into militarizing space

The United States also needs to lead the world into developing the technologies that will allow our species to reduce our CO2 emissions and also deal with the effects of climate change that will happen. Other technologies that would allow significant numbers of mankind to survive a catastrophic event, such as a comet impact, super volcano, or even gamma ray burst, should be developed. The means the United States needs to make itself the undisputed leader in science, higher education, primary education, innovation, and investment for the rest of the century. The World is also entering a new demographic age, unlike one ever seen before, which means that productivity per worker will have to rise drastically to maintain, let alone, improve standards of living in the first world (and some second/third world countries); and huge investments into making healthcare cheaper and robotic technology cheaper will have to be made as well. By making healthcare drastically cheaper, many if not most of the long term fiscal challenges facing this country will be eliminated as well. However, the next couple of decades will be the toughest in mankind's history, as the environment problems, the problems of terror, especially Islamo-fascism and cyber terror/attacks, rogue states, and a rising militant China. Mankind will need a protector, a leader, an illuminator, that can face down and defeat the challenges this species faces and lead our species to a better tomorrow. Unfortunately in the turmoil that will most likely occur over the next couple of decades may result in tens of millions if not hundreds of millions dead in wars, environmental degradation, manmade disasters, famine, civil war/unrest, etc. Unfortunately, a "might is right" principle might really come to life on the international scene, as only the major powers manage to maintain standards of living above third world conditions. Mankind will need a savior at this point, and though the United States is not perfect (especially now), the United States is the only entity that can be the savior, not only for continuing Western Civilization, but expanding and advancing Western civilization. Hopefully, this nation manages to get its act together and can fulfill the role of the savior of mankind and protector/advancer of civilization.

In this paper, several major items have been explored, including why civilization is good, what allows civilization to progress, why Western civilization is good, and what the United State's role is for preserving, advancing, and expanding civilization (western civilization in particular). Though many will agree and disagree on certain points made in this paper, this paper does establish a few points that are hard to dispute/disagree with. The first is that reason and freedom go hand and hand and cannot be separated; and are both necessary not only for civilization, but for developing morality as well. The second is that mankind needs a leader, savior, and protector in order to achieve its full potential. Hopefully for everyone reading this essay, the obvious answer will be a country that still has far to go, a country that is far from perfect, but is a country with perhaps, the most potential; the United States of America.

Works Cited

Krugman, Paul & Wells, Robin. (2012). Economics, Third Edition, New York City, New York. Worth Publishers.

Newman, D. (2010). Sociology . (8th ed.). New Delhi: Sage Publications.

Rand, A. (1967). Capitalism: The unknown ideal. (2 ed.). New York: New American Library.


Submitted: November 14, 2015

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