Book review 1 'the prince\" -- Human and power [T]he wise man should always follow the roads that have been trodden by the great, and imitate those who have most excelled, so that if he cannot reach their perfection, he may at least acquire something of its savour. Niccolo Machiavelli The Prince , 1513 by Nicolo Machiavelli (1469-1527)-Translated by W. K. Marriott The Prince other wise known as Principe is widely regarded as one of the most influential books on politics, especially on the acquisition, perpetuation, and use of political power. It is a political treatise by the Florentine public servant and political theorist Niccolò Machiavelli. It was written around 1513, but not published until 1532; five years after Machiavelli's death Machiavelli's observations continue to resonate with politicians, students, and scholars. Not intending his writing to be a scholarly treatise on political theory, Machiavelli wrote The Prince to gain the favor of the ruling Medici family, offering advice on how a prince might gain and keep power. The treatise is not actually representative of the work published during his lifetime, but it is certainly the most remembered, and the one responsible for bringing \"Machiavellian\" into wide usage as a pejorative term. In 1959, it was proposed by historian Garrett Mattingly that the book might be a satire, rather than Machiavelli's genuine conviction, because Machiavelli was a proponent of classical republicanism. This is plausible because the book was written after he was exiled from Florence by the returning Medici family, who imposed a democratic theocracy on Florence.Machiavelli justified rule by force rather than by law. Accordingly, The Prince seems to justify a number of actions done merely to perpetuate power. It is a classic study of power - how to get it, expand it and use it for maximum effect.The views expounded by Machiavelli in The Prince may seem extreme. However, his whole life was spent in Florence at a time of continuous political conflict. Accordingly, the main value that Machiavelli emphasized was the need for stability in a prince's domain. The theories expressed in The Prince are often venerated as very insightful and shrewd methods an aspiring prince can use to gain the throne, or an existing prince can use to establish and maintain his reign. According to Machiavelli, moral principles must yield to every circumstance, especially in such cases where sordid, inhumane actions may be required. It is imperative that the Prince be willing to do anything necessary to maintain power; however, Machiavelli asserts strongly that above all, the Prince must not be hated. He does give a concise answer on whether or not a prince should be feared or loved, he states, \"..a wise prince should establish himself on that which is his own control and not in that of others; he must endeavour to avoid hatred, as is noted.\" He also says \"It is best to be both feared and loved, however, if one cannot be both it is better to be feared than loved.\" The opening discourse of The Prince defines effective methods of governing in several types of principalities (for example, newly acquired vs. hereditary). Machiavelli explains to the reader, assumed to be a member of the Florentine aristocracy, of the best ways to acquire, maintain, and protect a state. The methods described therein preach war and ruthlessness. Next, Machiavelli explains the qualities the ideal prince should possess, modeled after Cesare Borgia. These are still cited in modern texts on leadership. The traits of an effective political leader are presented as: a willingness to imitate the behavior of great men, e.g. those of Ancient Rome in particular, the book being written in the Renaissance the ability to illustrate how government is necessary to the well-being of the populace, e.g. perhaps by demonstrating the consequences of yielding to mob rule by temporarily relaxing one's grip a dedication to the art of war — if only for the state's actual survival an understanding that apparent cruelties and vice may be essential to maintaining stability and power prudence with respect to disbursement of one's own wealth making efforts to appear religious to sway the \"vulgar.\" Machiavelli extols King Ferdinand of Spain for using the cloak of religion to invade Italy numerous times — he praises the tactic yet hates the invasion of Italy by other monarchs. the wisdom to seek advice and counsel only when it is needed It seems that Machiavelli disregards the connection between ethics and politics, which disturbed many of his contemporaries. Machiavelli actually departs from the classical conception of virtue in altering the connection between ethics and politics by altering the conception of virtue for a prince. The prince should endeavor to be seen as compassionate, trustworthy, sympathetic, honest, and religious. But in reality, the duties of the Prince very rarely allow him to actually be compassionate, etc. The last few chapters are concerned with the state of Italy at the time of writing (including \"an exhortation to liberate Italy from the barbarians\"). These are the chapters : · CHAPTER I: HOW MANY KINDS OF PRINCIPALITIES THERE ARE, AND BY WHAT MEANS THEY ARE ACQUIRED · CHAPTER II: CONCERNING HEREDITARY PRINCIPALITIES · CHAPTER III: CONCERNING MIXED PRINCIPALITIES · CHAPTER IV: WHY THE KINGDOM OF DARIUS, CONQUERED BY ALEXANDER,DID NOT REBEL AGAINST THE SUCCESSORS OF ALEXANDER AT HIS DEATH · CHAPTER V: CONCERNING THE WAY TO GOVERN CITIES OR PRINCIPALITIES WHICH LIVED UNDER THEIR OWN LAWS BEFORE THEY WERE ANNEXED · CHAPTER VI: CONCERNING NEW PRINCIPALITIES WHICH ARE ACQUIRED BY ONE'S OWN ARMS AND ABILITY · CHAPTER VII: CONCERNING NEW PRINCIPALITIES WHICH ARE ACQUIRED EITHER BY THE ARMS OF OTHERS OR BY GOOD FORTUNE · CHAPTER VIII: CONCERNING THOSE WHO HAVE OBTAINED A PRINCIPALITY BY WICKEDNESS · CHAPTER IX: CONCERNING A CIVIL PRINCIPALITY · CHAPTER X: CONCERNING THE WAY IN WHICH THE STRENGTH OF ALL PRINCIPALITIES OUGHT TO BE MEASURED · CHAPTER XI: CONCERNING ECCLESIASTICAL PRINCIPALITIES · CHAPTER XII: HOW MANY KINDS OF SOLDIERY THERE ARE, AND CONCERNING MERCENARIES · CHAPTER XIII: CONCERNING AUXILIARIES, MIXED SOLDIERY, AND ONE'S OWN · CHAPTER XIV: THAT WHICH CONCERNS A PRINCE ON THE SUBJECT OF THE ART OF WAR · CHAPTER XV: CONCERNING THINGS FOR WHICH MEN, AND ESPECIALLY PRINCES, ARE PRAISED OR BLAMED · CHAPTER XVI: CONCERNING LIBERALITY AND MEANNESS · CHAPTER XVII: CONCERNING CRUELTY AND CLEMENCY, AND WHETHER IT IS BETTER TO BE LOVED THAN FEARED · CHAPTER XVIII: CONCERNING THE WAY IN WHICH PRINCES SHOULD KEEP FAITH · CHAPTER XIX: THAT ONE SHOULD AVOID BEING DESPISED AND HATED · CHAPTER XX: ARE FORTRESSES, AND MANY OTHER THINGS TO WHICH PRINCES OFTEN RESORT, ADVANTAGEOUS OR HURTFUL? · CHAPTER XXI: HOW A PRINCE SHOULD CONDUCT HIMSELF SO AS TO GAIN RENOWN · CHAPTER XXII: CONCERNING THE SECRETARIES OF PRINCES · CHAPTER XXIII: HOW FLATTERERS SHOULD BE AVOIDED · CHAPTER XXIV: THE PRINCES OF ITALY HAVE LOST THEIR STATES · CHAPTER XXV: WHAT FORTUNE CAN EFFECT IN HUMAN AFFAIRS, AND HOW TO WITHSTAND HER · CHAPTER XXVI: AN EXHORTATION TO LIBERATE ITALY FROM THE BARBARIANS The author Nicolo Machiavelli, 1469-1527, Italian political philosopher and statesman, a diplomat in the pay of the Republic of Florence, Born in Florence, Italy on May 3, 1469 to an influential family, Niccolo Machiavelli received a quality, classical education, typical of the humanist traditions of Renaissance Italy. Throughout most of Machiavelli’s life, the Medici family was the ruling class of Italy. However, when the Medici family briefly lost influence in 1494, Machiavelli was appointed a position in the new Florentine Republic. In his new position, Machiavelli was given access to the major political and military leaders of Europe and traveled extensively observing the inner-workings of foreign affairs firsthand. As defense secretary of the Florentine republic he substituted a citizens' militia for the mercenary system. Through diplomatic missions he became acquainted with power politics, meeting such leaders as Cesare BORGIA. to whom he alludes countless times throughout The Prince. However, in 1512 the Medici family regained power in Florence and Machiavelli was arrested on a charge of conspiracy against the new regime. He was tortured, and although soon released and pardoned he retired to the Florentine hinterlands where he authored many works, including: On the Art of War, History of Florence, Discourses on Livy and The Prince. The Florentine Republic was restored, but Machiavelli was not appointed to his old position because many believed he had too many ties to the Medici Family. Machiavelli later died that same year, at Florence on 22nd June 1527.His \"ideal\" prince is an amoral and calculating tyrant capable of unifying Italy. Despite the ruthless connotation of the term achiavellian, such works as the Discourses (1531) and the History of Florence (1532) express republican principles. Machiavelli also wrote poems and plays, notably the comedy Mandragola (1524). The Prince was published in 1532, five years after his death.the prince The Prince (1532), which he wrote after the overthrow of the Republic forced him into exile describes the means by which a leader may gain and maintain power. It is widely regarded as one of the basic texts of Western political science, and represents a basic change in the attitude and image of government. From the Concise Columbia Encyclopedia. Copyright © 1991 by Columbia University Press. The following additional texts by Macchiavelli are appended. Description of The Methods Adopted by The Duke Valentino When Murdering Vitellozzo Vitelli, Oliverotto Da Fermo, The Signor Pagolo, And The Duke Di Gravina Orsini The Life of Castruccio Castracani of Lucca 1284-1328 Project Gutenberg Header I a very sure the whole world is confused today about managemnet of power , and who to really give it , and things are drstically changing everywhere as acquiring power via cururuption becoming less and less- thie book is interesing ,,because it has a lot of influence on the way most people that has power rule today , machivali stated his view from his experience and knowledge , he sited various exemples and advantages and and left, options for rulers to chose .based on their wisdome time and circumstance-- as usual to chose for huan is always there ,,,to chose eoght is about wisdom-- the book offer oportunity to weigh the way people are rulling and filterout the disadvange for decision on what path to take.
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