Using ICT in Primary Education Studies in the Nigerian Education

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ICT and Primary Education Studies. Akinyetun Owolabi

Submitted: July 12, 2013

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Submitted: July 12, 2013

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INTRODUCTION

 

  1. BACKGROUND TO THE STUDY

 

Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is all about records, management, communication, enhancement and retrieval of information in an organization using advanced technology such as the computer and other telecommunication and electronic device (Kurt, 2000). Oliver and Chapman (1993) defined Information Technology as that which supports activities involving the creation, storage, manipulating and communication of the information together with their related management method and application.

Critical examination of the definition of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) above, modern technology is no doubt a major factor in increasing productivity, speed and accuracy of Information and Communication process as well as improving the quality of work in business, commerce, industry and education among others.

“Information and Communication Technology (ICT), as the major revolution of our time has progressively invaded individual lives sometimes to our surprise. It has significantly impacted on all aspects of our life. On education, it has radically influenced the way; knowledge and information are generally developed and transmitted” Akinyetun (2000).

Considering the view from the educational perspective, chalkboard, textbooks, radio, television and film have been used for educational purpose over the years but none has quite impacted on educational process like the computer. While television and film impact are only on the audio visual faculties of users, the computer is capable of achieving the sense of sight, hearing and touch of the users. Information and Communication Technology (ICT) has the capacity to provide higher interactive potential for user to develop their individual, intellectual and creative ability.

With the advent and pervasiveness of information communication technology (ICT), the Internet has been widely accepted as an important tool in life and education in recent decades. Active diffusion of information technology through investments in national information infrastructures and education has become a world trend (Halverson & Collins, 2006). In order to adapt to this technological innovation in education and to keep abreast of world trends, Nigerian Ministry of Education (MOE, 2007; 2009) holds the diffusion of IT in education as one of its major tasks and has invested a great deal of money towards it.

Consequently, the availability of computer equipment is not a major problem in facilitating IT in education in Nigeria. As a result, the facilities in most of the computer labs and for teacher training have been greatly improved. It is anticipated that education reform can be further accelerated and learning opportunities increased.

However, in Nigeria the traditional goal of education and the prevailing social value of obtaining a high grade continue to dominate the core practices of schooling (Young, 1999a, 1999b, 2000a, 2000b, 2001, & 2006).

Observations of school practices indicate that the national policies on implementing IT in education, such as the inclusion of supplementary digitized learning resources, have indeed had some impact on teachers and motivated them to change. In general, there is not much widespread use of technology practices in most schools’ regular curricula.

Overwhelmingly, core instructional practice is still examination-oriented, and the use of ICT in teaching practice in schools remains marginal.

Most of the time, the positive effects of applying IT arise from specially funded experiments during certain periods of time. Those teachers who were early adaptors of technology were more likely to adapt to the change by taking on projects such as providing additional alternative options for students (Young, 2006).

ICT in education is being promoted and studied in various countries and, in general, these countries’ goals are similar: to provide more effective learning and competitive manpower in the international market. However, research conducted in any one country may not yield results completely applicable to other countries because of cultural differences, educational traditions, economic status, or political priorities. Every country has its contextually specific problems (Belland, 1998). This project will report on an investigation of uses of ICT in Primary Education Studies in the Nigeria Schools as a means to expand and enhance student learning in an extracurricular setting. It will document how ICT has been integrated into an alternative instructional setting through project-based learning (PBL) and cooperative learning. It will put forward the case that, ultimately, ICT will enable learners to open up a new window to the outside world and bridge the information divide.

 

  1. STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

 

Today, as the educational is faced with series of changes and reforms numerous teaching strategies have been developed which correspond to the accommodation of student’s need and diverse learning method. One of such strategy involves the use of information and communication technology (ICT).

 

The relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the teaching and learning of Primary Education Studies cannot be underestimated. The most challenging aspect of the post industrial era is how to meet the demand of the modern age. As society changes, the educational system has to change accordingly.

 

There is an inherent problem of distractions when students read in a non-automated setting because they would have to get up from their reading desk in search of one reference material or the other.

 

Thus, the inadequate or lack of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) use has enabled most would-be-teachers not to become creative in stimulating and managing the learning process by infusing a range of preferred learning styles and using Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in achieving education goals.

 

Also, considering the enormous benefits that are experienced in the impact of ICT in education, the Nigerian students still experience some obstacles or hindrances in the instructional process. This can be viewed from firstly, the teachers or lecturers who lack ICT skills, followed by students who as well lack ICT skills which will thereby limit the effectiveness of the instructional process.

However, it has been found out that some students who are meant to be benefactors of this innovative – use of ICT in teaching and learning, lack proper skills to manipulate ICT tools.

 

In a study conducted by Akinyetun (2007), he reported that some NCE graduates complain of unemployment and or lack of job satisfaction where one of the reasons they mentioned was that some primary schools have already integrated ICT in their instructional process and some of these graduates cannot manipulate these devices let alone use it to impart knowledge.

 

This corresponds with another study of Akinyetun (2009) where he found out that students in private schools have higher academic performance than students in public schools. One of the reasons he stated was because most public school teachers and students lack ICT skills and also do not have adequate ICT tools and facilities in their homes and school.

 

However, it has been found out that some students who are meant to be benefactors of this innovative – use of ICT in teaching and learning, lack proper skills to manipulate ICT tools.

 

In a study conducted by Akinyetun (2007), he reported that some teacher trainee graduates complain of unemployment and or lack of job satisfaction where one of the reasons they mentioned was that some primary schools have already integrated ICT in their instructional process and some of these graduates cannot manipulate these devices let alone use it to impart knowledge.

This corresponds with another study of Akinyetun (2009) where he found out that students in private schools have higher academic performance than students in public schools. One of the reasons he stated was because most public school teachers and students lack ICT skills and also do not have adequate ICT tools and facilities in their homes and school.

Despite the contributions of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to the instructional process and its liable effect on the Primary Education Studies (PES) students, there are some impediments to the successful use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the classroom settings. These impediments are as follows:

i. Lack of fund

ii. Students competence level

iii. High cost of computer hardware and software

iv. Lack of stable electricity supply

v. Weak infrastructure.

vi. Lack of skills

vii. Limited access to the internet.

Thus, this research tends to proffer solution to the above mentioned problem so as to avoid disparity in education.

 

  1. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY

 

The purpose of this study is to:

i. Examine the level of ICT literacy among students especially in Colleges of Education.

ii. Examine the relevance of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to effective teaching and learning of Primary Education Studies.

iii. Assess if Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in the process of teaching and learning will be a great advantage to Primary Education Studies students.

iv. To find out what factors are militating against students’ competence as ICT is concerned.

v. Evaluate the competence of students’ use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) and their academic performance in Primary Education courses.

vi. Determine the problems associated with the use of ICT tools such as computer audio visual and internet printed materials as instructional technologies in the Primary Education Studies.

vii. Provide suggestion and recommendation of ICT tools and it use as instructional technologies in teaching and learning process of Primary Education Studies.

 

  1. RESEARCH QUESTIONS

 

This research will be carried out in order to provide answers to the following research questions:

i. Is there any significant relationship between the use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) in teaching and learning process and learners’ academic performance in Primary Education Studies?

ii. Is there any significant relationship between the academic performance of learners who are ICT literate and learners who are not in Primary Education Studies?

iii. Is there any significant relationship between the lack or inadequate use of ICT in Primary Education

Studies and the achievement of educational goals?

 

  1. SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

 

The result of the study will enable Primary Education Studies students and teachers to know and appreciate the role and impact of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to achieve both personal and educational goals.

It is also believed that the result of these findings will be of interest to the policy maker, curriculum developers, corporate bodies and the general masses that are continuously searching for Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to be adapted to education for development. To this effect, for many teachers to be at a leadership position, the study shall bring to their awareness that they must effectively make use of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) to improve the academic performance of the students in the classroom.

The study shall be of significance to the government as it will create in them the awareness of ICT challenges and strategies of implementing its effective use in schools.

To the students, the study shall create in them the spirit to develop the right attitude towards the use of ICT as this will further help their academic performance.

The study shall also enable curriculum planners to include the teaching of computer as an ICT tools in primary and primary school and Primary Education Studies curriculum.

Finally, the study shall be of great importance to parent as to enable them to cater for the needs of their children/ward especially in the provision of that which will foster their education.

 

Literature Review

 

INTRODUCTION

Information and communication technologies (ICT) are electronic technologies used for information storage and retrieval. Development is partly determined by the ability to establish a synergistic interaction between technological innovation and human values. The rapid rate at which ICTs have evolved since the mid 20th century, the convergence and pervasiveness of ICTs, give them a strong role in development and globalization (Nwagwu, 2006). ICTs have a significant impact on all areas of human activity (Brakel and Chisenga, 2003).

The field of education has been affected by ICTs, which have undoubtedly affected teaching, learning, and research (Yusuf, 2005). A great deal of research has proven the benefits to the quality of education (Al-Ansari, 2006). ICTs have the potential to accelerate, enrich, and deepen skills, to motivate and engage students, to help relate school experience to work practices, create economic viability for tomorrow's workers, as well as strengthening teaching and helping schools change (Davis and Tearle, 1999; Lemke and Coughlin, 1998; cited by Yusuf, 2005).

In a rapidly changing world, basic education is essential for an individual be able to access and apply information. Such ability must find include ICTs in the global village. The Economic Commission for Africa has indicated that the ability to access and use information is no longer a luxury, but a necessity for development. Unfortunately, many developing counties, especially in Africa, are still low in ICT application and use (Aduwa-Ogiegbean and Iyamu, 2005).

history of the Nigerian education system

Formal education in Nigeria is traceable to the efforts of European Missionaries around 1842. Education at this time was regarded as of funda mental importance to the spread of Christianity (Esu 1997). Thus, education introduced at this early stages was interwoven with Christian evan gelism. The missionaries established and ran the early schools in Nigeria. They also designed the curriculum for such schools and devoted their meagre resources to the opening of schools for young Nigerians.

All missionaries who came to Nigeria combined evangelical and educational work together. Consequently, early mission schools were founded by the Methodist Church of Scotland Mission , the Church Missionary Society (CMS) and the Roman Catholics.

By 1882, the CMS. had seventeen elemen tary and infant day schools for boys and girls in var 1 ious parts of Lagos. Nine of these schools were under the direction of the Lagos Church of England School Board while others were managed by the local board of the Church Missionary Society.

However, the spread of western education in the north was not as smooth as it was in the south. This was because the north had enjoyed the Islamic system of education for many years before intro » duction of western education. However, efforts were made by different missions to open primary schools in the north (See Table 6.2.2) The subjects taught in majority of the elementary schools include : Scripture, English Compositions, English Grammar, Arithmetic, Geography, Music, Singing, Reading, Writing, Dictation, and for girls Sewing (Fafunwa 1974). The emphasis in the infant class fees was on the teaching of the 3 Rs (Reading, Writing and Arithmetic). The growth of schools was, however, limited by lack of funds and sometimes parents' unwillingness to send their children especially girls to school.

 

INTRODUCTION OF PRIMARY EDUCATION STUDIES IN NIGERIA

Education clearly denotes intrinsic worthwhile activities. It is a process of being initiated into knowledge and understanding which in turn regulate the recipients’ attitudes, emotions, wants and

actions. Jaiyeoba (2007) perceived education as a priority sector in every well-meaning society, she referred to it as a major force in economic, intellectual, social and cultural empowerment. The value of education in bringing about character and attitudinal change ranks as important as its ability to change and reshape human potentials for desired development. Education, globally as well as in Nigeria is majorly divided into three levels- the primary, secondary and the tertiary education.

The primary education serves as the foundational level of all other education by providing the children with a good preparatory ground for further education. According to Quadri (2001) the Section 4, page 12 of the National Policy on Education (2004) described primary education as the

“education given in an institution for children aged normally between 6 years to 11 years plus.” The primary education level is the key to the success or failure of the whole educational edifice because the rest of the educational system is built upon it. Primary education according to the National Policy on Education (NPE, 2004) is likened to the key which opens to success or failure of the whole educational system. Akande (2010) reiterated Njoku (2000) regarded primary education as very vital

and fundamental to all Primary Education Studies of education any person can receive in life.

Primary education in particular is the level of education that develops in the individual the capacity to read, write and calculate. In other words, it helps to eradicate illiteracy, which is one of the strongest predictors of poverty (Bruns, Mingat & Rakotamalala 2003). Thus, Primary education is the only level of education that is available everywhere in both the developed and the developing countries as well as in urban and rural areas (Akinbote, Oduolowu & Lawal 2001). This explains why primary

education is the largest sub-sector of any education system and offers the unique opportunity to contribute to the transformation of societies through the education of the young ones (UNESCO 2001).

 

In realization of the fact that unequal access to educational opportunity is one of the strongest correlates of social in equality, the Federal Government has embarked on a massive expansion of access to primary education. The 1976 UPE and the current UBE programmes were aimed at making basic education accessible to all children of school

age irrespective of their social, economic, cultural or geographical backgrounds. As one should expect, there has also been a corresponding expansion of secondary and tertiary education including teacher education in Nigeria.

However, the quality of primary education has not kept abreast of the expansion in enrolment. Although, this according to UNESCO (2001) continues to be a global concern, yet it is the general belief that the competence of teachers is central to the education of children. In a way therefore, what constitutes competence in teaching is intimately connected with the type of teacher education programmes available for preparing primary school teachers. Therefore one of the problems of teacher education

for primary schools in Nigeria is the poor quality of teachers produced from the Teachers’ Colleges (Taiwo 1982).

The Nigeria Certificate in Education (NCE) has now become the minimum teaching qualification in the country. This implies that no primary school teachers in Nigeria is expected to possess a teaching qualification lower than the NCE. This could be regarded as a bold attempt at improving the quality of teachers who will be able to help us achieve the aspirations we hold for our children. In order to achieve this, the number of Colleges of Education has risen from only six in 1976 to about 72 presently

(Akinbote 1999). This has led to a mass production of NCE teachers for both the primary and secondary levels of education. May be we have sacrificed quality for quantity in our desire to have NCE teachers for all our primary schools

 

Teacher Education in Nigeria

The school system in Nigeria is often influenced by the constant changes that are occurring within the political institutions. The ability of the stakeholders and actors within the educational system to adapt to the organizational changes has attracted attention in the last decade. Currently, there is controversy as to the nature, pattern and methods of training teachers in the country. At the centre of the controversy is the confusion over the role of the educational administrators in secondary schools.

Teaching involves the use of wide body of knowledge about the subject being taught. Teachers at all levels of the educational system are very important in the overall development of any nation. Teachers’ education is the process which nurtures prospective teachers and updates qualified teachers’ knowledge and skills in the form of continuous professional development. It is on this basis that the educational administrators play several roles in teacher education in Nigeria. The terms, teachers training in this study is used interchangeably with teachers education. Teachers’ education revolves around the policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitude, behaviour and skills required in the performance of effective duties in the classrooms and in other social gatherings including churches. Teachers’ education is often divided into three stages namely:

•Initial teacher training

•The induction process involving the training and supports of the trainees during the 1st few years of teaching or the 1st year in a particular school

•Teacher development or continuing performing development and intensive process for practicing teachers

 

The previous processes and stages of professional development of teachers constitute the concept of teacher training and/or teacher education. In fact, there has been a long standing and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe teacher education and educational administrators. This is due to the fact that teaching involves the use of wide body of knowledge about the subject being thought and another set of knowledge about the most effective ways to teach that subject to students at any level of the education system in the country.

The teacher stands out as one the most important factors determining the quality of education and its contributions to national development. At every level people who go to school look on the teacher for the acquisition of the necessary skills to enable them become what they want to be. Thus, students often look on the personal qualities, their educational qualities and professional competence which are rewarding to the learners. It is on this note that the role of educational administrators in assisting teachers to help students achieve the objective of instructions in their various fields of endeavor stands paramount and a challenge in the 21st century.

How should the teacher present himself in order to get his message across? How can he communicate effectively in the class? Under what kind of environment can the message get across? What pedagogical approaches are effective? These among other question are of interest not only to students and teachers but also to school administrators (Onuoha, 1975).

Accordingly, the principal is regarded as the chief executive of the school who is responsible for all that happens in the school (Nakpodia, 2006). As the chief executive, the principal assigns duties to those who could perform the duties though all responsibilities still resides in him as the accounting officer.

It is in this regard that Babayemi noted that the position of the principal as involving the control of human and material resources of the school. The position of the principal in the school is so important to the extent that the school cannot exist without that position. Babayemi further noted that the principal is the supervisory manager; school climate developer and change facilitator. Akpa opined that the principal is a human resources manager and a liaison and public relations officer as well as an instructional leader. Obemeata describes the principal as a manger, administrator, an exemplary leader, a counsellor, a public officer, a building contractor, a nurse and even a messenger.

 

The need for teacher education: Teacher education is policies and procedures designed to equip prospective teachers with the knowledge, attitude, behaviors and skills they require to perform their tasks effectively in the classroom, school, the church and the local and wider unity. Although, ideally it should be conceived of and organized as a seamless continuum, teacher education is often divided into these stages:

•Initial teacher training (a pre-service hour before entering the classroom as a fully responsible teacher

•Induction the process of providing training and support during the 1st few years of teaching or the 1st year in a particular school

•Teacher development or Continuing Performing Development (CPD) (and intensive process for practicing teachers)

 

There is a longstanding and ongoing debate about the most appropriate term to describe these activities. The term teacher training (which may give the impression that the activity involves training staff to undertake relatively routine tasks) seems to be losing ground to teacher education (with its connotation of preparing staff for a professional role as a reflective practitioner). The objective of Nigerian teacher education should emphasize 21st century the training of highly motivated, conscientious and successful classroom teachers for all educational levels. It should encourage in potential teachers, a spirit of improving creativity, nationalism and belongingness. It should help the prospective teacher to live into the social life of home and community provide him with intellectual and professional backgrounds adequate for his assignments, provide the teacher who by his training and discipline will be adaptable to the changing roles of education in society. In fact, the Nigerian teacher education in the 21st century should produce knowledgeable programme and effective teachers who can inspire children to learn. These objectives are to be obtained with the efforts of the educational administration who is saddled with various responsibilities of managing the human, financial and material resources of the school.

Since, the 1st teacher training college was established by the Church Missionary Society in 1859, teacher education continues to be the very to educational development in the country and elsewhere, it must be noted that without an adequate trained teaching cadre Nigeria cannot hope to expand her educational facilities. This level of training continues to get considerable attention and support from the federal and state government. Most teachers are trained at government expense and many should receive allowances while in training by the 21st century as it was in the past. Indeed teacher education continues to be the most heavily subsidised level of education in Nigeria. Therefore, the educational administrator should possess some qualities and principles and there should be basis for their selection for them to perform their role creditably in the school system.

At the head of leadership in teacher education in Nigeria is the principal who administers the school with other teaching and non-teaching staff. Accordingly, the principal is regarded as the chief executive of the school and is responsible for all that happens in the school. As the chief executive, the principal assigns duties to those who could perform the duties though, all responsibilities still reside in him as the accounting officer. It is in this regard that Bele (1996) views principalship as involving the control of human and material resources of the school. The position of the principal in the school is so germane to the extent that the school cannot exist without that position. Bele further sees the principal as the supervisor manager, school climate developer and change facilitator. Earlier, Fagbulu (1972) sees the principal as a human resource manager, a liaison and public relation officer as well as an instructional leader.

 

The educational administrators and nigerian educational system: Educational administrators are senior persons in teacher education such as the school head who come closest to the people who are responsible for overall school system. In any sense, some claims made on educational administrator would sound inferior but it is a fact that educational administrators are rarely supermen but they do represent an experience other than any man could achieve men. In teacher education, the school head such as the principal is regarded as the educational administrator in the secondary school system and he is the key person in the administrative organization. The principal is appointed as a result of such friction arid seniority. It is his duty to oversee the proper running of the school in terms of staff and student welfare, development and implementation of educational programmes, provision of proper instruction, school-community relations, discipline and proper keeping of school records. Other duties include students’ admissions, proper documentation of school finances and the creation of a conducive atmosphere.

The search for an appropriate educational system and educational administrators that restructured the Nigerian mind and imbue it with that germ of self actualization in politics, social, economic, educational and cultural values experience a break through only in 1977 when the new national policy of education was formulated now revised in 2004 based on the 6-3 to 3-4 system of the American decentralized educational system. The process of transmitting the new national policy of education into practical reality has not been easy as the country is faced with the characteristic problems of development. Indeed it is not much of a surprise that the situation is so for a country which was discovered, invades, subjects, governed then educated, converted and assisted at the same time being discriminated against like most other African countries (Gordon, 1955).

The national policy on the educational system in Nigeria is government way of realizing that part of the national goals which can be achieved using education as a tool. No policy on education however can be formulated without 1st identifying the overall philosophy and goals of the nation that is to live in unity and harmony as one indivisible, indissoluble and democratic nation and for a free and democratic society.

Nigerian law requires compulsory education for all students between the ages of 6 and 15 years. Students in primary and secondary school attend three equally divided sessions from January through December with about a month vacation between sessions. In 1982, Nigeria switched to the American system of six primary, three junior secondary and three senior secondary school grades but the rigid examination system remained. To qualify for entry into Junior Secondary School (JSS), Senior Secondary School (SSS) and higher education, nationwide examinations are held each year. Because exam scores determine a student’s future educational choices, schools tend to stress memorization of facts rather than creative problem solving. There are not enough senior secondary schools in Nigeria so most students who finish JSS go into the workforce.

Certain federal and state agencies plan and carry out special education programs. Teachers receive training to teach in these programs. Mostly, though the government encourages integration of special education students into the regular schools. The ministry of social development, youth and sports also runs centers throughout the nation to help train people with special needs.

There are three major categories of higher or tertiary education. One is postsecondary which is non-university level training in technical and vocational fields. Students receive certificates of training for completing work-oriented courses. The second type of higher education institution consists of higher technical but non-university level programs offered at technical colleges, polytechnics and colleges of education. They usually offer a variety of options for students that lead to a National Diploma (ND) for 2 years of study or a Higher National Diploma (HND) for 4 years of study. The 3rd type of tertiary institution is the degree-granting institution offering bachelor's and higher degrees.

About two-thirds of the universities are federally owned and a majority of the others are state-owned. There are 13 federally owned and 14 state-owned polytechnic colleges. Unlike primary and secondary schools, the institutions of higher education normally follow a 15 weeks semester system, running from October to mid July.

 

Concept of Learning Environment

Learning environment refers to the context in which learning takes place. It is the surrounding circumstance which affects learning. An environment in which learning occurs can be as wide as a particular society and it may be viewed as an educational institution. According to Nwadiani (2000), a learning environment is the condition and influence which a learner comes in contact with, resulting in a series of complex interactions and ensuring a permanent change in behaviour. This definition implies that an individual’s acquisition of skills, knowledge and competencies, would occur under certain conditions and influences. In the education system, there are physical, social economic and cultural conditions which influence an individual. These conditions encompass both internal and external factors which affect the quality, quantity and type of knowledge as individual learner acquires.

In the view of Obanya (2007), education does not occur in a vacuum. It grows in a socio-political-economic environment and there can be no education without a society. Thus, a society provides a macro environment in which a school is located and from which it draws its resources. Within the school, there is also a micro environment which influences the operation and the extent to which educational objectives can be achieved. Therefore, the development of an individual, through knowledge and skill acquisition in schools, could be influenced positively or negatively by the socio-political and economic conditions of the environment. This is probably the reason why Akubue (1991) stated that:

A good learning environment has the advantage of fostering desirable behaviour and attitude; developing problem-solving skills and creative thought; encouraging students’ interrelationships and fostering learner-centred methods (p.10).

A primary school is a formal organization where teachers and learners’ activities are planned, organized and controlled on internally and externally. It is a formal learning environment which is influenced internally and from outside physically, academically, socially and culturally. According to Akere, Esan, Obashoro and Osondu (1998), the school as a learning environment comprises physical, academic, social and cultural environments.

The physical environment is made up of school location, physical features and structures within and outside the school. For example, a school may be located in urban or rural areas, noisy or quiet areas. Buildings, equipment and infrastructures available within a school and its surroundings also constitute its physical environment.

Academic environment is reflected by curricular and co-curricular activities in which teachers and learners engage in classrooms libraries, laboratories  and other places in the school. Social environment is created through interaction among teachers and learners in classrooms and other places in the school. The cultural environment consists of rules, regulations, values and discipline. It also includes all school activities which are meant to initiate the learners into societal culture. These give the school its own tradition.

Dominant among these features is the physical environment. It reflects the political, social, economic and intellectual capacities of the environment both internally and externally. Olagboye (2004) referred to them as physical resources, school plant or school facilities.

The physical learning environment is vital to the achievement of educational objectives. However, as observed by Nwadiani (2000), many classrooms are dilapidated, overcrowded, incomplete without doors, window shutters, chairs and tables for teachers and students. This situation is as true today as in the year 2001.

 

Objectives of primary education

The five main national goals of Nigeria, which have been endorsed as the necessary foundation for the National Policy on Education are, according to FRN (2004):

a.a free and democratic society;

b.a just and egalitarian society;

c.a great and dynamic economy;

d.a land full of bright opportunities for all citizens.

It is from these national goals that Nigeria philosophy on education is formulated. Subsequently, the national education goals were derived from the philosophy and one of the national educational goals among others is, “the acquisition of appropriate skills and the development of mental, physical and social abilities and competencies as equipment for the individual to live in and contribute to the development of the society” (p.5).

Based on the development of mental physical and social abilities and acquisition of skills, the Nigerian educational system has been divided into pre-primary, primary, secondary and tertiary levels. Each educational level seeks to develop individual and skills are acquired at every level of education.

Primary education according to FRN (2004), is the education given in institutions for children aged 6 to 11 years. It is the foundation on which education is built and it is for a period of 6 years.

The objectives/goals of primary education are to:

a.inculcate permanent literacy and numeracy, and ability to communicate effectively;

b.lay a sound basis for scientific and effective thinking;

c.give citizenship education as a basis for effective participation in and contribute to the life of the society;

d.mould the character and develop sound attitude and morals in the child;

e.develop in the child the ability to adapt to the child’s changing environment;

f.give the child opportunities for developing manipulative skills that will enable the child function effectively in the society within the limits of the child’s capacity;

g.provide the child with basic tools for further educational advancement, including preparation for trades and crafts of the locality.

The section on primary education in FRN (2004) concluded with “Government shall therefore provide basic infrastructure and training for the realization of this goal” section 19(1) mentions that government welcomes the contributions of voluntary, agencies, communities and private individuals in the establishment and management of primary schools. This is in recognition of the fact that education is a big business venture and therefore the need for others to participate.

 

Government Efforts towards improvement of learning environment

The physical learning environment which is popularly referred to as the infrastructure catches the attention of the government more than any other aspect of learning environment. The infrastructural facilities of primary schools had been for some years preceding Universal Basic Education (UBE) in Nigeria, neglected. Roofs of many schools had fallen off. Many of the buildings were dilapidated. There were no enough seats for the pupils to sit. The sites of many primary schools, prior 1999, were appalling and not inviting.

After UBE was launched in 1999, primary schools began to wear new looks. There was deliberate effort towards improvement of the physical environment. Many schools were built, a large number were repaired and in FGN (2006) booklet of UBE Commission, the criteria for utilization of UBE intervention fund stipulates that infrastructural development takes 70% of the fund. This includes classroom construction, classroom furniture, classroom renovation/rehabilitation. Laboratory/workshop equipment, Introductory Technology equipment, Borehole construction, construction of toilets and so on. While textbooks and working materials attract only 15%.

After the national initiative of the Federal Government towards the improvement of learning environment through UBE, some state governments like Kano, Kaduna and Kwara in 2007 initiated State Education Sector Project (SESP) which was sponsored by World Bank through their IDA Credit and DFID. This school development scheme is in line with the commitment of the State Governments of these three states to improve the quality of education. School Development Scheme is “about efforts to make schools better places for children to learn by strengthening school relationships” (FGN, 2007: ). In this scheme also, “schools are encouraged to focus on improving the learning outcomes of their pupils and to develop a comprehensive plan which explicitly links all proposed activities to the improvement of teaching and learning and pupil welfare” (p.5)

 

RESEARCH METHODOLOGY

 

Research Design

Descriptive survey research was adopted for the study. The reason behind this choice is based on the fact that the design is mostly used to collect factual detailed information that describes the existing phenomena of identified problems or justify current conditions and practices to determine what others are doing with similar problems or situations and benefit from the experience and to make future plans and decisions (Ayoade 2003). This design will therefore, ensure that teachers and students’ attitude towards the use of computer in English language, is properly investigated.

Population Of The Study

The target population for this study included some selected primary school teachers in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State where 100 teachers were randomly selected in five (5) randomly primary schools in Ojo Local Government Area of Lagos State.

3.6 RELIABILITY OF THE INSTRUMENT

In a bid to ascertain the reliability of the instrument where the instrument measures what it is purported to, the same test was divided into two comparable halves after administration and each half was treated as a test in its own right using the split half reliability technique.

3.7 ADMINISTRATION OF INSTRUMENT

Having made several copies of the well structured questionnaire the researcher set out to the each of the five (5) randomly selected schools in Ojo Local Government of Lagos State.

The questionnaires were then administered to different teachers after the permission of the schools heads. The respondents showed their opinion after a brief explanation by the researcher on the need for the administration.

Having administered the questionnaire, the questionnaires were collected immediately after some time given to respondent to express their opinion on the spot of administration which helped to reduce the incidence of loss, mutilation. Also the results of the last national examination of learners were collected from the principals of each school.

 

3.8 METHOD OF DATA ANALYSIS

 

The data that will collected will be well tabulated for statistical analysis where a simple percentage method will be used to analyze the demographic data of respondents and chi-square statistical tool will be used to analyse all data collected on respondents opinion on statement generated based on the research hypotheses. It will aid in finding out if there was a relationship between two variables certified in each hypothesis and this was calculated at 0.05 as degree of freedom for chi-square (x2)

 

 

DISCUSSION OF FINDINGS

This research analysis is to find out the Impact of (ICT) Information Communicating Technology in the teaching and learning process of Pes

 

The research shows that 100 teachers were sampled using five schools (Table II) in Ojo LGA. It shows that out of the hundred teacher sampled in (Table II) fifty five (55) of them have either N.C.E or OND, forty five (45) are also B.Ed/B.A holder, and ten (10) are holders of other qualifications. This implies that there are more NCE and B.A./B.Ed holders over the rest qualifications.

 

The researcher work shows that there are more women who are actively involved in teaching. Table three shows that 57 female responded to the questionnaire which amounts to 57% while 43 male responded to the questionnaire, which amounts to 43%.

 

The data collected from respondents was critically analyzed and the results show that the analysis made on chi­-square computation has revealed that all the three hypotheses that were raised were rejected.

From the data analysed from the findings show that some factors are responsible for less Impact of (ICT) Information Communicating Technology in the teaching and learning process of Pes

  • The location of the school
  • Available facilities in the school
  • Level of discipline in the school

 

It is also deducible that from the analysed data that type of school (public or private) plays a vital role in the development of a teaching learning process.

 

Finally, the result of the findings shows that teachers’ literacy level of ICT is a determinant students’ academic achievement in PES

The adoption and use of ICTs in schools have a positive impact on teaching, learning, and research. Despite the roles ICTs can play in education, primary schools in Nigeria have yet to extensively adopt them for teaching and learning. Efforts geared towards integration of ICTs into the primary school system, have not had much impact. Problems such as poor policy and project implementation strategies and limited or poor information infrastructure militate against these efforts

 

 

CONCLUSION

The purpose of this study is to provide information on the effect of school environment and primary school pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics. It has also provided data to give an insight into the correlates of school environment.

From the research conducted from the study, one can say that the performance of learners in mathematics is caused by the school location, school size, and the type of school. Having viewed the problems among mathematics students, the school climate and the type of leadership operated is a strong tool in combating this phenomenon.

For instance, from the research conducted, some respondents indicated that the some teachers are not well experienced.

Lastly, in viewing the effect of school environment and primary school pupils’ academic achievement in mathematics, this research reveals that some pupils exhibit truancy as a result of poor administrative system especially in terms of discipline.

RECOMMENDATIONS

The general opinion of the respondent is that the school location, type and size have major roles to play in learners’ performance in mathematics.

In view of the identified factors related to the school environment and its effect in learners of mathematics, the researcher has come up with the following recommendation as possible solutions to the problems.

-The government should ensure to enact policies that will ensure the right school climate and culture.

-The government should develop programs that will further educate school owners and prospective school owners on the proper environment that will aid learning.

-Furthermore, the government should see to the proper functioning and efficiency of education ministry and commission especially to ensure school standards.

-On the part of school owners, they should operate an eclectically form of leadership as to see to the proper functioning of the school.

-Also, school owners should be conscious of school and class size as to ensure effective learning.

-Furthermore, the school administration should ensure that proper punishment should be met out to truants and latecomers

-The parents should give proper attention to their children especially the kind of school they send them to.

-Parents should also endeavour to provide for needs of their children or ward as this will make them abhor forms of immorality.



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