Capturing the Moment: Essence of 1960s Film (Part 2)

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A study of 1960s film

Submitted: July 12, 2010

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Submitted: July 12, 2010

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Chapter 3:Methodology

The methodology for the study is geared toward addressing the major question, “What is the essence of 1960s film?”It employs aqualitative perspective and uses primarily the phenomenological research methodology. The approach is to describe and evaluate the 1960s film experience based on a few essential 1960s films, directors, and movements, and will use this to find commonalities, which will help answer the sub-questions.

The first sub-question is “How does film evolve throughout the 1960s?” which will address the distinction between early, mid, and late decade films, as well as the symbiotic relationship between film and reality.The introduction to this section will go into the progenitors of ‘60s film, including neo-realists such as De Sica and Rossellini.The second is, “What are the quintessential films of the era and what makes them so?” in which six films will be categorized, evaluated, and analyzed in depth.The third is, “How does the post-modernism of the French New Wave (Godard, Truffaut, and Demy) as well as Fellini and Antonioni reveal an emerging self-consciousness during the decade and how did it influence sixties filmmaking and culture in general?”This section will end with a comparison between European and American films, and how they influenced each other.

The Data Needed

The plan of action will be to use literary sources in relation to the films themselves, and determine the essential elements based on both literature and first hand critique.An in-depth qualitative analysis will be done of the following films:

1. David and Lisa (Perry, 1962)

2. Contempt (Godard, 1963)

3. Flight of the Phoenix (Aldrich, 1965)

4. Blow-Up (Antonioni, 1966)

5. The Graduate (Nichols, 1966)

6. 2001: A Space Odyssey (Kubrick, 1968)

To address the sub-question of why these should be considered quintessential films of the era, the study will consist of comparing the literature concerning these films to a phenomenological analysis of them, in order to determine those common elements unique to 1960s film.A gestalt of underlying meaning will be sought by looking at the sum of the parts, being the soundtrack, actors, script, cinematography, and direction.

The method to be used for the sub-question of how film evolves throughout the decade will also be qualitative and phenomenological. This will consist of a description of developing film movements including post-modernism, cinema verite, and free cinema, and will attempt to address why profound change in film occurred at these points in time.In order to demonstrate the increasing level of sophistication, a critique of directors Frank Perry, Jean Luc Godard, and Stanley Kubrick will be done.These directors are prime examples of auteurs (film authors) who evolved in message, meaning, and creativity from early to mid to late sixties.

To address the second part of this sub-question of how film relates to the era, the example of Haskell Wexler’s 1968 film, Medium Cool, will be explored.Since this film is set at the 1968 Chicago Democratic Convention, the relation between fiction and reality that becomes a prevalent theme in ‘60s film will become apparent.This will consist of a description of the fictional characters wondering amid actual events, the goal being to glimpse the point of convergence of the two realms (fantasy and reality).Since this theme is also utilized in Blow-Up and Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf, the goal is to tie them all together into a gestalt.

Post-Modernism in 1960s Cinema

The third sub-question of how post-modernism reveals the emerging self-consciousness will be addressed by looking at the European directors of the era.Godard, Antonioni, and Demy will be analyzed and the method will be a descriptive look at Contempt, Blow-Up, and Young Girls of Rochefort, respectively.This will also reveal what can be termed the sixties style, meaning the influence of European “cool”, the trend toward non-conformist creativity, and unavoidably, the politicization of film.

The sub-questions are interrelated and the films and directors mentioned above will be analyzed and critiqued in order to address them.This process will result in a clear picture of what 1960s film is, its underlying meaning, and how it relates to the era itself.The ultimate goal is to define the sixties style, sensibility, and essence, in relation to the present and future.As John Lennon said, “The thing the sixties did was to show us the possibilities and the responsibility that we all had. It wasn't the answer. It just gave us a glimpse of the possibility” (Catanna.com).However the purpose of this study is to frame the era as an end in itself, in effect.This means that to enclose the decade in an historical context gives it an eternal essence; hence the need to reveal exactly what that essence is by exploring the era’s “hot medium” of film.

Interpretation of Data

The accompanying video utilizes a qualitative descriptive analysis of particular films in an effort to reveal how they express the time they exist in. It peers through the lens of McLuhan’s definitions of film and media, as well as each film’s content and what underlies it. One focus is on the European cinema, and how it relates to post-modern film. Godard (Contempt -1963) and Antonioni (Blow Up -1966) are used as examples,and there is a segment on musicals à la Jacques Demy (Young Girls of Rochefort -1967).

American cinema is also explored in order to ascertain what is synchronous with Europe.One such film is David and Lisa, an independent film from 1962 directed by Frank Perry.The content here is another early clue to an unfolding phenomenon; namely, troubled youth of the era.The study relates this to the French New Wave and asks how and why it sprang up at that particular time.Second will be 1965’s The Flight of the Phoenix directed byRobert Aldrich.This is the ultimate survival film and I’ll go into how it originated from Elliston Trevor’s novel.The scenario of surviving a plane crash in the desert reveals another symptom of the ‘60s spirit.Also mentioned is the 1967 Mike Nichols film The Graduate based on the 1962 Charles Webb novel, and a product of the 1960s focus on youth, and its rebellion against middle-class values, which is part of Nichols’ continuum that includes 1966’s Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf.Fifth is Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey which sums up the late ‘60s on many levels and coincides with Apollo.

This chapter has explained the methods for determining what makes 1960s cinema unique. Like a black hole, the elusive 1960s mystique will be revealed only indirectly by looking at a few of its films. The next chapter presents the results as a description of the study’s video.

Chapter 4:

Results of the Study: Description of Video Project

Chapter One states the problem statement of this study, and this chapter is a description of the video project that attempts to answer it.So to reiterate, the major question to be addressed is, “How does cinema of the 1960s reflect and reveal the essence and uniqueness of the decade?”The video first goes into how film evolved throughout the decade using one example of the early Sixties, one of the mid Sixties, and one of the late Sixties.It shows what the commonalities are, in order to ascertain what differentiates 1960s film from that of other eras.Then, it describes European post-modern film of the era and how that relates to its American counterpart.The video then briefly answers the question directly by stating that the essence of the era is a symbiotic relationship between self-awareness, time-awareness, and creativity; this conclusion will be addressed more in-depth in Chapter Five.

The video features the researcher describing shown clips from three films.First is Jean-Luc Godard’s My Life to Live, which is described as an example of the early Sixties post-modern French New Wave.The 1962 film features a character study of Anna Karina (Godard’s wife), who portrays a Parisian escort.Second is Antonioni’s Blow-Up from 1966, which is set in London.This is a prime example of time awareness, as it truly “captures the moment”, which is at the core of this study.The third clip features Stanley Kubrick’s 2001: A Space Odyssey and describes how this 1968 film is a bringing together of many late-1960s themes.The video’s analysis shows why each of these films in effect captures the moment, how this relates to their self-consciousness, and why this results in the creative spark at the foundation of these and many other Sixties films.This chapter elaborates on the video’s other film clips in order to further demonstrate the commonalities.

How did Film Evolve throughout the 1960s?

There is a clear trend toward self-awareness as 1960s cinema evolves, as evidenced in the video examples.David and Lisa (1962) is an example of the early 1960s. This was Frank Perry’s directorial debut, and being independently funded, with black and white cinematography, is a breakthrough film.It deals with the theme of disturbed adolescence, is heavily influenced by the French New Wave, and includes a seminal surrealistic dream sequence (figure 2).The clip included consists of the film’s turning point, where the root of David’s problem is addressed.

Figure 3

Still from David and Lisa-Dream Sequence

The example given for mid-1960s cinema is the 1966 Antonioni film, Blow-Up. The video explores the film’s core, namely, capturing the moment of 1966 mod London.Not only does this demonstrate the cultural progression which occurs as the decade progresses, but also a new form of post-modern self-awareness.Since so much that is considered to be 1960s culture, counter-culture, or sub-culture streams out from London, this film is especially significant since it captures the fashion, music, mores, and fantasy versus reality theme.The video discusses why it should be considered post-modern, further defining the term as applied to cinema.In this way the case is made for the conclusions drawn, which will be discussed in Chapter Five.

The evolution of film in this decade takes a giant leap forward with Kubrick’s 1968 film, 2001: A Space Odyssey.The video discusses what the key elements are, including the cinematography behind “Beyond the Infinite”, as the film’s final sequence is titled.Since this is the most open-ended commercial film in history, it leaves the grasping of meaning primarily to the viewer; this is a drastic departure from commercial film, which attempts to manipulate viewers’ emotions and thoughts. Also, it captures the moment on the level that it is contemporaneous with Apollo.Finally, the video describes and shows the breakthrough special effects (before computer graphics).Figure 4

Still from 2001: A Space Odyssey (1968) “Stargate” sequence

What are the quintessential 1960s films?

This segment of the video discusses why the three previous films are considered quintessential 1960s films, and further demonstrates and evaluates the commonalities.Furthermore, it develops the theme that true 1960s cinema specifically consists of self-awareness, moment-awareness, and creativity.It defines these terms, relates them to the films, and references three more films: Flight of the Phoenix, and The Graduate, and Young Girls of Rochefort.

French New Wave

This segment answers the sub-question, “How does the post-modernism of the French New Wave reveal an emerging self-consciousness during the decade?”As the 1960s approached, the French New Wave of filmmakers began to make films with increasingly self-referential themes, which parallels the growing tendency towards self-consciousness of the culture.This is a defining characteristic of post-modern film.A great example is the 1963 film, Contempt, by Jean-Luc Godard, considered the most radical of the French New Wave directors.Kreidl’s biography, Jean-Luc Godard, points as example of the film’s self-reference in a scene where Brigitte Bardot dons a black wig, a reference to brunette Godard actress,Anna Karina.“We are thus referred back to all the actresses of all the Godard films” (Kriedl 145).This relates to the sub-question, and while a simple example, it clearly explains what is meant by self-reference, which is at the heart of this question.Actually the two films that are the best examples of this are this one and Fellini’s 8 ½, since both films are not about plot, but rather about stepping outside the usual boundaries of film.

Godard is at the heart of this segment of the video, as he is known in some circles as “the most important and revolutionary filmmaker of the last 50 years” (Nowell-Smith 189).And based on a descriptive analysis of Vivre sa Vie (My Life to Live) and Contempt, the new concept of dekas theory is discussed, based on the concept of being in the moment.The term is dekas theory, which is an alternative to Truffaut’s auteur theory.Instead of the narrow idea that the director is the underlying force, simply the moment is, and this is the foundation of the project.

However, a few more important French New Wave directors are touched upon due to their significance and influence.One is Jacques Demy, and a clip is shown from the 1967 musical, Young Girls of Rochefort.This is in order to get at the reason behind the 1960s sensibility these films contain, which is the more esoteric quality to be defined.Another is Resnais, who did 1961’s Last Year at Marienbad, a stylishly abstract and avant-garde film, which provides another example of cinema that steps outside the bounds of plot. Finally there is Serge Bourguignon and 1962’s Sundays and Cybele, a poignant film about a French Vietnam Vet who suffers PTSD.

Conclusion

To summarize this video project, it is a descriptive analysis of 1960s cinema, and attempts to answer the sub-questions by referring to the specific films previously mentioned. In doing so it defines the concepts common to all of them: 1960s sensibility, self-awareness, moment-awareness, and creativity.These concepts form the basis of the conclusions drawn in Chapter 5.And by answering these questions the beginnings of a new film theory is created.

Chapter 5:Conclusion

The 1960s was a point in time in which technological innovation, relative economic prosperity, and a new kind of intellectual and cultural freedom converged to create an explosion of creativity. 1960s culture was a culmination of many creative forces evolving throughout history, and the way in which this era affected cinema is the focus of this study. One important aspect of film to emerge in the 1960s is what French philosopher Gilles Deleuze calls the “time image” (Nowell-Smith 5).He refers to directors Antonioni (Blow Up) and Alain Resnais (Last Year at Marienbad)and explains that “time begins to make its presence felt as something in itself, above and beyond the forward movement of the action” (6).This consciousness of time is a philosophical approach more attuned to European directors, but the time element distinguishes 1960s film in general from the shallow films of more recent times.

Problem Statement

This study explores the major question:

How does cinema of the 1960s reflect and reveal the essence and uniqueness of the decade?

The sub-questions it explores are:

1. How does film evolve throughout the decade and how synchronous is it with events of the era?

2. What are the commonalities of the quintessential films of the era?

3. How does the post-modernism of the French New Wave (Godard, Truffaut, and Demy) as well as Fellini and Antonioni reveal an emerging self-consciousness during the decade and how did it influence sixties filmmaking and culture in general?

Explanation of Video Project

The video accompanying this study consists of a combination of film clips from a few quintessential 1960s films, and commentary on them.It consists of scenes from David and Lisa, Blow Up, My Live to Live, Flight of the Phoenix, The Graduate, Contempt, 2001: A Space Odyssey, and Young Girls of Rochefort.Narration and subtitles discuss why they are considered essential 1960s films, and further elucidate and evaluate their commonalities. Furthermore, the video develops the thesis that true 1960s cinema specifically consists of a symbiosis of self-awareness, moment-awareness, and creativity.

As each scene is shown, a line is drawn through them all, pointing to the idea of capturing the moment, elucidated in the results and conclusions section.Along with short clips, the video consists of extended scenes from David and Lisa, an example of early 1960s cinema, Flight of the Phoenix, that of mid 1960s, and 2001: A Space Odyssey, that of late 1960s.Rather than concentrating on plot and content, the commentary focuses on how these are examples of “being in the moment”. Through brief commentary, the video lets the film clips themselves demonstrate the thesis that self-awareness is the essential component behind 1960s film.

Review of Methodology

In order to answer the primary question, “What is the essence of 1960s film?”This study employs aqualitative perspective and uses primarily the phenomenological research methodology.It describes and evaluates the 1960s film experience based on a few essential 1960s films, directors, and movements, and uses this to find commonalities, which helps answer the sub-questions. To demonstrate why they should be considered quintessential films of the era, the study consists of comparing the literature concerning these films to a phenomenological analysis of them, in order to determine those common elements unique to 1960s film.It seeks a gestalt of underlying meaning by looking at the sum of the parts, being the soundtrack, actors, script, cinematography, and direction.

The method to be used for the sub-question of how film evolves throughout the decade is also qualitative and phenomenological.In order to demonstrate the increasing level of sophistication, it explores the work of directors Frank Perry, Jean Luc Godard, and Stanley Kubrick.These directors are prime examples of auteurs (film directors considered authors) who evolved in message, meaning, and creativity from early to mid to late 1960s.The sub-question of how European cinema reveals self-awareness, contains the seeds of this study’s conclusion, since the focus is on the self-awareness of all 1960s film and its meaning.

Summary of Results

How did Film Evolve in the 1960s

There is a clear trend toward self-awareness as 1960s cinema evolves, as evidenced in the video examples.David and Lisa (1962) is an example used of the early 1960s. This breakthrough film was Frank Perry’s directorial debut. It dealt with the theme of disturbed adolescence, was heavily influenced by the French New Wave, and included a seminal surrealistic dream sequence.But beyond this was an originality and poignancy that was born out of its introspectiveness. And the main character’s obsession with time and death is an apt precursor to cinematic themes explored throughout the rest of the decade.

Various forms of new cinema emerged throughout the world in this decade.Among these were the French New Wave, New German Cinema, Czechoslovak New Wave, Brazilian Cinema Novo, and the British Free Cinema (Nowell-Smith 1).There is a reason these movements all sprouted simultaneously; namely, the 1960s spark ignited a creative revolution in cinema.This spark was the result of rebellion against 1950s conformity, as well as of a developing counter-culture that was reaching critical mass.Author Novell-Smith notes that, “...almost without exception the new cinemas were a rebellion.Principally this rebellion was aesthetic and was in opposition to what I have elsewhere called the 'false perfection' of the studio” (3), by which he means Hollywood films in general.This decade was the time when new ideas merged with new film techniques as well as a new independent spirit.

The Godard films used as examples for this study are all part of this aesthetic rebellion, and one important aspect is that the Godard films are self referential in the post-modern sense, but more importantly self-aware in a way that late 1960s films such as 2001: A Space Odyssey were.The conclusion is that while film evolved in technique throughout the decade, it was this essential element of self-awareness that caught on, and spread into the mainstream as the era progressed.This self-awareness can be defined as being in the moment, and film is all about capturing the moment.What gives film its true value is that it captures a moment that becomes history; hence it is all we have of that moment.Imagine the value film from previous centuries would have, had the technology existed.

What are the quintessential 1960s films?

Of course on one level, the films chosen as “quintessential” are arbitrary, since many films could potentially fit the category.However, the case is made strongly that these are essential films by demonstrating and evaluating their commonalities.Furthermore, the thesis that true 1960s cinema specifically consists of self-awareness, moment-awareness, and creativity, is supported by these films.

The Graduate is one example of a film universally considered to be quintessential 1960s, since it contains all the obvious elements: youth rebellion, non-conformity, alienation, passion, poignancy, and originality.However, behind all this is the film’s self-awareness and time-awareness.The film in essence utilizes first person perspective of the introspective main character; the Simon and Garfunkel soundtrack drives this theme home.And like all “timeless” films, it is timeless because it captures the moment so well (in this case being 1967 California). In this same way Blow-Up captures 1966 London well.In other words, self-awareness of moment-awareness marks these films’ significance.So the conclusion is that the most essential aspect of film is not the director (sorry Truffaut), not the screenwriter, not the actors, but the moment—this is what is behind it all.

The importance of Robert Aldrich’s breakthrough film Flight of the Phoenix from 1965 cannot be underestimated.Survivors of a plane crash must build a new plane to rescue themselves, before they die of thirst.An intense psychological drama with a mostly European ensemble all-star cast, it exhibits a sustained passion that is very much of its era.This should be considered quintessential 1960s because of its emotional impact based on the plot (this is the one plot driven example given).

At the heart of these films is passion and uniqueness, which stems from a form of nirvana (an enhanced awareness).So why did this awareness come to the fore in this era’s film culture, as opposed to another?The answer is that it was a perfect storm of new technology, post-war prosperity, and rebellion against 1950s conformity.All of these quintessential films possess this awareness at their cores.

French New Wave and the Emerging Self-Consciousness

As the 1960s approached, the French New Wave of filmmakers began to make films with increasingly self-referential themes, which is parallel to the growing tendency toward self-consciousness of the culture.This is a defining characteristic of post-modern film.A great example is Jean-Luc Godard’s 1963 film, Contempt, which stars Brigitte Bardot.Kreidl’s biography, Jean-Luc Godard, gives an example of the film’s self-reference in a scene where Brigitte Bardot dons a black wig, a reference to brunette Godard actress,Anna Karina.“We are thus referred back to all the actresses of all the Godard films” (Kriedl 145).This relates to the sub-question, and while a simple example, it clearly explains what is meant by self-reference, which is at the heart of this question.Actually the two films that are the best examples of this are this one and Fellini’s 8 ½, since both films are not about plot, but rather about stepping outside the usual boundaries of film.

Relationship of Research to the Field

The review of literature in Chapter 2 gave an overview of 1960s film in the context of pre-existing film theories such as Deleuz’s “time image” (Totaro).The research of this study took that concept one step further, establishing the basis of a new theory based on time-awareness.Furthermore, Chapter 2 touched on McLuhan’s idea that the plot does not matter, only the medium (film itself) does (McLuhan 151).This was the jumping off point for this study, and the idea that plot does not matter was used to make the point that what matters is being in the moment.

Author Nowell-Smith notes that an important commonality of all 1960s new film movements is their “aesthetic rebellion”, by which he means anti-Hollywood (Nowell-Smith 3).This study supports that idea, since it explores the independent films such as those of Frank Perry and Jean-Luc Godard.These directors exemplify the trend toward that breaking away of conformist film technique, which marks this era.This idea of rebellion as an essential element is not explored directly in the study, since it is self-evident.Other examples including Blow-Up and The Graduate possess content within the framework of youth counter-culture, so the content does matter, McLuhan notwithstanding.

Discussion of Results

This study began as a descriptive look at 1960s film using McLuhan’s concept of “the medium is the message” to go beyond plot.But as it progressed, a new concept of film theory emerged.It took Deleuze’s concepts of the “direct image of time” and the “crystal image” one step further.These concepts refer to a fusion “of the pastness of the recorded event with the presentness of its viewing” (Totaro).The elaboration of these concepts led to the foundation of a new concept called dekas theory.

Dekas theory states that the most essential aspect of film is what is known as moment awareness.Based on this idea, cinema derives value in as much as it captures being in the moment.For instance, the film The Graduate captures the moment of late 1960s California youth rebellion.However, on a deeper level it captures the actors’ being in the moment, a moment in time that is unique and will never occur again. This is in contrast to Truffaut’s auteur theory which holds that the “author” of the film is the director (Brody 35).So dekas theory holds that the true author is in effect, the moment.

Conclusion

The project answers the major question by utilizing the sub-questions to analyze the primary sources (the films themselves). So it first describes the chronological progression of film, and concludes first of all that as the decade progresses, film becomes more self-aware. It refers to David and Lisa as an example of an early-Sixties film, Blow-Up as mid-Sixties, and 2001: A Space Odyssey as late-Sixties. While these are all self-aware films, the first has a content limited to the individual and the second to a city (London), while the third is an attempt to fathom the infinite. Though all three are of different genres, they are universal representatives of their part of the decade. This same factor of self-awareness is shown more obviously to be a primary component of the decade when the post-modern films of Godard are explored. This is what is at the core of the creativity of the decade, and the conclusion is that creativity is the direct result of self-awareness.

The other essential related component of these films is time-awareness; hence the title, Capturing the Moment. One film that demonstrates this factor well is Blow-Up, since the whole film is about setting--where and when it occurs (London 1966). Another is Godard's My Life to Live (Paris 1962). The idea of a universal present is validated only by the awareness of how fleeting each moment is. In other words the value of the 1960s lies essentially in its finiteness, and the value of its cinema lies in capturing it.

So through this process the essence of 1960s film is revealed to be a symbiosis of self-awareness. time-awareness, and creativity.The goal has not been to mythologize the era or its cinema, but rather to demystify it by looking behind the magic to determine how the tricks are done.This has been achieved, but of course many aspects remain unexplained.The purpose of this study has been simply to support the thesis behind dekas theory.An elaboration and in-depth exploration of this will be in the work of film theory and film studies to come.

Works Cited

Bazin, Andre. What is Cinema? Volume II.University of California Press: Berkeley, 1971.

Blow-Up.Dir. Michelangelo Antonioni. Perfs. David Hemmings, Vanessa Redgrave, Sarah Miles.1966. DVD. Warner Home Video, 2004.

Casebier, Allan. Film and Phenomenology: Towards a Realist Theory of Cinematic Representation.Cambridge University Press: 2000. Print.

David and Lisa. Dir. Frank Perry. Perfs. Keir Dullea, Janet Margolin, Howard Da Silva. 1962. DVD. Home Vision, 2007.

Dirks, Tim. Film History of the 1960s. n.d. Web. June 27th, 2010. http://www.filmsite.org/60sintro.html

Dirks, Tim. 2001: A Space Odyssey. n.d. Web. May 16th, 2010. http://www.filmsite.org/twot.html

Dirks, Tim. Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf. n.d. Web. May 16th, 2010. < http://www.filmsite.org/whos.html>

Erickson, Hal. All Movie Guide. n.d. Web. May 16th, 2010. http://www.answers.com/topic/a-man-and-a-woman

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mso-table-condition:sw-cell; mso-style-priority:59; mso-style-unhide:no; mso-style-parent:\"Table Classic 4\"; mso-tstyle-diagonal-down:none; mso-tstyle-diagonal-up:none; color:navy;}

Flight of the Phoenix, The. Dir. Robert Aldrich. Perfs. Jimmy Stewart, Richard Attenborough, Hardy Kruger. 1965. DVD. 20th Century Fox, 2003.

Gabbard, Glen O. and Krin Gabbard. Psychiatry and the Cinema. Washington D.C.: American Psychiatric Press, 1999.

Kael, Pauline. Deeper into Movies. Boston: Little, Brown, and Co., 1971.

Kreidl, John. Jean-Luc Godard. Boston: Twayne, 1980.

Last Year at Marienbad. Dir. Alain Resnais. Perfs. Delphine Seyrig , Giorgio Albertazzi. 1961. DVD. The Criterion Collection, 2009.

McLuhan, Eric and Frank Zingrone, ed. Essential McLuhan. New York: Basic Books, 1995.

McLuhan, Marshall. Understanding Media: The Extensions of Man.New York: McGraw Hill, 1964.Print.

My Life to Live. Dir. Jean-Luc Godard, Perf. Anna Karina. 1962. DVD. Criterion, 2010.

Morden, Ethan. Medium Cool. New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1990.

Nowell-Smith.Making Waves: New Cinemas of the 1960s. New York: Continuum, 2008.

Shakespeare, William. The Tempest. Ed. Horace Howard Furness. New York, Dover, 1964. Print.

Stephan, Ed. Rock Hudson Biography. n.d. Web. May 13th, 2010. < http://www.imdb.com/name/nm0001369/bio>

Thomson, David. “Have You Seen..?” New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 2008.

Totaro, Donato.Gilles Deleuze's Bergsonian Film Project.March 31st, 1999. Web. July 10th, 2010.

Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf. Mike Nichols. Perfs. Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor. 1966. DVD. Warner Brothers, 2006.

Figure 5: Still from Young Girls of Rochefort (1967)

Appendix

A chronology of essential films 1961-1969 (this table lists those films mentioned in this study)

YearDirectorFilmActors

1961

Alain
Resnais

Last Year at Marienbad

Delphine Seyrig

1962

Serge Bourguignon

Sundays and Cybele

Hardy Kruger

1962

Frank Perry

David and Lisa

Keir Dullea, Janet Margolin, Howard da Silva

1962

Jean-Luc Godard

My Life to Live

Anna Karina

1963

Jean-Luc Godard

Contempt

Brigitte Bardot, Jack Palance, Fritz Lang

1965

Robert Aldrich

Flight of the Phoenix

James Stewart, Hardy Kruger, Richard Attenborough

1966

Mike Nichols

Who’s Afraid of Virginia Woolf

Richard Burton, Elizabeth Taylor, Sandy Dennis

1966

John Frankenheimer

Seconds

Rock Hudson

1966

Michelangelo Antonioni

Blow-Up

David Hemings, Vanessa Redgrave, Sarah Miles

1967

Mike Nichols

The Graduate

Dustin Hoffman, Kathryn Ross, Anne Bancroft

1967

Jacques Demy

Young Girls of Rochefort

Catherine Deneuve, Francoise Dorleac

1968

Stanley Kubrick

2001: A Space Odyssey

Keir Dullea, Gary Lockwood


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