AUSTRALIA 1700’s and 1800’s.
1770 – Captain Cook landed at Botany Bay Australia. (The people detective ©2001 T McGregor UK).
1787 - Transportation to Australia began in 1787. Prisons were dangerous places to be. (Practical family history August 2009) and (The people detective ©2001 T McGregor UK).
1787-1830 - Botany Bay. The first fleet of eleven ships led by the HMS Sirius left Portsmouth in May 1787 with 736 convicts, 188 of them women. From 1788-1810 1,000 people a year went from prison ships to Botany Bay. Between 1811 and 1830 many convicts were sent to Australia. Changes to the law said what was and was not a crime. (Convicts NZ M Wright ©2012).
1787 – 1861 – The first convicts were sent to Australia with the first fleet in 1787. Transportation ceased in 1861, but the sentence was only abolished twenty years later. Sentence of transportation. But they left a trail. (The people detective ©2001 T McGregor UK).
1787 – 1867 - Transportation registers HO11 for Australia. (Practical family history August 2009)
1788 – The British established their first settlement at Sydney in Southeastern Australia. (A brief history of the human race. Michael Cook ©2003 UK. ISBN 1-86207-687-1.)
1788 – 1842 – A list of convict arrivals in New South Wales. (Findmypast.com Australia. Practical family history August 2009)
1788-1850 – John S Levi and George FJ Bergman. Australian genesis. Jewish convicts and settlers 1788-1850 Hale 1974.
1788 – 1868 – More than 4,000 orphans were sent to Australia from workhouses in Ireland. Transport of convicts from Ireland to Australia 1788-1868 begining in 1791. All transport registers before 1836 were destroyed. (How to trace your Irish ancestors ©2008 Ian Maxwell UK).
January 1788 – A British fleet commanded by Captain Arthur Phillips of the Royal Navy, carrying officials and 579 convicts, guarded by marines, arrived in Botany Bay Australia. Discovered by Captain James Cook in 1770. (Family tree mag Sept 2010 UK)
January 1788 – Among the convicts on the first fleet, arriving in Botany Bay was Thomas Harwell. He was sentenced to seven years transportation, for stealing two small things. James Grace aged 11 and John Wisehammer aged 15. The youngest boy shipped to Botany Bay on the first fleet was John Hudson at nine years old. (Family skeletons ©2005 R Paley and S Fowler UK).
1791-1853 – Government assisted schemes such as the emigration of workhouse inmates to Australia from the UK. 5,000 adults were sent in 1847. Between 1791 and 1853 up to 50,000 convicts were transported from Ireland to Australia. (How to trace your Irish ancestors ©2008 Ian Maxwell UK).
1803 – Sydney Australia “HMS Glatton” a convict ship. (NZ Heritage winter 2012).
1804 – Uprisings, the Castle Hill rebellion of Irish convicts, transported for their part in the Irish rebellion six years earlier. Executions. (Convicts NZ M Wright ©2012).
1806 – Charlotte Badger. Australian convict ship in 1806 she sailed to NZ to hide among Maori in the Bay of islands. (Law breakers mischief ©2009 Bronwyn Sell).
September 1810 – In March 1810, 131 female convicts in the ship “Canada” from the UK for a long sea voyage. Six months at sea the “Canada” reached Botany Bay in Australia September 1810. (Practical family history mag July 2003 UK).
Between 1815 and 1929 – 12,000 convicts were transported to Australia. (Practical family history mag August 2009)
25 April 1815 – Jacky Guard (male), was transported from England to NSW Australia, for a seven year sentence, for stealing a quilt. Sydney 25 April 1815 on the transport ship “Indefatigable”. In 1820 he went to sea on the “Lynx” sealing to southern oceans. (Trackless sea ©2008 Megan Hutching).
1828 – 1899 - Workhouse inmates from the Channel islands, Jersey and Gernsey. 1,230 emigrants to Australia (Practical family history February 2010).
January 1828 – 194 female convicts on the “Elizabeth” arrived in Australia. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
1830 – The Armstrong’s came to the colony in the ship “Gilmore” and others came in the “Rockingham” with his mother Miss Leeder in 1830. Rockingham took its name from the ship. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1830-37 – In 1837 Mr Joseph Cooper and his father walked from Fremantle to Mandurah. They arrived in the colony in the ship “warrior”, in 1830 and spent the first seven years in Fremantle and the following ten years in Mandurah. (Western pioneers ©1980 JE Hammond).
1830-77 – About 12,500 convicts were locked in Tasmania during this time. (timeline internet).
1833 – In NSW in one month 2,000 out of 28,000 convicts were convicted and 9,000 lashes were ordered by magistrates in Tasmania. 1,250 convictions of 4,250 lashes ordered for 15,000 convicts.(Ironback resources.com).
1835 – 1897 – Burial and memorial inscription info for Victoria. (Findmypast.com Practical family history August 2009).
1836 – Mr Edward Hamersley BA came out to Australia in the later months of 1836, he left the UK. His home “Pynton”, on the Swan just out from Guildford, had horses. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1840 – Sydney to Otago NZ “Magnet” ship
July 1840 – William Anderson worked his way to South Australia as a ships carpenter. The ship reached South Australia in July 1840, the two men deserted. They stole peas from a shop and lived on them for 3 weeks and hid in the Adelaide hills. William Anderson married 4 August 1821 and had 16 children. (Practical family history mag July 2003 UK)
5 October 1840 – Immigrants on the “Champion” which left Liverpool on 5 May 1840 and arrived in Sydney on 5 October 1840 with assisted immigrants. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
1847 – Mr Cooper snr built the flour mill on the shore of the estuary at Mandurah. He was killed at Clarence just as the work was completed. Coopers two sons carried on the work of the mill. (Western pioneers ©1980 JE Hammond).
1849-1850 – Worthy of reclamation index to probationary convicts to Sydney and Morton bay. Australian genealogical education centre Kiama council Australia.
1850 – Built be convicts in 1850, Fremantle prison was condemned as a health risk just a few years after it was built in 1850. (Brothers Antonio Buti ©2011 Aust).
1850 – Ronald Parsons. Ships of Aust and NZ before 1850 parts 1 & 2 Parsons South Aust 1983.
1850 – During the convict period from 1850 to 1863. (Western pioneers ©1980 JE Hammond).
1851 – William Samuel Southgate born Williamston Vic Australia.
1852-1923 – Passenger lists Victoria Australia outwards to New Zealand. Gold miners moving. A CD Trade me $30 ISBN 9781877217517
1853 – 1852 a labor shortage in the Australian colonies immigrants were rushing to the gold fields. One of several McKenzie families from Morefield Scotland. William McKenzie aged 36, his wife Mary, married early in 1853. Ullapool Scotland emigrants. They had a daughte,r Isabella born during the voyage to Hobart Australia. (Migration Rod Edmond ©2013 NZ).
1854 – Elizabeth Jane Southgate born Williamston Vic Australia.
1855 – Edward Hammond. Hardgraves Australia and its gold fields. London . H Ingram and co.
1856-1862 – Martin Cash, convict, policeman and brothel keeper moved to NZ from Hobart Australia in 1856. In 1860 he was in Christchurch NZ as a constable in the Canterbury province armed police force, which he joined in 1859. His main line of work brothel keeping. His identity and activities were eventually investigated, in march 1860 Cash was sacked and fined for keeping a brothel. Many others like him moved to NZ after the decline of the Australian goldfields. Cash retuned to NZ by December 1862 he continued operation of several brothels in Christchurch NZ red light district and Salisbury st including the Red house. Moved to the Otago gold fields then returned to Christchurch NZ. (p35 a peoples history ©1992 NZ).
1857 – Victoria and the Australian gold mining in 1857. By William Westgarth. London Smith Elder and co Cornwill.
1858-1895 – James John would have been 2 and a half years old at the census in June 1841. On 16 December 1845 William married a second wife, Mary Ann Dunford. They lived in Helston UK. Mary Ann her step son, James John aged 19, her three other children took off to Australia on the “Stamboul” They arrived in Adelaide on 1 February 1858. The Australian gold rush of 1851 Ballarat mining from Cornwall. William died 12 June 1895 Salisbury Adelaide St Johns cemetery.
16 Jan 1859 – Adelaide Pryor female born Adelaide SA Australia.
1860 – Natives of Vanuatu were kidnapped to work on sugar and cotton plantations in Queensland Australia and Fiji (8 July 2011).
1861 – Melbourne to Port Chalmers Otago NZ “Oscar” ship.
1862 –68 – The year of the great flood in Perth 1862 The William street jetty was submerged in the flood for several days. Pinjarra people 1862 after the floods no food could be transported from Perth or Fremantle. Boiled wheat or potatoes were used instead of bread. They went to Perth in 1868 in a bullock wagon owned and driven by Mr Key. Workmen on the lead mines were Cornishmen who could sing well. Narra Tarra lead mines. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1862 – 69 – When the Duke of Edinburgh visited western Australia about 1869 a group of Pinjarra volunteers went to Perth for his reception. The Pinjarra volunteer force began in 1862 and existed for 20 years the authors family was a members of the force. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1863-70 – Six Americans prospected Keysbrook for gold and found some n Mr Key’s property and in Drakesbrook three miles nearer Serpentine. Men who forced the Wanless company who got a concession for cutting and exporting timber from Jarrahdale about 1869-70. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1863 – 1904 – Queensland historical atlas exploitation. Between 1863 and 1904 62,000 south seas islanders were brought to Australia to work in the sugar industry. Several ports on the eastern coast. (Sugar slaves by Imelda Miller ©22 October 2010).
March 1863 – Mr A Raper city of Hobart to Otago NZ. (Public records office Victoria Aust )(15 July 2013).
21 May 1865 – Sarah Williams born NSW Australia.
1869-1947 – South Australian police gazette info on police, criminals and victims of crime, an index.
1870 – Messrs Franck and Edward Wittenoom went to the Mirchison in 1870 and took up farming. Their station was the largest in the colony in those days. They had to transport their wool and supplies about 200 miles. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1870-1877 – Martin Cash autobiography by James Lester Burke published in 1870 The adventures of Martin Cash. He died on 27 august 1877 in Tasmania Australia. (p35 a peoples history ©1992 NZ).
1871 – Charles John Mangan born Melbourne Victoria Australia.
1871-89 – Mr Vernon Hamersley, a son of Samuel R Hamersley was born at Guildford in 1871. He started farming at York in 1889. When gold was discovered he spent time prospecting then returned to York He had a seat in parliament and was a member of the WA Historical society. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1872 – The author saw William Leeder in William street jetty in 1872 when he left western Australia for Adelaide. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1873-75 – Hardship, John Evett Hammond and the Clarkson party near the Gasconyne river in 1874. March 1875 Geraldton Joseph Clarkson went to the north west in 1873 just after the floods in Perth. Began pearling with native divers. Brought a schooner. He built buildings with money he earned in the pearling industry in 1874. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1874 – Melbourne to Otago New Zealand “Alhambra” ship.
25 July 1874 – “Gipsy” did not arrive in Eden after leaving Sydney on 25 July 1874. No trace of the ship or crew was ever found. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
1877 – Mr C Buggins and the author went to Mt Erin to assist in building additions to a station at Mt Erin 32 miles north of Geraldton about 30,000 acres. In later years the government brought Mt Erin for sub divisions. (Western pioneers ©1980 Australia JE Hammond).
1879 – Ship “Marpesia” From Liverpool to Melbourne. (Australia family tree Sept 2010)
1879 – Winnifred Moore born Melbourne Vic Australia.
1879 – 1906 – About 60,000 South Sea Islanders were brought to Queensland by Blackbirders to be slaves on sugar plantations. Sugar cane farmers seeks recognition for buried slaves. The Queensland sugar industry was built on slavery. (7 December 2012 ABC net au Tony Eastley).
11 March 1879 – In the 1870’s the south Australian government imported two hopper barges, the “Kadina” and the “Goolwa” from Scotland. The “Goolwa” 139 tons built in Glasgow. Its master was Captain Finch. The “Goolwa” left Glasgow on 8 August 1878.made port in Adelaide on 11 March 1879. (Western pioneers ©1980 JE Hammond).
3 Sept 1883 – Assisted immigration. The “Assaye” from England to Sydney 3 Sept 1883. Under quarantine due to whooping cough outbreak, not released until 8 Sept 1883. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
14 Feb 1884 – Ship left Plymouth England for Australia “Chyebassa” owned by the British India steam navigation company. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
1885 – The first discovery of gold in Kimberley region north, diggers at goldfields. The Perth mint. (Brothers Antonio Buti ©2011 Aust).
1886 – Victorian shipping index Melbourne the ship “Iberia” (Australian family tree mag Sept 2010)
15 March 1889 – Sydney ship “Ormuz” Immigrants went to the sugar cane industry in Nerang Berowa area of Queensland. (Australia family tree mag Sept 2010)
1890s – Fraud is more common at times of speculation on the stock exchange, such as investments on the west Australian gold mines of the 1890s. (Family skeletons ©2005 UK).
17 September 1894 – Raper. Sydney to NZ. (NZ immigration passenger lists 1855-1973) (15 July 2013).
26 October 1894 – Raper. Sydney to NZ. (NZ immigration passenger lists)
1 November 1894 – Raper. Ship “Tasmania” Sydney. British born 1849 aged 45 female. Auckland NZ. (14 July 2013).
12 June 1895 – William Pryor died Salisbury Adelaide SA Aust.
Coal and ore miners came from many depressed parts of England, notably Cornwall. During the first 30 years of Victoria’s rule Australia and NZ received one million migrants from the UK. By 1869 the colonial commissioners had assisted more than 300,000 UK citizens to emigrate mainly to Australia. In the year gold was discovered in Australia 1852. The use of a penalty to transport was revived in 1788 upon the founding of a penal colony in Australia. The Fry fleet of ships left Portsmouth for Botany bay with 1,493 passengers, including 586 males and 192 females, convicts. For the first 50 years of the new colony’s history about 40% of population were convicts. (Oxford guide to family history David Hey ©1993 p98)
Official UK statistics record only 485 migrants to Australia and NZ in 1825, then a rise to 32,625 in 1841. Between 1825 and 1851 222,955 British people emigrated voluntarily to Australia and NZ. Australia’s fortunes were built on sheep farmers and the lure of gold. By 1851 its population was 437,665. By 1858 the population reached one million. By 1877 it was two million and by 1889 it passed three million. 612,531 Australians who in 1861 were recorded as born in the UK. Records of convict ships 1788-1842. Lists of convicts 1788-1820 the registration of births marriages and deaths in Australia began between 1841 and 1856. The census returns were destroyed in Australia. (Oxford guide to family history David Hey ©1993).
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Miscellaneous / Non-Fiction
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Miscellaneous / Non-Fiction
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