AP Biology Review Questions For Chapter 3

Reads: 10734  | Likes: 2  | Shelves: 0  | Comments: 1

More Details
Status: Finished  |  Genre: Other  |  House: Booksie Classic
Multiple Choice Review Questions For Chapter 3 AP Biology
Biology by Sylvia S. Madar, 7th edition.

Submitted: September 21, 2009

A A A | A A A

Submitted: September 21, 2009

A A A

A A A



Multiple Choice Review Questions For Chapter 3 AP Biology
Biology by Sylvia S. Madar, 7th edition.
 
1. Which of these is not a characteristic of carbon?
    1. forms four covalent bonds
    2. bonds with itself
    3. is sometimes ionic
    4. forms long chains
    5. sometimes shares two pairs of electron with another atom
  1. The functional group— COOH is
    1. acidic
    2. basic
    3. never ionized
    4. found only in nucleotides
    5. all of these are correct
  2. A hydrophilic group is
    1. attracted to water
    2. a polar and/or ionized group
    3. found only in fatty acids
    4. the opposite of hydrophobic
    5. all of these are correct
  3. Which is an example of hydrolysis?
    1. amino acid + amino acid à dipeptide + H2O
    2. dipeptide + H2O à amino acid + amino acid
    3. denaturation of a polypeptide
    4. both a and b are correct
    5. both b and c are correct
  4. Which of these makes cellulose non-digestible in humans?
    1. a polymer of glucose subunits
    2. a fibrous chain
    3. the linkage between glucose molecules
    4. peptide linkage between the amino acid molecules
    5. the carboxyl groups ionize
  5. A fatty acid is unsaturated if
    1. it contains hydrogen
    2. contains double bonds
    3. contains an acidic group
    4. bonds to glycogen
    5. bonds to a nucleotide
  6. Which is not a lipid?
    1. steroid
    2. fat
    3. polysaccharide
    4. wax
    5. phospholipid
  7. Difference between one amino acid and another is found in the
    1. amino group
    2. carboxyl group
    3. R group
    4. Peptide bond
    5. Carbon atoms
  8. The shape of a polypeptide is
    1. maintained by bonding between parts of the polypeptide
    2. important to its function
    3. ultimately dependent on the primary structure
    4. necessary to its function
    5. all of these are correct
  9. Nucleotides
    1. Contain a sugar, a nitrogen-containing base, and a phosphate molecule
    2. Are the monomers for fats and polysaccharides
    3. Join together by covalent bonding between the bases
    4. Are present in DNA and RNA
    5. Both a and d are correct
  10. ATP
    1. is an amino acid
    2. has a helical structure
    3. is a high-energy molecule that can break down to ADP and phosphate
    4. provides enzymes for metabolism
    5. is most energetic when in the ADP state
 
 
Answers: C; A; E; B; C; B; C; C; E; E; C
 
Review Essay Questions
 
  1. How do chemical characteristics of carbon affect the characteristics of organic molecules?
àAll organic molecules have carbon in them. Since carbon has four electrons in its outer shell, it can bond with up to four atoms. Carbon can also bond to itself and therefore, carbon chains make up the backbone of all organic molecule. It can share up to 2 electrons and some compounds have ring shapes.
 
  1. Give examples of functional groups and discuss the importance of their being hydrophobic or “ ”philic.
àSome functional groups include the hydroxyl (polar, forms hydrogen bonds), carboxyl (polar, acidic), amino (polar, basic, forms hydrogen bonds) and phosphate (polar, acidic) groups. If a functional group is hydrophobic, it is not attracted to water or is nonpolar. Hydrophilic molecules are polar, so they attract water. Since functional groups determine the polarity of organic molecules and the types of reactions they will undergo, they greatly affect the function of organic molecules in cells. If something is nonpolar while cells are 70-90% water, it isn’t water-soluble and influences its biological function.
  1. What molecules are monomers of the polymers in this chapter? How do monomers join to produce polymers and how are polymers broken down to monomers?
àThe polysaccharide’s monomer is a monosaccharide; polypeptide’s is amino acid; nucleic acid’s monomer is a nucleotide. Monomers are built up to be polymers by way of condensation synthesis. During this, water is removed from various monomers and a bond is formed. If the process happens in the opposite direction, it is called hydrolysis. This means that water is being added and the bonds that were there before are broken back down to monomers.
 
  1. Name several monosaccharides, disaccharides, and polysaccharides and give a function of each. How are these structurally distinguishable?
àMonosaccharides:
Glucose: This is in the blood of animals, is a short-term energy source and is an isomer of fructose, which means that they have the same molecular formula but are structurally composed differently. Fructose is often found in fruits and is a short-term energy source.
Ribose and Deoxyribose are found in the nucleic acids RNA and DNA. RNA carries information about how proteins in an organism should be formed (regarding the amino acid sequences). DNA is the genetic material that stores information about its own replication and the order in which amino acids should be joined to make a protein. Deoxyribose lack an oxygen atom found in Ribose, distinguishing the structure of the two sugars.
àDisaccharides:
Sucrose contains glucose and fructose. Sugar is transported within the body as sucrose and we use it at the table to sweeten food. Maltose is composed of 2 glucose molecules and is found in human digestive tracts. Structurally, it is distinguishable from sucrose because it is made from only glucose, and not it and fructose.
àPolysaccharides:
Many branches of side chains of glucose characterize glycogen structurally. Starch differs only slightly from glycogen in that it has fewer branches. Both are used as direct energy sources to cells.
 
  1. What is the difference between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids? Explain the structure of a fat molecule by stating components and how they join together.
àSaturated fatty acids have no double bonds between carbon atoms while unsaturated fatty acids do. Saturated fatty acids are incapable of holding any more hydrogen atoms because it has all it can hold already; unsaturated fatty acids do have more room. Fatty acids consist of long hydrocarbon chains with a carboxyl group attached at one end. Most have 16 to 18 carbon atoms per molecule.
 
6. How does the structure of a phospholipid differ from that of a fat’s? How do they form a bilayer in the presence of water?
àPhospholipids are formed like fats except that instead of a third fatty acid, there is a phosphate group or a grouping of phosphate and nitrogen, which becomes the polar head of the molecule. It can form a bilayer because it has both polar and nonpolar sides. The polar heads face outward into a watery place while the tails face each other to repel the water. *See figure 10-c
 
  1. Describe the structure of a generalized steroid. How does one steroid differ from another?
àSteroid molecules have a four-carbon backbone, the four carbons being fused rings. Each steroid differs from another primarily because of the functional groups attached to the rings. They are very different from fats.
 
  1. Draw the structure of an amino acid and a dipeptide, pointing out the peptide bond.
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
  1. Discuss the four levels of protein structure and relate each level to particular bonding patterns.
àThe primary structure is a polypeptide with its own sequence of amino acids. Polypeptides are covalently bonded. Primary structure is composed of amino acids bonded together by peptide bonds. This happens a few times over and polypeptides are formed. Polypeptides differ by the number of amino acids they have and the sequence of their R groups.
Secondary structure occurs when segments of a polypeptide coil into a helix shape or fold into a pleated sheet. The amino acids are covalently bonded.
Tertiary structure is a globular shape caused by covalent bonding between R groups. There are also hydrogen and ionic bonds.
Quaternary structure occurs when two or more polypeptides join to make a single protein. Since it only happens with two or more chains of amino acids, this is an uncommon occurrence. However, things like hemoglobin have a quaternary structure. The polypeptides of a quaternary structure are joined by peptide bonds and each has a primary, secondary, and tertiary structure.
 
10. How is the tertiary structure of a polypeptide related to its primary structure? Mention denaturation as evidence of this relationship.
àDuring denaturation, pH and temperature can change a polypeptide’s shape. So, a polypeptide can be subjected to a change in environment and will be influenced to take on the shape of the tertiary structure and back to primary if it is renatured. When a polypeptide is denatured, its function changes completely.
 
  1. How do nucleotides bond to form nucleic acids? State and explain several differences between the structure of DNA and RNA.
àNucleotide monomers bond together to make nucleic acid polymers. DNA is different from RNA for many reasons. DNA’s sugar is deoxyribose, which has one less oxygen than ribose sugar. It is double stranded while RNA is single stranded. DNA forms a helix shape and RNA does not. Although their bases are essentially the same, RNA has uracil in place of DNA’s thymine.
 
  1. Discuss the structure and function of ATP.
àATP is used in organisms for all metabolic work done in a cell. This is possible because of its structure. It is composed of Ribose and Adenosine. Triphosphate strands are attached to the sugar. The last two phosphate bonds are unstable and are easily broken. In cells, the terminal phosphate bond is hydrolyzed to release energy. Once this phosphate is removed, the ATP has become ADP. Cells in energy-requiring processes use the released energy. The energy can also be used for things like muscle contraction.



© Copyright 2017 TheStudentHelper. All rights reserved.

Add Your Comments:

Comments