Chemistry Study Guide (Chapter 15)

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review for chapter 15 in regular chem

Submitted: September 21, 2009

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Submitted: September 21, 2009

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Chemistry Review for Chapter 15(Page 477 (1-5, 7, 8, 10, 11, 22, 26))
1. Compare and contrast the general properties of acids and bases.
Acids: Sour tasting, some react with active metals to release Hydrogen gas (H2), react with bases to produce salts and water
Bases: Taste bitter, dilute aqueous solns., feel slippery, produce salts and water
2. A) Binary acids and oxyacids, distinguish between the two.
A binary acid contains only 2 diff. Elements: H and one of the more electronegative elements while an oxyacid  has a compound of hydrogen, oxygen, and one of the other elements, normally nonmetal.
The name of a binary acid begins with the prefix hydro- and ends with –ic. The name of an oxyacid is based on the anion.
B) Binary: Hydrochloric Acid, Hydrofluoric, Hydrosulfuric
Oxy: Carbonic, iodic, acetic (CH3COO-)
3. Describe common industrial acids:
Sulfuric: used in petroleum refining, metallurgy, fertilizer, metals, paper, paint, dyes, detergents, and car batteries. Attraction of water makes it good for dehydration. Can be used to remove water from gases.
Nitric: Volatile, used in labs, stains proteins yellow, used in making explosives, rubber plastics, dyes, and pharmaceuticals. Colorless.
Hydrochloric: Stomach produces it in digestion, “pickling” iron and steel, general cleaning agent, in food processing, activation of oil wells, and recovery of Mg from seawater. Dilute soln may be found in hardware stores.
Acetic: Clear, colorless, pungent, freezes at 17 degrees C, white vinegar contains 4-8% acetic acid. Synthesizing chemicals used in manufacture of plastics. Fungicide also.
Phosphoric: Essential to animals and plants. Pleasant but sour taste, cleaning agent for dairy equipment, ceramics, detergent.
4. Though HCl (aq) shows Arrh. Acidic prop., pure HCl (g) and HCl dissolved in nonpolar solvent shows no acidic prop in Arrh sense. Explain.
It is a strong acid and ionizes completely in aq soln, so since Arrh acids have an increase in H+ ions, pure HCl doesn’t act like that because it’s completely ionized.
5. Strong acids are strong electrolytes and weak acids are not.
Two examples: Strong: HCl Weak: HCN
7. What determines strength of an Arrh base?
The extent to which the base dissociates or adds OH-
B) Strong : KOH Weak: NH3 + H2O -> NH4+ + OH-
 
8. Distinguish between monoprotic, diprotic, and triprotic acids. Ex of each.
Mono is a 1 proton acid, only gives up one proton (HClO4)
Di can donate 2 protons per molecule (Sulfuric Acid)
Tri can donate 3 “ ” (Phosphoric Acid)
 
10. Define and give an equation.
A) Conjugate base – species remaining after a Brownstead-Lowry acid has given up a proton: HF [acid] + H2O -> F- [Conjugate base] + H3O+
B) Conjugate acid – formed when a Brownstead-Lowry base gains a proton: HF(aq) + H2O [base] -> F- + H3O [C. Acid]
11. Relationship between the strength of an acid and its conjugate base? Vice versa?
A) If the acid is strong, the base will be weak
B) Stronger a base is, weaker the acid
22. Dilute HCl (aq) + KOH (aq) are mixed in equal quantities.
A) Formula equation?
HCl + KOH -> H2O + KCl
B) Overall ionic equation?
H2O + KCl
C) Net ionic?
OH-(aq) + H+ -> H2O
Vocabulary notes 
Brownstead-Lowry Base – proton acceptor Acid – proton donor
Lewis Acid – Electron pair acceptor Base – electron pair donor
Arrhenius Acid – contains hydrogen and ionizes in (aq) soln to form H+ ions Base – produces hydroxide (OH-) ion in (aq) soln
2 Conjugate acid-base pairs for Brownstead-Lowery
*Proton-transfer rxns favor production of weaker acids and bases.
Alkaline – When a base completely dissociates in water to yield aqueous OH- ions, the soln is alkaline.
Amphoteric – any species that can react as either and acid or base (Ex: Water)
Salt – An ionic compound composed of a cation from a base and an anion from an acid.
 
Acid Rain!!
Power plants cause it when they emit NO, NO2, CO2, SO2, and SO3 by burning fossil fuels.
These molecules go thru a series of rxns to make acid rain
Acid rain can be any form of precipitation
 pH scale measures acidity
< 7 is acidic
>7 is basic
=7 is neutral
 Acid rain has a pH < 5.6
 
SO4 + H2O -> H2SO3 (forms acid rain)
What does it damage?
Marble (limestone), cement, iron, forests, lakes, etc. Affects human health.


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