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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

WORK LIFE BALANCE PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE ON CAREER SUCCESS: IN CASE OF ETHIOPIAN AIRLINES

 

 

 

 

BY: Dereje Birru

 

ADVISOR: Dr. Lakew Alemu (Ph.D)

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFILL.MENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF M.SC. DEGREE IN MANAGEMNT SCIENCE.

 

                                                                                                                                                            Jan, 202

                                            Abstract

Work life balance has become a challenge throughout the world and the ability to realize a balance between job and family life is one of our era's fundamental social challenges. As a result, fewer break hours, work overload and lack of control over job schedule are identified as the major work related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. Lack of work-life balance regulations, the ineffectiveness of work-life balance rules and policies, and work overload are the major Work-life Balance Practice related issues that affect Ethiopian Airlines employees' Career Progression. In addition, occasional availability of Part Time Work, compressed working hours, career break, working from home and Job Share, and rare execution of Child Care Arrangements are found out to be the major Work-life Balance Policy related factors that affect Ethiopian Airlines employees' Career Progression. The variables of the study are work related factors Family related factors, work-life balance policy and practice related factors.

Key Words: Work-life Balance, Work-life       Balance Policy and Career Progression

Introduction

Starting from the beginning of human beings form a society, all people as part of the communities have had to work to make ends meet for themselves and their families thus, through traditional ways of hunting and gathering, in the past time.The new demographics changes in workforce have brought about it burdensome for a numbers of individual workers to balance the conflicting demands of work and family life in the world of work.These burdensome have forced the employers and the HRM experts to make revisions of the old-fashioned system models of coordinating work and family life (Lee & Kanungo, 1984). The balance between work and life has at all times been very busy yet, a very important and crucial thing to do in today’s competitive and global world of work.

One of the important outcomes of the imbalance of work and family demand is the increasing level of work-life conflicts experienced by working mothers. Work-life conflict happens when an employee has to perform a number of issues or roles that need his/ her time, energy and commitment. Family issues interference with work occurs when the load of employee family side responsibilities hinders his/her working area performance.While some women struggling with combining work with family issues because of differences in physical make up and ego, others are committed to paid employment and family work is possible for some. Nowadays, in this busy and stressful world, the work life balance is a shared issue at every workplace in the profit seeking enterprises like EAEG. The concept of work life balance generates balance between the work and the life consists of Career Progression and the life styles. With the growing number of dual earner families within the past few decades (Gordon and Kammeyer, 1980; Johnson, 1980) the link between work and family has become a more complex issue than ever before. As suggested by Halpen (cited in Grzywacz and Carlson, 2007), the capacity to realize a balance between work and family could also be ‘one of the primary social challenges of our era’.While the main target of research during this area has mostly been on dual earner families and especially those with children, there's growing evidence that maintaining a healthy work life balance is additionally a priority of younger generations (Sturges and Guest, 2004;Cennamo and Gardner, 2008) oreover as for people without children (Hamilton, Gordon and Whelan-Berry, 2006).Further, while research indicates that workers at different life stages are not homogenous groups and skill differing kinds of labor and family role conflicts counting on their unique situation (Erickson, Martinengo , Hill, 2010), it is nevertheless important to acknowledge that  issue  of  maintaining  related work life balance is of growing concern to diverse individuals regardless of their demographic profile and this is often evident from the growing amount of research and literature during this area and as( Mescher,Benschop and Doorewaard (2010) indicate the combination of work and life is gaining dominance in numerous fields such as psychology, sociology, management, organization studies and gender studies. Work life balance has also been discussed in many other fields such as industrial relations, economics, family studies, information systems and social psychology (Beauregard  and  Henry,  2009) Work  life balance could be a topic of great interest and a matter of high priority nowadays for at different level like individual, organizational and government level sand research in 4 these areas has helped in forming organizational and policy in many countries. Work life balance has become a challenge throughout the world and in every part of human, political, economic and social service related organizations.

The study assesses the employee Career Progression on their organization, from the framework of the work life balance prospective, and how it is going to be practiced at their workplace environment at EAEG.

The importance of work-life balance cannot be over emphasized here. All sides of personal and family life of employee relatively having been attained and the individual is going to be rewarded. Work life balance as a concern, has been given high priority in the past 30 years. It has been shown increasing attention in hiring organizations, employees’ agents and employee representatives, government and legislations bodies towards work-life balance of employee life.This mental focus is highly motivated by series scholar recommendations that imbalance between work and family issues, which can results in decreasing outcomes for all organizations, families and even personal life.This is best fulfilled in working place settings where there is little or no social or personal life involved in work output of employees. Employee who tends to balance the work place role and domestic issues (professional and personal life) were dedicated as not serious or fit for the job or lazy. In a traditional manner, workers who are attempting to show less concern to their family life than professional life are given or had the 5 opportunity to progress (grow) through the levels of their career at the favored of those who always try to balance the two.Even Though, work-life balance does not have brought to achieve a perfect balance, nowadays it is believed to support work satisfaction and career development. On this time, in which the living cost is shown increase time to time, financial challenges of families have brought practically work-stress on workers who are also mothers at their respective home continuing with traditional roles.

Working in this truth frame up problems organizing of map totally biased in favor of work, beneath inflexible future ask spherical the employees working in stressed, in pressured, and squeezed hard with longer hours; incapable to meet care giving needs; below fiscal responsibility pressure; unhealthy condition; and desperate or demoralized and is viewed excessive weak point to meet a holistic psychological declaration that call for one to give ear to the other components of life-related needs in addition to engagement or work (Bailyn et al., 2001;Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985).

Research gap Considering the studies explained above establishing the relation between work life balances or positive aspect of the work-family interface and organizational outcomes, there is a need to examine the relationship between positive work-family interface and career success that is career satisfaction and career advancement because these organizational outcomes have not received much attention in the continent of Africa including Ethiopia.Establishing and managing work-life balance is seen as a work-life balance issue. Increasing work pressure, globalization and technological progress have an impact on the balance between work and personal life.

Objectives

To assess Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major work related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Family related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Work-life Balance Practice related factors which affect Career Progression of   employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Work-life Balance Policy related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines.

Method The descriptive research design was used in this study. Thus, descriptive research design is selected to assess the major factors of work-life balance policies and practices affecting Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. Research Approach: The findings are analyzed and interpreted using a quantitative research approach.

 

Review of the literature

This chapter reviews a number of literatures that have already been done on this topic, to help readers acquaint themselves with the concepts, principles and policies concerning work-life balance. The main topics to be discussed here include; Work-life balance, policies of work-life balance, definitions and nature of work-life balance, career progression, Career Progression and the glass ceiling that characterizes the progression of one’s career. Topics in this section will also include; impact of family life on career progression, effects of work-life balance on performance, Gender issues in work life balance and last of all, the conceptual framework of work-life balance.

Concepts of work- life balance

Work-life balance for any one person is having the ‘right’ combination of participation in paid work (defined by hours and working conditions) and other aspects of their lives. This combination will change as people move through life and have changing responsibilities and commitments in their work and personal lives. Work is defined as an “instrument activity intended to provide goods and services to support life” (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000, p.) According to Jim Bird as quoted by Joshi et al (2002), work life balance is a meaningful achievement and enjoyment of work, family, friends and one’s self. Many of these activities are negotiable commitments and can be scheduled around work demands, but the demands of family are often non- negotiable and can be random (example; sick child, afternoon music recital, soccer match, mom’s oncologist’s appointment).

Work-life Balance

Before defining work-life balance, it is worth mentioning how “work” and “life” are conceived for the current study; which is in accordance with the established definitions. Rothausen (1999), stated, Work-life balance is often replaced by work family balance. Initially the focus of the linkages between work and family roles was; moreover, concentrated on the women and the stress they have to deal with, while managing work and family. Gradually, new notions regarding the linkages Work-Life Balance, between work and family surfaced (Gregory & Milner, 2009).

The initial focus of work-family interface was conflict, and then it moved to balance and now the focus in on integration (Burke, 2004). According to Frone (2003), work-family balance is a condition; where there is least conflict and substantial facilitation between work and family spheres.

Significance of Work-life Balance

The research focusing on the association between work and family has been documented since 1930s (Marshall, 1992 a, b). Such changing work demands influence the non-work life negatively that is working long hours, working intensively and working in tight deadlines to meet the demands causing imbalance between work life and non-work life (Guest, 2002). The changes in the work cultures have affected the vacations, which are also called as recovery experiences (experiences during the leisure time); which play an important role in unwinding oneself from work (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). The research focusing on the association between work and family has been documented since 1930s (Marshall, 1992 a, b). The changes in the work cultures have affected the vacations, which are also called as recovery experiences (experiences during the leisure time); which play an important role in unwinding oneself from work (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). Along with the work-cultures, the demographic and the structural changes in the family also need to be taken into account; while understanding the need for having a balance. There are a number of benefits that employees can gain from work-life balance practices, which includes; Child and Dependent Care Programs, Flexible Work Programs and Family and Medical Leave Act. The child-care dependent programs given to employees provide assistance for childcare for older children before and after school.

2.2.3    Work-life Balance Policies

Some work-life balance policies are aimed at fitting work around the other aspects of people’s lives. Firms employing a large number of professionals and technical workers are the most likely to offer work-life balance policies (Konrad and Mangel, 2000). Firms with a large proportion of women in their workforce are more likely to provide work-life balance policies, but the proportion of women in top executive positions is a better indicator. Work-life balance policies can affect business performance in a number of ways. For example, in a competitive labor market, employers can attract better recruits by offering work-life balance policies alongside competitive remuneration packages. In the past, employees arrived at work at 8 a.m. or 9 a.m. and left at 5 p.m. Now changes in employees' personal lives make flexibility in work arrangements an important benefit.This is one of the most frequently provided work/life balance benefit, and is well liked by many different employees.

 

 

2.2.4    Relationship between Work and Family

There is vast research literature on the relationship between work-life mostly termed as work-family. Edwards & Rothbard (2000), Zedeck & Mosier (1990) and O’Driscoll (1996) have reviewed this literature and have contributed to the understanding of this dynamic association of work and family. These researchers have noted that there are five main approaches also known as linking mechanisms (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000) to elucidate the relationship between work and family. Second, spillover happens because of transaction (Edwards and Rothbard, 2000) for example stress at working environment pours out over to the family area and the individual showcases fractious temperament in the family. Congruence can be achieved through a positive linkage between work and family experiences; wherein congruence is a result of a third factor that influences both work life and family life (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000). For example, a negative influence of a third variable on work and family relationship, that is negative affect as a personality characteristic (Frone, Russell and Cooper, 1995). Similarly, positive work-family culture in the organization may affect both work life (e.g. flexibility with Work-Life Balance, working time) and family life (ample leaves and childcare facilities at work) positively; thus, congruence between work and family is possible. Balance, conflict and improvement: The new methodology towards work-family interface is presently making an applied differentiation between work-family balance, work-family conflict and work family enhancement. Conflict and enhancement appear to occur on an individual level, and are accepted to interface components among work and family (Marks and Macdermid, 1996) Work-family fit. Voydanoff (2005) had been accomplished some outstanding work in depicting the linkage between work and family, just like an aftereffect of an organizations between work needs and family assets. Voydanoff (2005) suggests that work needs - family assets fit is a consequence of work demand and family assets and family needs - work assets fit is an aftereffect of family needs and work assets.

2.3.1    The Impact Work-life Balance Policies on Business Performance.

There are different routes by which work-life balance policies affect business performance. Work-life balance policies affect business performance in the following ways: by helping employee to be competitive in the labour market, reducing costs and thus increasing profitability improving labour productivity levels and thus increasing profitability and reducing the risks of workplace accidents and stress, hence reducing liability for health and safety issues (Dex and Scheibl, 1999). Determinants work life balance: The determinants have been arranged into authoritative (organizational) and individual variables (factors). The work culture shapes the nature of employees Work-Life Balance, Work-Family Enrichment and Career Success and the organizational culture and the help it gives to the employees to find some kind of harmony, this may incorporate the family- accommodating approaches or real balance between work and life activities drives. Concerning home or non-work demands, the needs denote to the responsibilities and obligations outside workspace like family duties, relaxation exercises or social work. The personality sort of an individual can likewise influence how one perspectives balance between work and family activities. Gender is a significant individual factor that may affect how women and men vary in their view of balance between work and family activities and furthermore the centrality of the work and the family parts in their lives (Guest, 2002). In spite of the fact that Guest (2002) has not unequivocally referenced about the social variables, there ought not to be a conflict that social elements may influence the balance between work and life activities of people. As referenced in the individual elements, sexual orientation is a significant indicator of balance between life and work activities. Alongside sex contrasts and fairness, another perspective that can affect work-life interface is the way of life or culture. The cultural standards, public standards and rules according to work and family can influence the family and work upsides of people.

 

2.4.1    Organizational work-family culture and its significance.

Work-family culture is referred as shared goals, convictions, values with respect to the degree to which an organization supports and qualities the employees' reconciliation of work-family balance (Thompson, Beauvais and Lyness, 1999, p. ) Employees who see their organizational culture to be strong have lower shots (chances) at encountering work-life conflict (Thomas and Ganster, 1995).alludes (refers) to the assumptions for the bosses and the business that for their employees, work ought to come before family obligations allude to the negatively charged outcomes that employees need to look for committing time to their family or potentially utilizing the work-family benefits; which are accessible in the organization. It might happen that employees are assessed contrarily for their work execution or saw by the business as less dedicated to the employers since they use work-family benefits (Perlow, 1995).

2.4.5    Work-life interface and career success.

The objective of comprehension and analyzing different parts of balance between life and serious work activities has been for the most part cultivated by the Western Europe and the Anglo Saxon nations (Chandra, 2012 ) Progressively, analysts from different countries have perceived the need of inspecting the work-family spaces (Poelmans, O'Driscoll and Beham, 2005). Considering the writing introduced up until now, an exact connection between family and professional activities/work-family balance and different business related results is grounded. A few researches have revealed a positive relationship between work family interface and career fulfillment. The connection between work- life balance and career success likewise exists. Career progression amongst employee achievement of women’s career has many barriers, which may include organizational culture and family issues.is the process of managing your life, learning and work.

2.4.9    Impact of family life on career progression

Groups who are at greatest risk for high work to family interference differs from those most at risk for high role overload. Whereas women are more likely than men to report high role overload are, men are more likely to report high levels of work to family conflict.This finding is consistent with other research in the area suggesting that for many men, placing family ahead of work continues to be deemed a “career limiting move” (Konrad and Mangel, 2000). While married employees are at greater risk of high work to family interference than those who are single, the differences between parents and non-parents is not as marked as the one observed with respect to role overload.

2.4.10  Gender issues in work-life balance practices and challenges

Gender may influence the ability to balance work and family life in a number of different ways.Gender may influence the ability to balance work and family life in a number of different ways. Not only may it act as a direct predictor of the sources of conflict, but it may also act as moderator that affects how the conflict is perceived, what coping skills are called upon and how the conflict is manifested. Some studies suggest that women’s under-representation in senior and supervisory ranks is due to women not being confident and aspiring to promotion to the same extent as men (Wexler and Quinn, 1985; Galerin, 1992; Martin, 1996).

 

 

 

Findings

According to the data collected, 16% of respondents strongly agreed and 24% of respondents agreed that their family has had a negative influence on their professional life. In addition to these, 16% of respondents strongly agreed and 26% agreed that they sometimes late for work because they have to take my child to school or the hospital, and 26% strongly agreed and 50% agreed that they are unable to participate in community services because they always have to take care of their children and other family problems. On the other hand, 22% of respondents strongly agreed and 38% of respondents agreed that despite all of their family's troubles, they are able to advance in their job, albeit slowly. It is also found out that 16% of respondents strongly agreed and 30% of respondents agreed that they are able to advance at a typical speed in their job because they have a very supportive spouse. Contrarily, 18% of respondents strongly agreed and 36% of respondents agreed that their family frequently criticizes the amount of time they spend at work. Only 8% of respondents strongly agreed and 12 % of respondents agreed that in order to deal with work-life balance issues, they would send their children to their grandparents so that they could devote more time to other obligations. 30% of respondents strongly agreed and 38 % of respondents agreed that the knowledge and experience they share with their colleagues helps them to be a better family member. The collected data shows 26% of respondents strongly agreed and 14% of respondents agreed that work-life balance demands a person's capacity to juggle many responsibilities in his or her life. 12% of respondents strongly agreed and 26% of respondents agreed that their company has policies of work-life balance. 30% of respondents strongly disagreed and 2% of respondents disagreed that their company's rules on work-life balance assist them in improving their performance. As a result, a third of respondents differ that their company's work-life balance policies help them improve their performance. Full time work is confirmed to be available by 30% and implemented by 52% of the respondents. Part Time Work is also confirmed to be available by 38%            and implemented by 30% of the respondents. Only one-third of respondents confirmed its availability and implementation. Job Share is indicated as unavailable by 38% and implemented by 2% of the respondents. Flexi Time is indicated as unavailable by 36% and implemented by 14% of the respondents. Compressed working hours is indicated as unavailable by 56% and implemented by 24% of the respondents. Study Leave is indicated as unavailable by 48% and unimplemented by 24% of the respondents. Although it is available, it is occasionally implemented. Parental Leave (care for sick parent) is indicated as unavailable by 24% and implemented by 24% of the respondents. Maternity leave is confirmed to be available by 42% and implemented by 48% of the respondents. Paternity leave is confirmed to be available by 58% and implemented only by 8% of the respondents. Child Care Arrangements is confirmed available by 38% and implemented by 26% of the respondents. Sabbatical: leave or leave taken every 7th year is confirmed to be available by 16% and implemented by 16% of the respondents. Casual Leave is indicated as unavailable by 40% and unimplemented by 48% of the respondents. Thus, it is not widely available and implemented. Consequently, it is not widely available and implemented. Unpaid leave is confirmed to be available by 38% and implemented by 22% of the respondents. Although it is available, it is not widely implemented

 

CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATIONS

  • Ethiopian Airlines should make work-life balance policies such as part time work, compressed working hours, career break, casual leave, and flexi time, lob share and work from home, widely accessible to its employees.
  • Ethiopian Airlines needs to make sure proper execution of its work-life balance policies such as Child Care Arrangements, Unpaid leave, Study Leave, and Paternity Leave.
  • Ethiopian Airlines needs to develop its work life balance policies, rules and practices to help its employees improve their performance. The company should also reduce work overload in order to sustain commitment of employees
  • In the industry, the absence of balance, notably high levels of work–family conflict, has been linked to greater turnover intention and greater sickness absence. Thus, employees should improve their knowledge and skills that help the balance their work and life in order to avoid consequences such as dropping out of school, not volunteering in the community and spending too much time at work.
  • The scope includes both men and women workers. Thus, further researches should be conducted secularly on each gender in order to have deep understanding of work life-balance issues and their impact on employees, organizations and the society as a whole.

 

 

  •  

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ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY

COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS

DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT

 

 

 

 

 

   

 

 

 

 

WORK LIFE BALANCE PRACTICES AND ITS IMPACT ON EMPLOYEE ON CAREER SUCCESS: IN CASE OF ETHIOPIAN AIRLINES

 

 

 

 

BY: Dereje Birru

 

ADVISOR: Dr. Lakew Alemu (Ph.D)

A THESIS SUBMITTED TO ADDIS ABABA UNIVERSITY COLLEGE OF BUSINESS AND ECONOMICS DEPARTMENT OF MANAGEMENT IN PARTIAL FULFILL.MENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE ATTAINMENT OF M.SC. DEGREE IN MANAGEMNT SCIENCE.

 

                                                                                                                                                            Jan, 202

                                            Abstract

Work life balance has become a challenge throughout the world and the ability to realize a balance between job and family life is one of our era's fundamental social challenges. As a result, fewer break hours, work overload and lack of control over job schedule are identified as the major work related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. Lack of work-life balance regulations, the ineffectiveness of work-life balance rules and policies, and work overload are the major Work-life Balance Practice related issues that affect Ethiopian Airlines employees' Career Progression. In addition, occasional availability of Part Time Work, compressed working hours, career break, working from home and Job Share, and rare execution of Child Care Arrangements are found out to be the major Work-life Balance Policy related factors that affect Ethiopian Airlines employees' Career Progression. The variables of the study are work related factors Family related factors, work-life balance policy and practice related factors.

Key Words: Work-life Balance, Work-life       Balance Policy and Career Progression

Introduction

Starting from the beginning of human beings form a society, all people as part of the communities have had to work to make ends meet for themselves and their families thus, through traditional ways of hunting and gathering, in the past time.The new demographics changes in workforce have brought about it burdensome for a numbers of individual workers to balance the conflicting demands of work and family life in the world of work.These burdensome have forced the employers and the HRM experts to make revisions of the old-fashioned system models of coordinating work and family life (Lee & Kanungo, 1984). The balance between work and life has at all times been very busy yet, a very important and crucial thing to do in today’s competitive and global world of work.

One of the important outcomes of the imbalance of work and family demand is the increasing level of work-life conflicts experienced by working mothers. Work-life conflict happens when an employee has to perform a number of issues or roles that need his/ her time, energy and commitment. Family issues interference with work occurs when the load of employee family side responsibilities hinders his/her working area performance.While some women struggling with combining work with family issues because of differences in physical make up and ego, others are committed to paid employment and family work is possible for some. Nowadays, in this busy and stressful world, the work life balance is a shared issue at every workplace in the profit seeking enterprises like EAEG. The concept of work life balance generates balance between the work and the life consists of Career Progression and the life styles. With the growing number of dual earner families within the past few decades (Gordon and Kammeyer, 1980; Johnson, 1980) the link between work and family has become a more complex issue than ever before. As suggested by Halpen (cited in Grzywacz and Carlson, 2007), the capacity to realize a balance between work and family could also be ‘one of the primary social challenges of our era’.While the main target of research during this area has mostly been on dual earner families and especially those with children, there's growing evidence that maintaining a healthy work life balance is additionally a priority of younger generations (Sturges and Guest, 2004;Cennamo and Gardner, 2008) oreover as for people without children (Hamilton, Gordon and Whelan-Berry, 2006).Further, while research indicates that workers at different life stages are not homogenous groups and skill differing kinds of labor and family role conflicts counting on their unique situation (Erickson, Martinengo , Hill, 2010), it is nevertheless important to acknowledge that  issue  of  maintaining  related work life balance is of growing concern to diverse individuals regardless of their demographic profile and this is often evident from the growing amount of research and literature during this area and as( Mescher,Benschop and Doorewaard (2010) indicate the combination of work and life is gaining dominance in numerous fields such as psychology, sociology, management, organization studies and gender studies. Work life balance has also been discussed in many other fields such as industrial relations, economics, family studies, information systems and social psychology (Beauregard  and  Henry,  2009) Work  life balance could be a topic of great interest and a matter of high priority nowadays for at different level like individual, organizational and government level sand research in 4 these areas has helped in forming organizational and policy in many countries. Work life balance has become a challenge throughout the world and in every part of human, political, economic and social service related organizations.

The study assesses the employee Career Progression on their organization, from the framework of the work life balance prospective, and how it is going to be practiced at their workplace environment at EAEG.

The importance of work-life balance cannot be over emphasized here. All sides of personal and family life of employee relatively having been attained and the individual is going to be rewarded. Work life balance as a concern, has been given high priority in the past 30 years. It has been shown increasing attention in hiring organizations, employees’ agents and employee representatives, government and legislations bodies towards work-life balance of employee life.This mental focus is highly motivated by series scholar recommendations that imbalance between work and family issues, which can results in decreasing outcomes for all organizations, families and even personal life.This is best fulfilled in working place settings where there is little or no social or personal life involved in work output of employees. Employee who tends to balance the work place role and domestic issues (professional and personal life) were dedicated as not serious or fit for the job or lazy. In a traditional manner, workers who are attempting to show less concern to their family life than professional life are given or had the 5 opportunity to progress (grow) through the levels of their career at the favored of those who always try to balance the two.Even Though, work-life balance does not have brought to achieve a perfect balance, nowadays it is believed to support work satisfaction and career development. On this time, in which the living cost is shown increase time to time, financial challenges of families have brought practically work-stress on workers who are also mothers at their respective home continuing with traditional roles.

Working in this truth frame up problems organizing of map totally biased in favor of work, beneath inflexible future ask spherical the employees working in stressed, in pressured, and squeezed hard with longer hours; incapable to meet care giving needs; below fiscal responsibility pressure; unhealthy condition; and desperate or demoralized and is viewed excessive weak point to meet a holistic psychological declaration that call for one to give ear to the other components of life-related needs in addition to engagement or work (Bailyn et al., 2001;Greenhaus & Beutell, 1985).

Research gap Considering the studies explained above establishing the relation between work life balances or positive aspect of the work-family interface and organizational outcomes, there is a need to examine the relationship between positive work-family interface and career success that is career satisfaction and career advancement because these organizational outcomes have not received much attention in the continent of Africa including Ethiopia.Establishing and managing work-life balance is seen as a work-life balance issue. Increasing work pressure, globalization and technological progress have an impact on the balance between work and personal life.

Objectives

To assess Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major work related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Family related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Work-life Balance Practice related factors which affect Career Progression of   employees at Ethiopian Airlines. To identify the major Work-life Balance Policy related factors which affect Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines.

Method The descriptive research design was used in this study. Thus, descriptive research design is selected to assess the major factors of work-life balance policies and practices affecting Career Progression of employees at Ethiopian Airlines. Research Approach: The findings are analyzed and interpreted using a quantitative research approach.

 

Review of the literature

This chapter reviews a number of literatures that have already been done on this topic, to help readers acquaint themselves with the concepts, principles and policies concerning work-life balance. The main topics to be discussed here include; Work-life balance, policies of work-life balance, definitions and nature of work-life balance, career progression, Career Progression and the glass ceiling that characterizes the progression of one’s career. Topics in this section will also include; impact of family life on career progression, effects of work-life balance on performance, Gender issues in work life balance and last of all, the conceptual framework of work-life balance.

Concepts of work- life balance

Work-life balance for any one person is having the ‘right’ combination of participation in paid work (defined by hours and working conditions) and other aspects of their lives. This combination will change as people move through life and have changing responsibilities and commitments in their work and personal lives. Work is defined as an “instrument activity intended to provide goods and services to support life” (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000, p.) According to Jim Bird as quoted by Joshi et al (2002), work life balance is a meaningful achievement and enjoyment of work, family, friends and one’s self. Many of these activities are negotiable commitments and can be scheduled around work demands, but the demands of family are often non- negotiable and can be random (example; sick child, afternoon music recital, soccer match, mom’s oncologist’s appointment).

Work-life Balance

Before defining work-life balance, it is worth mentioning how “work” and “life” are conceived for the current study; which is in accordance with the established definitions. Rothausen (1999), stated, Work-life balance is often replaced by work family balance. Initially the focus of the linkages between work and family roles was; moreover, concentrated on the women and the stress they have to deal with, while managing work and family. Gradually, new notions regarding the linkages Work-Life Balance, between work and family surfaced (Gregory & Milner, 2009).

The initial focus of work-family interface was conflict, and then it moved to balance and now the focus in on integration (Burke, 2004). According to Frone (2003), work-family balance is a condition; where there is least conflict and substantial facilitation between work and family spheres.

Significance of Work-life Balance

The research focusing on the association between work and family has been documented since 1930s (Marshall, 1992 a, b). Such changing work demands influence the non-work life negatively that is working long hours, working intensively and working in tight deadlines to meet the demands causing imbalance between work life and non-work life (Guest, 2002). The changes in the work cultures have affected the vacations, which are also called as recovery experiences (experiences during the leisure time); which play an important role in unwinding oneself from work (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). The research focusing on the association between work and family has been documented since 1930s (Marshall, 1992 a, b). The changes in the work cultures have affected the vacations, which are also called as recovery experiences (experiences during the leisure time); which play an important role in unwinding oneself from work (Geurts & Sonnentag, 2006). Along with the work-cultures, the demographic and the structural changes in the family also need to be taken into account; while understanding the need for having a balance. There are a number of benefits that employees can gain from work-life balance practices, which includes; Child and Dependent Care Programs, Flexible Work Programs and Family and Medical Leave Act. The child-care dependent programs given to employees provide assistance for childcare for older children before and after school.

2.2.3    Work-life Balance Policies

Some work-life balance policies are aimed at fitting work around the other aspects of people’s lives. Firms employing a large number of professionals and technical workers are the most likely to offer work-life balance policies (Konrad and Mangel, 2000). Firms with a large proportion of women in their workforce are more likely to provide work-life balance policies, but the proportion of women in top executive positions is a better indicator. Work-life balance policies can affect business performance in a number of ways. For example, in a competitive labor market, employers can attract better recruits by offering work-life balance policies alongside competitive remuneration packages. In the past, employees arrived at work at 8 a.m. or 9 a.m. and left at 5 p.m. Now changes in employees' personal lives make flexibility in work arrangements an important benefit.This is one of the most frequently provided work/life balance benefit, and is well liked by many different employees.

 

 

2.2.4    Relationship between Work and Family

There is vast research literature on the relationship between work-life mostly termed as work-family. Edwards & Rothbard (2000), Zedeck & Mosier (1990) and O’Driscoll (1996) have reviewed this literature and have contributed to the understanding of this dynamic association of work and family. These researchers have noted that there are five main approaches also known as linking mechanisms (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000) to elucidate the relationship between work and family. Second, spillover happens because of transaction (Edwards and Rothbard, 2000) for example stress at working environment pours out over to the family area and the individual showcases fractious temperament in the family. Congruence can be achieved through a positive linkage between work and family experiences; wherein congruence is a result of a third factor that influences both work life and family life (Edwards & Rothbard, 2000). For example, a negative influence of a third variable on work and family relationship, that is negative affect as a personality characteristic (Frone, Russell and Cooper, 1995). Similarly, positive work-family culture in the organization may affect both work life (e.g. flexibility with Work-Life Balance, working time) and family life (ample leaves and childcare facilities at work) positively; thus, congruence between work and family is possible. Balance, conflict and improvement: The new methodology towards work-family interface is presently making an applied differentiation between work-family balance, work-family conflict and work family enhancement. Conflict and enhancement appear to occur on an individual level, and are accepted to interface components among work and family (Marks and Macdermid, 1996) Work-family fit. Voydanoff (2005) had been accomplished some outstanding work in depicting the linkage between work and family, just like an aftereffect of an organizations between work needs and family assets. Voydanoff (2005) suggests that work needs - family assets fit is a consequence of work demand and family assets and family needs - work assets fit is an aftereffect of family needs and work assets.

2.3.1    The Impact Work-life Balance Policies on Business Performance.

There are different routes by which work-life balance policies affect business performance. Work-life balance policies affect business performance in the following ways: by helping employee to be competitive in the labour market, reducing costs and thus increasing profitability improving labour productivity levels and thus increasing profitability and reducing the risks of workplace accidents and stress, hence reducing liability for health and safety issues (Dex and Scheibl, 1999). Determinants work life balance: The determinants have been arranged into authoritative (organizational) and individual variables (factors). The work culture shapes the nature of employees Work-Life Balance, Work-Family Enrichment and Career Success and the organizational culture and the help it gives to the employees to find some kind of harmony, this may incorporate the family- accommodating approaches or real balance between work and life activities drives. Concerning home or non-work demands, the needs denote to the responsibilities and obligations outside workspace like family duties, relaxation exercises or social work. The personality sort of an individual can likewise influence how one perspectives balance between work and family activities. Gender is a significant individual factor that may affect how women and men vary in their view of balance between work and family activities and furthermore the centrality of the work and the family parts in their lives (Guest, 2002). In spite of the fact that Guest (2002) has not unequivocally referenced about the social variables, there ought not to be a conflict that social elements may influence the balance between work and life activities of people. As referenced in the individual elements, sexual orientation is a significant indicator of balance between life and work activities. Alongside sex contrasts and fairness, another perspective that can affect work-life interface is the way of life or culture. The cultural standards, public standards and rules according to work and family can influence the family and work upsides of people.

 

2.4.1    Organizational work-family culture and its significance.

Work-family culture is referred as shared goals, convictions, values with respect to the degree to which an organization supports and qualities the employees' reconciliation of work-family balance (Thompson, Beauvais and Lyness, 1999, p. ) Employees who see their organizational culture to be strong have lower shots (chances) at encountering work-life conflict (Thomas and Ganster, 1995).alludes (refers) to the assumptions for the bosses and the business that for their employees, work ought to come before family obligations allude to the negatively charged outcomes that employees need to look for committing time to their family or potentially utilizing the work-family benefits; which are accessible in the organization. It might happen that employees are assessed contrarily for their work execution or saw by the business as less dedicated to the employers since they use work-family benefits (Perlow, 1995).

2.4.5    Work-life interface and career success.

The objective of comprehension and analyzing different parts of balance between life and serious work activities has been for the most part cultivated by the Western Europe and the Anglo Saxon nations (Chandra, 2012 ) Progressively, analysts from different countries have perceived the need of inspecting the work-family spaces (Poelmans, O'Driscoll and Beham, 2005). Considering the writing introduced up until now, an exact connection between family and professional activities/work-family balance and different business related results is grounded. A few researches have revealed a positive relationship between work family interface and career fulfillment. The connection between work- life balance and career success likewise exists. Career progression amongst employee achievement of women’s career has many barriers, which may include organizational culture and family issues.is the process of managing your life, learning and work.

2.4.9    Impact of family life on career progression

Groups who are at greatest risk for high work to family interference differs from those most at risk for high role overload. Whereas women are more likely than men to report high role overload are, men are more likely to report high levels of work to family conflict.This finding is consistent with other research in the area suggesting that for many men, placing family ahead of work continues to be deemed a “career limiting move” (Konrad and Mangel, 2000). While married employees are at greater risk of high work to family interference than those who are single, the differences between parents and

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